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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 340, 2021 Apr 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853602

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, youth mental health and substance use services rapidly moved to virtual modalities to meet social distancing requirements. It is important to understand youth attitudes toward and experience of virtual services. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the attitudes toward and experiences of virtual mental health and substance use services among youth drawn from clinical and non-clinical samples. METHOD: Four hundred nine youth completed a survey including questions about their attitudes toward and experience of virtual services. The survey included quantitative and open-ended questions on virtual care, as well as a mental health and substance use screener. RESULTS: The majority of youth with mental health or substance use challenges would be willing to consider individual virtual services, but fewer would consider group virtual services. However, many have not received virtual services. Youth are interested in accessing a wide variety of virtual services and other supportive wellness services. Advantages and disadvantages of virtual services are discussed, including accessibility benefits and technological barriers. DISCUSSION: As youth mental health and substance use services have rapidly gone virtual during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is essential that we hear the perspectives of youth to promote service utilization among those in need. Diverse, accessible, technologically stable virtual services are required to meet the needs of different youth, possibly with in-person options for some youth. Future research, engaging youth in the research process, is needed to evaluate the efficacy of virtual services to plan for the sustainability of some virtual service gains beyond the pandemic period.


Asunto(s)
Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Servicios de Salud Mental/organización & administración , Pandemias/prevención & control , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Telemedicina , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/diagnóstico , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología
2.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 30: e21, 2021 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750497

RESUMEN

AIMS: Limited information exists about the prevalence of psychiatric illness for Indigenous Australians. This study examines the prevalence of diagnosed psychiatric disorders in Indigenous Australians and compares this to non-Indigenous Australians. The aims were to: (1) determine prevalence rates for psychiatric diagnoses for Indigenous Australians admitted to hospital; and (2) examine whether the profile of psychiatric diagnoses for Indigenous Australians was different compared with non-Indigenous Australians. METHODS: A birth cohort design was adopted, with the population consisting of 45 141 individuals born in the Australian State of Queensland in 1990 (6.3% Indigenous). Linked administrative data from Queensland Health hospital admissions were used to identify psychiatric diagnoses from age 4/5 to 23/24 years. Crude lifetime prevalence rates of psychiatric diagnoses for Indigenous and non-Indigenous individuals were derived from the hospital admissions data. The cumulative incidence of psychiatric diagnoses was modelled separately for Indigenous and non-Indigenous individuals. Logistic regression was used to model differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous psychiatric presentations while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: There were 2783 (6.2%) individuals in the cohort with a diagnosed psychiatric disorder from a hospital admission. The prevalence of any psychiatric diagnosis at age 23/24 years was 17.2% (491) for Indigenous Australians compared with 5.4% (2292) for non-Indigenous Australians. Indigenous individuals were diagnosed earlier, with overrepresentation in psychiatric illness becoming more pronounced with age. Indigenous individuals were overrepresented in almost all categories of psychiatric disorder and this was most pronounced for substance use disorders (SUDs) (12.2 v. 2.6% of Indigenous and non-Indigenous individuals, respectively). Differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in the likelihood of psychiatric disorders were not statistically significant after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, except for SUDs. CONCLUSIONS: There is significant inequality in psychiatric morbidity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians across most forms of psychiatric illness that is evident from an early age and becomes more pronounced with age. SUDs are particularly prevalent, highlighting the importance of appropriate interventions to prevent and address these problems. Inequalities in mental health may be driven by socioeconomic disadvantage experienced by Indigenous individuals.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Grupo de Ascendencia Oceánica/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/etnología , Australia/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/etnología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Salud Mental , Vigilancia de la Población , Prevalencia , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Adulto Joven
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673448

RESUMEN

There is huge scientific interest in the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) due to its putative capacity to modulate a wide spectrum of physiological and cognitive processes including motivation, learning, emotion, and the stress response. The present review seeks to increase the understanding of the role of OXT in an individual's vulnerability or resilience with regard to developing a substance use disorder. It places specific attention on the role of social stress as a risk factor of addiction, and explores the hypothesis that OXT constitutes a homeostatic response to stress that buffers against its negative impact. For this purpose, the review summarizes preclinical and clinical literature regarding the effects of OXT in different stages of the addiction cycle. The current literature affirms that a well-functioning oxytocinergic system has protective effects such as the modulation of the initial response to drugs of abuse, the attenuation of the development of dependence, the blunting of drug reinstatement and a general anti-stress effect. However, this system is dysregulated if there is continuous drug use or chronic exposure to stress. In this context, OXT is emerging as a promising pharmacotherapy to restore its natural beneficial effects in the organism and to help rebalance the functions of the addicted brain.


Asunto(s)
Oxitocina/metabolismo , Recompensa , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/metabolismo , Animales , Humanos , Inflamación , Oxitocina/fisiología , Estrés Psicológico , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia
4.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 33(1): 36-43, feb. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-199551

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aims to evaluate sex differences in alcohol and cannabis use and mental health disorders (MHD) in adolescents, and to evaluate the predictive role of mental health disorders for alcohol and cannabis use disorders (AUD and CUD respectively). METHOD: A sample of 863 adolescents from the general population (53.7% girls, Mage = 16.62, SD = 0.85) completed a computerized battery including questions on substance use frequency, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Cannabis Problems Questionnaire for Adolescents - Short version, the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index and the DSM-IV-TR criteria for AUD and CUD. Bivariate analyses and binary logistic regressions were performed. RESULTS: Girls presented significantly more mental health problems and a higher prevalence of comorbidity between SUD and MHD. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms and phobic anxiety indicated a higher risk of AUD, whereas depression and interaction between hostility and obsessive-compulsive disorder indicated a higher risk of CUD. CONCLUSIONS: Comorbidity between SUD and MHD is high among adolescents, and significantly higher among girls


ANTECEDENTES: el objetivo de esta investigación es evaluar las diferencias de sexo en el uso de cannabis y alcohol y en trastornos de salud mental TSM en adolescentes, y el rol predictivo de los TSM sobre los trastornos por uso de alcohol y cannabis (TUA y TUC, respectivamente). MÉTODO: una muestra de 863 adolescentes de la población general (53,7% chicas, edad media = 16.62, DT = 0,85) completaron una batería informatizada sobre la frecuencia de uso de sustancias, el Inventario Breve de Síntomas, el Cuestionario de Problemas por Consumo de Cannabis - versión breve, el Índice de Rutgers de Problemas con el Alcohol y los criterios DSM-IV-TR para el TUA y TUC. Se realizaron análisis bivariados y de regresión logística binaria. RESULTADOS: las chicas presentaron significativamente más problemas de salud mental y mayor prevalencia de comorbilidad entre TUS y TSM. El trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo (TOC) y la ansiedad fóbica indicaron un mayor riesgo de TUA, mientras que la depresión y la interacción entre hostilidad y TOC indicaron mayor riesgo de TUC. CONCLUSIONES: la comorbilidad entre TUS y TSM es alta entre los adolescentes, y significativamente mayor entre las chicas


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Caracteres Sexuales , Comorbilidad , Salud Mental , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Abuso de Marihuana/psicología , Alcoholismo/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Análisis de Varianza , Modelos Logísticos , Diagnóstico Dual (Psiquiatría)/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología
5.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(4): 927-947, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606060

RESUMEN

Adolescence is known for its high level of risk-taking, and neurobiological alterations during this period may predispose to psychoactive drug initiation and progression into more severe use patterns. Stress is a risk factor for drug consumption, and post-weaning social isolation increases drug self-administration in rodents. This review aimed to provide an overview of the effects of adolescent social isolation on cocaine, amphetamine and nicotine use-related behaviours, highlighting the specific period when animals were submitted to stress and these drugs. We wondered if there was a specific period during adolescence that isolation stress would increase drug use vulnerability. A total of 323 publications from the Scopus, Web of Science and PubMed (Medline) electronic databases were identified using the words "social isolation" and "adolescence" and "drug" or "cocaine" or "amphetamine" or "nicotine", resulting in 24 articles after analyses criteria following the PRISMA statement. The main points raised were social isolation during adolescence increased cocaine self-administration, amphetamine and nicotine locomotor activity. We did not observe a pattern of a specific moment during the adolescent period that could lead to an increased vulnerability to drug use. The precise conditions under which adolescent social stress alters drug use parameters are complex and likely depend on several factors.


Asunto(s)
Anfetamina/farmacología , Cocaína/farmacología , Nicotina/farmacología , Animales , Locomoción/efectos de los fármacos , Ratones , Ratas , Autoadministración , Aislamiento Social , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología
7.
Clin Obes ; 11(2): e12440, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539652

RESUMEN

Studies have shown the negative impact of COVID-19 lockdown orders on mental health and substance use in the general population. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic onsubstance use, mental health and weight-related behaviors in a sample of adults with obesity after lockdown orders were lifted (June-September 2020). A retrospective medical chart review identified patients with obesity from one university-based obesity medicine clinic, and two metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS) practices. Patients who completed an online survey from June 1, 2020 to September 30, 2020 were included. The primary outcome measure was substance use (various drugs, alcohol, tobacco). Substance use and mental health survey questions were based on standardized, validated instruments. A total of 589 patients (83.3% female, mean age 53.6 years [SD 12.8], mean BMI 35.4 [SD 9.1], 54.5% Non-Hispanic white, 22.3% post-MBS) were included. Seventeen patients (2.9%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 13.5% reported symptoms. Nearly half (48.4%) of the sample reported recreational substance use and 9.8% reported increased use since the start of the pandemic. There was substantial drug use reported (24.3% opioids, 9.5% sedative/tranquilizers, 3.6% marijuana, and 1% stimulants). Patients who reported stockpiling food more (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 1.50, 95% CI 1.03-2.18), healthy eating more challenging (aOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.01-2.16), difficulty falling asleep (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.14-2.34), and anxiety (aOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.01-2.14) were more likely to report substance use versus non-users. Results here show that the COVID-19 pandemic is having a deleterious impact on substance use, mental health and weight-related health behaviors in people with obesity regardless of infection status.


Asunto(s)
Cirugía Bariátrica/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Alimentaria , Salud Mental , Obesidad , Cuarentena , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Índice de Masa Corporal , /prevención & control , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Mental/tendencias , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/diagnóstico , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad/psicología , Cuarentena/métodos , Cuarentena/psicología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/clasificación , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
8.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 33(1): 73-87, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617320

RESUMEN

This study evaluated whether the association between substance use and sexual risk behavior varies as a function of age among 1,009 Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in New York City. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the relationship between age (18-26 vs. 27+), substance use, and number of sexual partners and acts of condomless anal sex (CAS) in the past 90 days. Age moderated the relationship between substance use and sexual risk behavior, such that positive associations among binge drinking, marijuana, cocaine, and party drug use and number of male sexual partners and cocaine use and acts of CAS were significantly stronger among young adults than adults. BMSM may engage in more sexual risk behavior during young adulthood, and those who use substances may be at increased risk for HIV transmission-particularly through multiple sex partners. HIV prevention interventions targeting BMSM may benefit from being tailored to age and addressing sexual risk behavior and substance use concurrently.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/psicología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Homosexualidad Masculina/etnología , Asunción de Riesgos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Ciudad de Nueva York , Conducta Sexual , Parejas Sexuales , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/etnología , Sexo Inseguro , Adulto Joven
9.
Span J Psychol ; 24: e8, 2021 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551011

RESUMEN

In the midst of the COVID-19 epidemic, Spain was one of the countries with the highest number of infections and a high mortality rate. The threat of the virus and consequences of the pandemic have a discernible impact on the mental health of citizens. This study aims to (a) evaluate the levels of anxiety, depression and well-being in a large Spanish sample during the confinement, (b) identify potential predictor variables associated to experiencing both clinical levels of distress and well-being in a sample of 2,122 Spanish people. By using descriptive analyses and logistic regression results revealed high rates of depression, anxiety and well-being. Specifically, our findings revealed that high levels of anxiety about COVID-19, increased substance use and loneliness as the strongest predictors of distress, while gross annual incomes and loneliness were strongest predictors of well-being. Finding of the present study provide a better insight about psychological adjustment to a pandemic and allows us to identify which population groups are at risk of experiencing higher levels of distress and which factors contribute to greater well-being, which could help in the treatments and prevention in similar stressful and traumatic situations.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/psicología , Salud Mental , Distrés Psicológico , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Trastornos de Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Trastorno Depresivo/diagnóstico , Trastorno Depresivo/epidemiología , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Renta , Internet , Soledad/psicología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Factores de Riesgo , España/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/diagnóstico , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
10.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 30(1): 13-26, ene. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-197949

RESUMEN

The simultaneous implementation of a program in multiple sites poses a challenge for the adequate coordination and internal consistency of an intervention. The operation of the network of program facilitators can be critical for effectiveness and community adjustment of such interventions. In this paper, we conducted a case study of a community prevention program for drug addiction applied in a large group of cities in Andalusia, in southern Spain. The aim was to explore how integrated planning and local adaptation are combined in community prevention, through the collaboration network between program facilitators. For this aim, we analyze and describe two types of relevant roles of local facilitators: those that have a central coordinating role, versus peripheral "connectors", which have a bridge role between different geographical areas. The network of the "Cities against Drugs" program in the province of Seville (n = 45) showed a core-periphery structure, with coordination patterns clearly influenced by the geographical location of facilitators. The capital and its metropolitan area not only have greater geographic centrality but also a central role in the social network. On the other hand, the role of "connectors" seems to be functional to avoid the fragmentation of the remotest regional nuclei. Finally, we discuss the tension between central coordination of the program and the adaptation to peculiarities of each local context


La implementación de un programa en múltiples lugares simultáneamente supone un reto para la coordinación adecuada y la consistencia interna de la intervención. El funcionamiento de la red de facilitadores del programa puede ser decisiva para la efectividad y el ajuste comunitario de tales intervenciones. En este artículo realizamos un estudio de casos de un programa de prevención comunitaria de drogodependencias que se aplica en un amplio conjunto de ciudades de Andalucía, en el sur de España. Analizamos y describimos dos tipos de posiciones relevantes de los facilitadores locales: aquellos que tienen un papel central de coordinación para el conjunto de aplicadores del programa, frente a los "conectores" periféricos, que tienen un papel de puente entre áreas geográficas diferenciadas. La red del programa Ciudades ante las Drogas (n = 45) en la provincia de Sevilla mostró una estructura centro-periferia, con patrones de coordinación claramente influidos por la ubicación geográfica de los facilitadores. La capital y su área metropolitana no solo tienen mayor centralidad geográfica sino un papel central en la red social. Por su parte, el papel de los "conectores" parece ser funcional para evitar la fragmentación de los núcleos comarcales más alejados. Finalmente, discutimos la tensión entre la coordinación central del programa y la adaptación a las peculiaridades de cada contexto local


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Implementación de Plan de Salud/métodos , Red Social , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/prevención & control , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Procesos de Grupo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas , Modelos Teóricos
11.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 13, 2021 Jan 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494819

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: People with HIV have always faced stigma and discrimination. Given the numerous papers that have addressed the psychological and social risk factors in spreading HIV, a pressing question is whether individuals' mere careless and behavioural flaws can still account for the spread of HIV. Barriers and opposing politic made a hard position for HIV and sex education in Iran. METHODS: The present study investigated the causes of contracting HIV/AIDS from the perspective of HIV-infected patients. To accomplish this, 150 patients referring to the voluntary counseling and testing Center, Shiraz were convenient selected based on the convenient sampling method and responded to a researcher-made questionnaire From June to August 2019. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics (mean, SD, frequency tables) and inferential statistics (chi-square). RESULTS: Results revealed that the main cause of HIV infection amongst males was the injection of narcotics, and in the females it was sexual intercourse with an infected individual. Meanwhile, 57% of the females and 66% of the males blamed themselves for contracting and transmitting the disease. The patients stated that if they could return to pre-infection period, they would use one of the following ways to prevent the disease: (a) they would pay attention to hygienic/sanitary principles; (b) they would not get married; and (c) they would prevent drug addiction. Also only 44% of the individuals had successful siblings (those who were neither addicts nor HIV/AIDS-infected individuals), which was an observation that emphasizes on the epidemic of high-risk behaviors in the patients' families. CONCLUSIONS: According to participants' statements collected in our study, weakness in governmental public health education, along with family-related and individual factors, are important causes of HIV spread.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Conducta Sexual , Sexo Inseguro , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Educación en Salud , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
12.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 219: 108498, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440326

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Family history (FH) of substance use disorders (SUDs) is known to elevate SUD risk in offspring. However, the influence of FH SUDs has been confounded by the effect of externalizing psychopathologies in the addiction risk neuroimaging literature. Thus, the current study aimed to assess the association between parental SUDs and offspring functional connectivity in samples matched for psychopathology and demographics. METHODS: Ninety 11-12-year-old participants with externalizing disorders were included in the study (48 FH+, 42 FH-). We conducted independent component analyses (ICA) and seed-based analyses (orbitofrontal cortex; OFC, nucleus accumbens (NAcc), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) with resting state data. RESULTS: FH+ adolescents showed stronger functional connectivity between the right lateral OFC seed and anterior cingulate cortex compared to FH- adolescents (p < 0.05, corrected). Compared to FH-, FH+ adolescents showed stronger negative functional connectivity between the left lateral OFC seed and right postcentral gyrus and between the left NAcc seed and right middle occipital gyrus (p < 0.05, corrected). Poorer emotion regulation was associated with more negative connectivity between right occipital/left NAcc among FH+ adolescents based on the seed-based analysis. FH- adolescents had stronger negative functional connectivity between ventral attention/salience networks and dorsal attention/visuospatial networks in the ICA. CONCLUSIONS: Both analytic methods found group differences in functional connectivity between brain regions associated with executive functioning and regions associated with sensory input (e.g., postcentral gyrus, occipital regions). We speculate that families densely loaded for SUD may confer risk by altered neurocircuitry that is associated with emotion regulation and valuation of external stimuli beyond what would be explained by externalizing psychopathology alone.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Adolescente , Atención , Función Ejecutiva , Femenino , Giro del Cíngulo/fisiopatología , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Núcleo Accumbens/fisiopatología , Padres , Corteza Prefrontal/fisiopatología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/fisiopatología
13.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 219: 108479, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444900

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Social impairments are important features of a substance use disorder diagnosis; and recent models suggest early impairments in socio-cognitive and -affective processes may predict future use. However, no systematic reviews are available on this topic. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses exploring the association between social-cognitive and -affective processes (empathy, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, theory of mind, and social cognition) and substance use frequency (alcohol, cannabis, general drug use). We examined moderating effects of study design, gender, age, and weather conduct problems were controlled for. We also review brain studies related to social cognition and substance use disorder (SUD) risk. RESULTS: Systematic review suggested a negative association for positively valenced constructs with substance use but mixed results on the negatively valenced construct CU traits. Meta-analyses revealed moderate positive association between CU traits with alcohol and general drug use but no significance with cannabis use. Moderate effect sizes were found for CU traits in youth predicting severity of substance use by late adolescence and significantly accounted for variance independently of conduct problems. Significant moderators included gender proportions, sample type, and age. Neuroimaging meta-analysis indicated 10 coordinates that were different in youth at a high risk/with SUD compared to controls. Three of these coordinates associate with theory of mind and social cognition. CONCLUSION: Socio-cognitive and -affective constructs demonstrate an association with current and future substance use, and neural differences are present when performing social cognitive tasks in regions with strongest associations with theory of mind and social cognition.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Adolescente , Cognición , Trastorno de la Conducta/psicología , Emociones , Empatía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Problema de Conducta
14.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 6, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407857

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Social support is a well-known protective factor against depressive symptoms and substance use problems, but very few studies have examined its protective effects among residents of permanent supportive housing (PSH), a housing program for people with a history of chronic homelessness. We utilized unconditional latent growth curve models (LGCMs) and parallel process growth models to describe univariate trajectories of social support, depressive symptoms, and substance use problems and to examine their longitudinal associations in a large sample of adults residing in PSH. METHODS: Participants were 653 adult PSH residents in North Texas (56% female; 57% Black; mean age: 51 years) who participated in a monthly health coaching program from 2014 to 2017. Their health behaviors were assessed at baseline and tracked every six months at three follow-up visits. RESULTS: Unconditional LGCMs indicated that over time, social support increased, whereas depressive symptoms and substance use problems decreased. However, their rates of change slowed over time. Further, in parallel process growth models, we found that at baseline, individuals with greater social support tended to have less severe depressive symptoms and substance use problems (coefficients: - 0.67, p < 0.01; - 0.52, p < 0.01, respectively). Individuals with a faster increase in social support tended to have steeper rates of reduction in both depressive symptoms (coefficient: - 0.99, p < 0.01) and substance use problems (coefficient: - 0.98, p < 0.01), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that plausibly, increases in social support, though slowing over time, still positively impact depressive symptoms and substance use problems among PSH residents. Future PSH programs could emphasize social support as an early component as it may contribute to clients' overall health.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/epidemiología , Vivienda Popular , Apoyo Social , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adulto , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Personas sin Hogar , Vivienda , Humanos , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología
16.
J Neurovirol ; 27(1): 168-170, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405207

RESUMEN

People living with HIV (PLWH) may be at higher risk for adverse outcomes indirectly associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). When comparing responses to questionnaires administered when social distancing and quarantine guidelines were first implemented, we found that PLWH were more likely to have restricted access to medical care, increased financial stress, increased symptoms of anxiety and depression, and increased substance use compared to demographically-similar people without HIV.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Pandemias , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/economía , Ansiedad/psicología , Ansiedad/virología , /psicología , Comorbilidad , Depresión/economía , Depresión/psicología , Depresión/virología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/economía , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Infecciones por VIH/virología , VIH-1/patogenicidad , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/economía , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/ética , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Missouri/epidemiología , Cuarentena/economía , Cuarentena/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/economía , Estrés Psicológico/virología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/economía , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/virología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 128, 2021 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514346

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Transgender women (trans women) in Nepal are underserved in the HIV response. Data are needed to determine the HIV prevalence disaggregated from other key populations and to identify the particular risks faced by this community. Trans women are marginalized around the world and research is also needed to determine the impact of stigma on HIV risk to inform trans-specific interventions. METHODS: In 2019, we conducted the first population-based HIV behavioral surveillance study of trans women disaggregated from other key populations using respondent driven sampling (RDS). We estimated the HIV prevalence for trans women, and bivariate and multivariate Poisson binomial regression models were constructed to examine the relationship between HIV risk and stigma. RESULTS: Trans women participants (N = 200) had a mean age of 33 years old (SD = 10.96). We found a weighted HIV prevalence of 11.3% (95% CI 6·82% - 18·13). We found that depression and anxiety (aPR 0.81; 95% CI 0.67-0.97; p = 0·02) and current engagement in sex work (aPR 1.31; 95% CI 1.01-1.71; p = 0·046) were significantly associated with greater prevalence of condomless receptive anal intercourse. We found that experienced stigma of ever being verbally abused due to gender identity was significantly associated with lower prevalence of depression and anxiety (aPR 0.42; 95% CI 0.20-0.87; p = 0·002). Feeling unaccepted in Nepali society and believing people thought they were a criminal because of their trans identity was significantly associated greater prevalence of current sex work (aPR 1.36; 95% CI 1.03-1.78; p = 0·03; aPR 1.45; 95% CI 1.03-2.07; p = 0.04). Every measure of experienced stigma assessed was significantly associated with greater prevalence of current engagement in sex work. CONCLUSIONS: Trans women are highly stigmatized in Nepal, leading to individual and systems factors that impact their risk for HIV. Interventions are needed that support the economic and mental wellbeing of trans women to prevent their heighted risk of HIV from stigma.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Estigma Social , Personas Transgénero/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Trabajo Sexual/psicología , Trabajo Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Sexual , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/complicaciones , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Personas Transgénero/psicología , Transexualidad/complicaciones , Transexualidad/epidemiología , Transexualidad/psicología , Adulto Joven
18.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 153(1): 45-50, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368273

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence and predictors of intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy amidst the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the prenatal care clinic of St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College (SPHMMC), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, among pregnant women from 31 August to 2 November 2020. Participants were interviewed using Open Data Kit. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors. RESULTS: Among the 464 pregnant women, 33 (7.1%) reported IPV during pregnancy, and among these 24 (72.7%) reported emotional violence, 16 (48.5%) reported sexual violence, and 10 (30.3%) reported physical violence. Among the study participants, only 8 (1.7%) were screened for IPV. IPV was reported 3.27 times more often by women who reported that their partner chewed Khat compared with those women whose partner did not (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45-7.38), and 1.52 times more often women who reported that their partner drank alcohol compared with those women whose partner did not (aOR 1.52; 95% CI 1.01-2.28). CONCLUSION: Very few women were screened for IPV. Partners drinking alcohol and chewing Khat are significantly positively associated with IPV during pregnancy. IPV screening should be included in the national management protocol of obstetric cases of Ethiopia.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Atención Prenatal , Esposos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adulto , /prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Violencia de Pareja/prevención & control , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Evaluación de Necesidades , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas , Atención Prenatal/métodos , Atención Prenatal/normas , Atención Prenatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Esposos/psicología , Esposos/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología
19.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 219: 108439, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333362

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Due to the high pressure they sustain, family members of substance users are thought to experience negative consequences in mental and physical health. This scoping review provided a comprehensive overview on the mental and physical health of adult Affected Family Members (AFMs). METHOD: We searched in-journal English articles in PubMed, with no date limit, guided by the concepts of stress, strain, and burden, and including several terms related to substance use. Eligibility criteria included focus on adult AFMs, mental and physical health, and clinical forms of substance use. RESULTS: PubMed search identified 3549 articles, with 46 additional papers from other sources. Fifty-six articles were included, quantitative (N = 39), qualitative (N = 15) and both (N = 2). Quantitative findings show that AFMs are subject to increased stress and burden, and impaired mental health. Variable rates of physical problems emerge, with some medical conditions being more common among AFMs of substance users versus controls. Finally, evidence shows increased risk for aggression and reduced quality of life and social adjustment. AFMs report higher stress and strain if they are women, in low socio-economic families, and co-habiting with more severe substance users. Qualitative studies additionally suggest that stigma, self-blame, and social isolation are common. CONCLUSIONS: AFMs of substance users represent a population at higher risk for negative health-related outcomes and should be systematically regarded as targets for treatment.


Asunto(s)
Familia/psicología , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Adulto , Agresión , Consumidores de Drogas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Investigación Cualitativa , Calidad de Vida , Aislamiento Social , Estigma Social
20.
Addict Behav ; 114: 106754, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310690

RESUMEN

Research shows that there has been a substantial increase in substance use and abuse during the COVID-19 pandemic, and that substance use/abuse is a commonly reported way of coping with anxiety concerning COVID-19. Anxiety about COVID-19 is more than simply worry about infection. Research provides evidence of a COVID Stress Syndrome characterized by (1) worry about the dangers of COVID-19 and worry about coming into contact with coronavirus contaminated objects or surfaces, (2) worry about the personal socioeconomic impact of COVID-19, (3) xenophobic worries that foreigners are spreading COVID-19, (4) COVID-19-related traumatic stress symptoms (e.g., nightmares), and (5) COVID-19-related compulsive checking and reassurance-seeking. These form a network of interrelated nodes. Research also provides evidence of another constellation or "syndrome", characterized by (1) belief that one has robust physical health against COVID-19, (2) belief that the threat of COVID-19 has been exaggerated, and (3) disregard for social distancing. These also form a network of nodes known as a COVID-19 Disregard Syndrome. The present study, based on a population-representative sample of 3075 American and Canadian adults, sought to investigate how these syndromes are related to substance use and abuse. We found substantial COVID-19-related increases in alcohol and drug use. Network analyses indicated that although the two syndromes are negatively correlated with one another, they both have positive links to alcohol and drug abuse. More specifically, COVID-19-related traumatic stress symptoms and the tendency to disregard social distancing were both linked to substance abuse. Clinical and public health implications are discussed.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Adulto Joven
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