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1.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107109, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547644

RESUMEN

Social media use is on the rise among young adults (YA) and evidence suggests a positive association between social media addiction (SMA) and the psychological symptoms of depression and anxiety globally. However, the contribution of attachment and its transgenerational influence on YAs' SMA and psychological symptoms have not been widely explored. Thus, we examined how parental reports of attachment (anxiety and avoidance) can directly and through YAs' attachment predict YAs' SMA, depression and anxiety symptoms. A sample of 375 YAs (MAge = 21.22) and their parents completed the Emotions in Close Relationships-Revised Questionnaire (Fraley et al., 2000), and the Brief Symptom Inventory (Deragotis, 1992). The SMA Scale (Sahin, 2018) was responded to by only YAs. We tested the pattern of associations in a path model. Parental attachment anxiety predicted YAs' attachment anxiety and only paternal attachment avoidance predicted YAs' attachment avoidance. YAs' attachment anxiety and avoidance predicted their depression and anxiety. However, YAs' attachment anxiety uniquely predicted their SMA. Both parents' attachment anxiety indirectly predicted the link between YAs' attachment anxiety and depression, but only paternal attachment avoidance indirectly predicted the association between YAs' attachment avoidance and depression. Furthermore, paternal attachment avoidance indirectly predicted the association between YAs' attachment avoidance and anxiety symptoms. Maternal attachment anxiety indirectly predicted SMA via YAs' attachment anxiety. While parental anxiety and paternal avoidance may impact YAs' symptoms, YAs' and maternal attachment anxiety can shape SMA. The findings about the differential role of attachment in YAs' psychological symptoms and SMA can facilitate further research and interventions.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Trastorno de Adicción a Internet , Adulto , Ansiedad , Trastornos de Ansiedad , Depresión/epidemiología , Emociones , Humanos , Apego a Objetos , Adulto Joven
2.
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 13(2): 18-28, DICIEMBRE, 2021.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1344187

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Introducción: la pandemia de COVID-19 ha incrementado los casos de ansiedad y causado grandes modificaciones en la forma de prestar atención médica. Objetivo: describir las características epidemiológicas de los trastornos de ansiedad atendidos a través de telepsiquiatría en un Hospital Universitario. Metodología: estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal. Se realizó un muestreo no aleatorio intencional. Se utilizaron fichas electrónicas de pacientes tratados en el Servicio de Psiquiatría del Hospital de Clínicas, Paraguay, entre febrero y mayo de 2021. Se realizó estadística descriptiva de todas las variables. Se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y dispersión para las variables cuantitativas. Las cualitativas se resumieron en frecuencias y porcentajes. Resultados: el análisis incluyó 804 pacientes. El 71,5 % (575) de los pacientes procedían del ámbito rural. De todos los pacientes con diagnóstico de algún trastorno de ansiedad (20,49 % n = 165), el 69,1 % (114) correspondían a mujeres y el 49,7 % (82) presentaron trastorno de pánico (ansiedad paroxística episódica), 28,5 % (47) fueron diagnosticados con trastorno de ansiedad generalizada, y 21,8 % (36) tuvieron un trastorno de ansiedad no especificado. Conclusión: más del 20 % de los pacientes que consultaron a través de la modalidad de telepsiquiatría presentó algún cuadro del espectro ansioso. La presentación de casos se dio tanto en el ámbito rural como en el urbano y de preferencia en mujeres. El trastorno de pánico emergió como el trastorno de más alta frecuencia en la población accesible, representando casi la mitad de todos los casos de ansiedad diagnosticados.


ABSTRACT Introduction: the COVID-19 pandemic has increased anxiety cases and caused big modifications in the way medical care is provided. Objective: to describe the epidemiological characteristics of anxiety disorders treated through telepsychiatry in a University Hospital. Methodology: observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. A non-random purposive sampling was performed. Electronic records of patients treated in the Psychiatry Department of the "Hospital de Clínicas", Paraguay, between February and May 2021 were used. Descriptive statistics were performed for all variables. Measures of central tendency and dispersion were calculated for quantitative variables. Qualitative variables were summarized in frequencies and percentages. Results: the analysis included 804 patients. Out of the patients, 71,5 % (575) were from rural areas. Out of all patients diagnosed with an anxiety disorder (20,49 % n = 165), 69,1 % (114) were female and 49,7 % (82) had panic disorder (episodic paroxysmal anxiety), 28,5 % (47) were diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder, and 21,8 % (36) had an unspecified anxiety disorder. Conclusion: more than 20 % of the patients who consulted through the telepsychiatry modality presented with an anxiety spectrum disorder. Cases were presented in both rural and urban areas and preferably in females. Panic disorder emerged as the most frequent disorder in the accessible population, representing almost half of all diagnosed anxiety cases.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Adulto Joven , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Pandemias , Telepsiquiatría , Paraguay/epidemiología , Salud Mental/tendencias , Trastorno de Pánico/epidemiología , Consulta Remota/métodos , Distribución por Edad y Sexo , COVID-19
3.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(11): e446-e448, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757880

RESUMEN

Anxiety is incredibly common and even normal as a waxing and waning dominant emotion for children. However, attention to disruptive symptoms that prevent daily functioning or prevent a child from thriving is within the purview of the general pediatric medical home. We review diagnosis, current tools readily accessible to every pediatrician, and treatment approaches, with special sensitivity to pandemic-related barriers and outcomes related to pediatric anxiety disorders. More than ever, the general pediatrician should be prepared to co-manage anxiety disorders with an interprofessional mental health team. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(11):e446-e448.].


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Trastornos de Ansiedad/terapia , Ansiedad/psicología , COVID-19/psicología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Niño , Emociones , Humanos , Pandemias
4.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(10): 10684-10696, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763429

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The treatment of insomnia mainly includes drug therapy and non-drug therapy (cognitive behavioral therapy [CBT]). Traditional face-to-face CBT is affected by factors such as location, time, and treatment cost, making the treatment impossible to implement effectively. With the continuous development of network technology, internet-based CBT (ICBT) has been widely used due to the advantages of time and location. METHODS: It searched the China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) database (1979-Apr 2021), China Biomedical Literature Database (1994-Apr 2021), Cochrane Library (2005-Apr 2021), Medline (1948-Apr 2021), and Embase (Jan 1966-Apr 2021). Chinese and English databases were searched using the following terms: internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, sleep problems, and sleep disorders. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 and Stata SE 12.0 software provided by the Cochrane collaboration. RESULTS: A total of 14 randomized controlled trials were included in this study. Of these, 10 described the correct random allocation method, 6 described the allocation scheme in detail, and 1 article used the blind method. Sleep onset latency after ICBT was much shorter than that of the control group [mean difference (MD): -12.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): -16.43 to -9.90, P<0.01]. Total sleep time after ICBT was much longer than that of the control group (MD: 38.67, 95% CI: 34.70-42.65, P<0.01). Sleep efficacy after ICBT was significantly higher in contrast with the control group (MD: 13.28, 95% CI: 10.49-16.06, P<0.01). Anxiety and depression levels after the ICBT were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.01). DISCUSSION: Meta-analysis was adopted to confirm that ICBT can greatly improve the sleep parameters of patients with insomnia, and it was found to have a relieving effect on patients with anxiety and depression.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño , Ansiedad , Trastornos de Ansiedad , Humanos , Internet , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/terapia
5.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(10): 10591-10599, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763506

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the epidemic, the mental health of college students was generally poor, especially anxiety and depression, which should be treated using counseling and intervention. This study aimed to observe the influence of dialectical behavior therapy on the anxiety and depression of medical students during the normalization of the prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: A total of 26 medical students (experimental group) were treated with dialectical behavior therapy intervention for 4 weeks. Changes in depression, anxiety, and stress levels were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale, the Somatic Self-rating Scale (SSS), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10). This group was compared with 26 medical students (control group) without intervention. RESULTS: The value-added scores of the PHQ-9 (t=2.543, P=0.014) and GAD-7 scales (t=3.790, P=0.000) in the experimental group were significantly higher than those in the control group, while in the SSS scale, the value-added score of the depressive symptoms subscale (t=2.234, P=0.030) in the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group. For the total score of the PSS-10 scale (t=2.435, P=0.018), the value-added score of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention of dialectical behavior therapy can effectively alleviate the depression and anxiety of medical students during the normalization of epidemic prevention and control. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2100048784.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Terapia Conductual Dialéctica , Epidemias , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Estudiantes de Medicina , Ansiedad/prevención & control , Trastornos de Ansiedad/prevención & control , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
6.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E988-E997, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785528

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The extent to which heightened distress during the COVID-19 pandemic translated to increases in severe mental health outcomes is unknown. We examined trends in psychiatric presentations to acute care settings in the first 12 months after onset of the pandemic. METHODS: This was a trends analysis of administrative population data in Ontario, Canada. We examined rates of hospitalizations and emergency department visits for mental health diagnoses overall and stratified by sex, age and diagnostic grouping (e.g., mood disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders), as well as visits for intentional self-injury for people aged 10 to 105 years, from January 2019 to March 2021. We used Joinpoint regression to identify significant inflection points after the onset of the pandemic in March 2020. RESULTS: Among the 12 968 100 people included in our analysis, rates of mental health-related hospitalizations and emergency department visits declined immediately after the onset of the pandemic (peak overall decline of 30% [hospitalizations] and 37% [emergency department visits] compared to April 2019) and returned to near prepandemic levels by March 2021. Compared to April 2019, visits for intentional self-injury declined by 33% and remained below prepandemic levels until March 2021. We observed the largest declines in service use among adolescents aged 14 to 17 years (55% decline in hospitalizations, 58% decline in emergency department visits) and 10 to 13 years (56% decline in self-injury), and for those with substance-related disorders (33% decline in emergency department visits) and anxiety disorders (61% decline in hospitalizations). INTERPRETATION: Contrary to expectations, the abrupt decline in acute mental health service use immediately after the onset of the pandemic and the return to near prepandemic levels that we observed suggest that changes and stressors in the first 12 months of the pandemic did not translate to increased service use. Continued surveillance of acute mental health service use is warranted.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Servicios de Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Salud Mental/tendencias , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Niño , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos del Humor/epidemiología , Ontario/epidemiología , Trastornos Psicóticos/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Conducta Autodestructiva/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769554

RESUMEN

North Korean refugees have not only endured traumatic experiences in North Korea and during defection but have also undergone an adaptation process after arrival in South Korea. Their quality of life (QoL) is likely to be affected by these traumatic life events, leading to subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or postmigration adaptation-related stress, which involves a sense of dislocation with the culture, language, and people in South Korea. We investigated which aspects predicted the QoL of refugees from North Korea. Fifty-five participants currently living in South Korea completed a checklist about personal characteristics and traumatic experiences before, during and after migration. Diagnosis and symptom severity of PTSD, depressive mood, anxiety, and QoL were also assessed. A multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate associations between QoL and other variables of interest. Overall, QoL was associated with previous economic status in North Korea, present occupation in South Korea, difficulty interacting with South Koreans, depressed mood, and state-trait anxiety. Finally, QoL was explained by having difficulty interacting with South Koreans, depressed mood, and state anxiety, with the model accounting for 51.3% of the variance. Our findings suggest that QoL among North Korean refugees in South Korea is influenced by the current level of their anxiety and depressed mood, and post-migration adaptation-related stress resulting from trying to integrate with South Koreans after settlement.


Asunto(s)
Refugiados , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Trastornos de Ansiedad , Humanos , Lenguaje , Calidad de Vida , República de Corea , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769807

RESUMEN

The analysis of the impact of shift work on occupational health still needs further contributions. Therefore, we developed this research with the purpose of assessing the impact of shift work on occupational health indicators, namely burnout, work-engagement, occupational self-efficacy, and mental health functioning (symptoms of depression and anxiety), by comparing workers who did shift work (44.2% of participants) with workers who did not (55.8% of participants). A total of 695 Portuguese professionally active adults between 18 and 73 years of age (Mage = 37.71; SD = 12.64) participated in this study and completed a survey containing a sociodemographic questionnaire and four occupational health measures: The Burnout Assessment Tool, The Work-Engagement questionnaire (UWES), The Occupational Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, and the BSI-18 for mental health symptoms. Results showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) for all indicators, demonstrating that participants who worked shifts presented lower scores of work-engagement and occupational self-efficacy, and higher scores of burnout, depression, and anxiety when compared to participants who did not work shifts. Linear regressions showed that shift work explained significant but low percentages of anxiety symptoms, low work-engagement, depression symptoms, low occupational self-efficacy, and burnout. We concluded that non-standard working hours (by shifts) are detrimental to employee occupational health, by increasing the risk of anxiety and depression levels, and burnout, and by reducing work-engagement (as a well-being indicator) and occupational self-efficacy perceptions.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional , Salud Laboral , Horario de Trabajo por Turnos , Adulto , Trastornos de Ansiedad , Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Compromiso Laboral
9.
Res Dev Disabil ; 119: 104119, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736108

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that adults with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) report lower general wellbeing and higher general anxiety levels than typically developing (TD) adults. AIMS: To examine and explore relationships between anxiety and confidence (self-efficacy and resilience) generally and in a movement-specific context, along with self-concept among adults with DCD and TD adults. METHODS: 74 adults with diagnosed DCD, 26 adults with suspected DCD and 79 TD adults (18-60 years) completed an online questionnaire composed of a mixture of existent psychometric measures and novel scales. RESULTS: General and movement-specific anxiety, self-efficacy and general resilience were all poorer in adults with diagnosed and suspected DCD compared to TD adults. Higher resilience was related to higher self-efficacy and lower anxiety in adults with DCD. Individuals with suspected DCD for whom motor skills difficulties were an important aspect of their self-concept had lower movement-specific self-efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to improve the psychosocial wellbeing of adults with DCD should include a focus on lowering anxiety and building self-efficacy and resilience, with particular attention to movement-related domains. IMPLICATIONS: This would facilitate the effective development of strategies to manage motor skills difficulties and their impact on everyday life for adults with DCD.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Destreza Motora , Adulto , Ansiedad , Trastornos de Ansiedad , Humanos , Autoimagen , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 260, 2021 Nov 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819104

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study assesses the construct validity and sensitivity to change of the Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (SWEMWBS) as an outcome measure in the treatment of common mental disorders (CMD) in primary care settings. METHODS: 127 participants attending up to 5 sessions of therapy for CMD in primary care self-rated the SWEMWBS, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and General Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scales. SWEMWBS's construct validity and sensitivity to change was evaluated against the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 across multiple time points in two ways: correlation coefficients were calculated between the measures at each time point; and sensitivity to change over time was assessed using repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: Score distributions on SWEMWBS, but not PHQ-9 and GAD-7, met criteria for normality. At baseline, 92.9% (118/127) of participants scored above clinical threshold on either PHQ-9 or GAD-7. Correlations between SWEMWBS and PHQ-9 scores were calculated at each respective time point and ranged from 0.601 to 0.793. Correlations between SWEMWBS and GAD-7 scores were calculated similarly and ranged from 0.630 to 0.743. Significant improvements were seen on all three scales over time. Changes in PHQ-9 and GAD-7 were curvilinear with greatest improvement between sessions 1 and 2. Change in SWEMWBS was linear over the five sessions. CONCLUSIONS: This exploratory study suggests that SWEMWBS is acceptable as a CMD outcome measure in primary care settings, both in terms of construct validity and sensitivity to change. Given patient preference for positively over negatively framed measures and statistical advantages of measures which are normally distributed, SWEMWBS could be used as an alternative to PHQ-9 and GAD-7 in monitoring and evaluating CMD treatment.


Asunto(s)
Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente , Calidad de Vida , Trastornos de Ansiedad , Humanos , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Trials ; 22(1): 833, 2021 Nov 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819129

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is common among perimenopausal women. Acupuncture may be an effective treatment for GAD, but evidence is limited. The pathogenesis of GAD is not yet clear, but it is related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and its excretion, cortisol (CORT), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The object of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of manual acupuncture (MA) versus placebo acupuncture (PA) for perimenopausal women with GAD. METHODS: This study is a single-center, randomized, single-blind clinical trial that will be conducted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine. A total of 112 eligible GAD patients will be randomly assigned (1:1) to receive MA (n=56) or PA (n=56) three times per week for 4 weeks. The primary outcome measure will be the HAMA score. The secondary outcome measures will be the GAD-7 and PSQI scores and the levels of CORT and ACTH. The evaluation will be executed at baseline, 2 weeks, the end of the treatment, and a follow-up 3-month period. All main analyses will be carried out based on the intention-to-treat (ITT) principle. DISCUSSION: This study intends to compare the efficacy between MA and PA in the treatment of perimenopausal women with GAD and to further study the mechanisms underlying the effect. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2100046604 . Registered on 22 May 2021.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Acupuntura , Perimenopausia , Terapia por Acupuntura/efectos adversos , Trastornos de Ansiedad , Femenino , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisario , Sistema Hipófiso-Suprarrenal , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Método Simple Ciego , Resultado del Tratamiento
12.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 184, 2021 Nov 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819158

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dental anxiety is of public health importance because it leads to postponed dental treatment, which comes with health complications. The present study investigated whether there is a correlation between the degree of dental anxiety and other kinds of anxiety and whether there are prognostic factors for the different kinds of anxiety. METHOD: In the sample (N = 156) from a dental practice in a large German city, 62% of patients received a check-examination and 38% received dental surgery. The target variables were recorded with validated questionnaires: dental anxiety (IDAF-4c+), subclinical anxiety (SubA), anxiety of negative evaluation (SANB-5), current general anxiety (STAI state), loneliness (LS-S) and self-efficacy (GSW-6). The applied statistics were: t-tests for 31 variables, correlation matrix and multivariate and bivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: The dental surgery patients displayed more dental anxiety and more dental interventions than the check-examination group. The main result was a positive correlation of all kinds of anxiety with each other, a positive correlation of loneliness and neuroticism with all forms of anxiety and a negative correlation between all forms of anxiety and self-efficacy. Especially dental anxiety is positively associated with other kinds of anxiety. In multivariate regression models only neuroticism is associated with dental anxiety, but feelings of loneliness are positively associated with with the other kinds of anxiety assessed in this study. The higher the self-efficacy, the lower the level of general anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: In dentistry, anxiety from negative experiences with buccal interventions should be distinguished from anxiety caused by personality traits. Self-efficacy tends to protect against anxiety, while loneliness and neuroticism are direct or indirect risk factors for anxiety in this urban dentistry sample. Dental anxiety seems to be independent from biographical strains but not from neuroticism. In practice, more attention must be paid to anxiety control, self-management and efforts to improve the confidence of patients with emotional lability, less self-confidence and propensity to shame.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad , Ansiedad al Tratamiento Odontológico , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Soledad , Neuroticismo
13.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 56(4): 553-563, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749894

RESUMEN

Many psychiatric disorders are associated with obesity and include mood disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, binge eating disorders, trauma, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. According to National Obesity Observatory, there is evidence that both obesity and mental health disorders take up a significant portion of the global burden of disease. The bidirectional nature of obesity and mental illness indicates the importance of screening all persons being treated for either obesity or mental illnesses be screened for the other. Failure to do so may decrease the effectiveness of treatment for each one individually.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/complicaciones , Trastornos del Humor/complicaciones , Obesidad/complicaciones , Estigma Social , Factores de Edad , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/complicaciones , Humanos , Psicotrópicos/efectos adversos , Factores Sexuales
14.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258893, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758047

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Explore how previous work during the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak affects the psychological response of clinical and non-clinical healthcare workers (HCWs) to the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional, multi-centered hospital online survey of HCWs in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada. Mental health outcomes of HCWs who worked during the COVID-19 pandemic and the SARS outbreak were assessed using Impact of Events-Revised scale (IES-R), Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7), and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). RESULTS: Among 3852 participants, moderate/severe scores for symptoms of post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (50.2%), anxiety (24.6%), and depression (31.5%) were observed among HCWs. Work during the 2003 SARS outbreak was reported by 1116 respondents (29.1%), who had lower scores for symptoms of PTSD (P = .002), anxiety (P < .001), and depression (P < .001) compared to those who had not worked during the SARS outbreak. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed non-clinical HCWs during this pandemic were at higher risk of anxiety (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.19-2.15, P = .01) and depressive symptoms (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.34-3.07, P < .001). HCWs using sedatives (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.61-4.03, P < .001), those who cared for only 2-5 patients with COVID-19 (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.06-2.38, P = .01), and those who had been in isolation for COVID-19 (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.96-1.93, P = .05), were at higher risk of moderate/severe symptoms of PTSD. In addition, deterioration in sleep was associated with symptoms of PTSD (OR, 4.68, 95% CI, 3.74-6.30, P < .001), anxiety (OR, 3.09, 95% CI, 2.11-4.53, P < .001), and depression (OR 5.07, 95% CI, 3.48-7.39, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Psychological distress was observed in both clinical and non-clinical HCWs, with no impact from previous SARS work experience. As the pandemic continues, increasing psychological and team support may decrease the mental health impacts.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/psicología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Técnicos Medios en Salud , Ansiedad/psicología , Ansiedad/virología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/virología , COVID-19/virología , Canadá , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/psicología , Depresión/virología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente , Distrés Psicológico , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/virología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/virología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
15.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(11): e27835, 2021 11 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792473

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cyberchondria describes the detrimental effects of health-related internet use. Current conceptualizations agree that cyberchondria is associated with anxiety-related pathologies and may best be conceptualized as a safety behavior; however, little is known about its exact underlying mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to give an overview of the conceptualizations of cyberchondria and its relation to anxiety-related pathologies, quantify the strength of association to health anxiety by using meta-analyses, highlight gaps in the literature, and outline a hypothetical integrative cognitive-behavioral model of cyberchondria based on the available empirical evidence. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO electronic databases. A total of 25 studies were included for qualitative synthesis and 7 studies, comprising 3069 individuals, were included for quantitative synthesis. The meta-analysis revealed a strong association of cyberchondria (r=0.63) and its subfacets (r=0.24-0.66) with health anxiety. RESULTS: The results indicate that cyberchondria is a distinct construct related to health anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, intolerance of uncertainty, and anxiety sensitivity. Further studies should distinguish between state and trait markers of anxiety-related pathologies and use experimental and naturalistic longitudinal designs to differentiate among risk factors, triggers, and consequences related to cyberchondria. CONCLUSIONS: Health-related internet use in the context of health anxiety is best conceptualized as health-related safety behavior maintained through intermittent reinforcement. Here, we present a corresponding integrative cognitive-behavioral model.


Asunto(s)
Formación de Concepto , Hipocondriasis , Ansiedad , Trastornos de Ansiedad , Humanos , Internet , Incertidumbre
18.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 39(3): 284-290, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810346

RESUMEN

Background: Dental procedures, especially local anesthetic administration, are a source of great anxiety to children. Diaphragmatic breathing is defined as an efficient integrative body-mind training for dealing with stress and psychosomatic conditions. Pinwheel exercise is also a highly effective technique of "play therapy." Aim: This study aimed to compare dental anxiety using pinwheel breathing exercise and diaphragmatic breathing exercise during buccal infiltration anesthesia. Methodology: Sixty children in the age group of 6-12 years with Frankel's behavior rating score of 3 who required buccal infiltration local anesthesia were selected. Subjects were divided randomly into two groups, i.e., Group A: children who performed pinwheel breathing exercise and Group B: children who performed diaphragmatic breathing exercise. The level of anxiety of the patients was recorded using an animated emoji scale. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20 software with paired t-test and Chi-square test. Results: There was a significant reduction in dental anxiety score from score 1 (before the anesthetic procedure) to score 2 (after the anesthetic procedure) in both the groups. On intergroup analysis, children who performed pinwheel breathing exercise (Group A) showed higher values than children who performed deep breathing exercise without pinwheel (Group B) with a t value of 1.42 but was not statistically significant with a P value of 0.161. Conclusion: Pinwheel breathing exercise as well as diaphragmatic breathing exercise proved to be significantly effective in reducing dental anxiety during local anesthesia.


Asunto(s)
Anestesia Dental , Anestesia Local , Anestésicos Locales , Ansiedad/prevención & control , Trastornos de Ansiedad , Ejercicios Respiratorios , Niño , Humanos
19.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 472, 2021 11 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743752

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have an elevated risk for anxiety disorders throughout the life span, making it a research priority to identify the individual factors associated with anxiety. Most of the existing literature is based on questionnaire data and suggests that impaired executive functions (EF) increase the risk for anxiety in WS. The aim of this study was to use direct measures by trained clinicians to investigate the effects of general intelligence, inhibition, sustained attention, and working memory on anxiety in WS, to further elucidate potential underlying mechanisms. METHOD: Twenty-four individuals with WS participated in the study (mean age: 29 years, range: 9-53 years), together with at least one of their parents. The MINI international neuropsychiatric interview for DSM-5 was completed to establish clinical diagnosis of anxiety, and the Clinical Global Impression Scale - Severity was used for an expert rating of symptom severity. Intellectual abilities were measured using the Wechsler scales, and attention and inhibition using the Conner's Continuous Performance Test. In addition, a parent-report questionnaire measuring EF, learning and memory was collected. RESULTS: In contrast to the apriori hypothesis, there was no significant association between anxiety and core elements of EF such as working memory, sustained attention, and inhibition (i.e. the process of restraining one's impulses or behaviour). Using ordinal logistic regression analyses, we showed that decreasing intelligence quotient (IQ) and age are associated with elevated anxiety. We confirmed these results in between-groups analyses (anxiety disorder vs no current anxiety disorder), and low IQ was associated with higher risk of having an anxiety diagnosis. In addition, Bayesian statistics gave substantial evidence for no significant association between anxiety and inhibition. CONCLUSION: By using direct measures of psychological pathology and functioning, the current results provide a deeper characterisation of the WS phenotype and provide novel insights into the potential mechanisms underpinning anxiety.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Williams , Adulto , Ansiedad , Trastornos de Ansiedad , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Inteligencia
20.
Psychiatry Res ; 305: 114251, 2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739953

RESUMEN

This study was conducted on elementary school students in Henan Province, China, from February 4th to 11th, 2020, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. The purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence of anxiety among students and identify the related risk factors contributing to anxiety. Demographic information and psychological status were assessed by using self-reported measures. The generalized anxiety disorder tool (GAD-7) and a multiple logistic regression model were used to assess anxiety and identify potential influencing factors. Cross-sectional data indicated that the overall anxiety prevalence was 13.4%. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms was highest among rural primary school students and lowest among city students. Three groups of students in different regions were surveyed, and the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was significantly higher among students with poor knowledge of COVID-19 than among students with good knowledge of COVID-19. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, it was found that location, knowledge, and practice were related to anxiety. This study showed that the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was higher among Chinese primary school students. The influencing factors found in this study may help relevant staff improve the mental health of children during the epidemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Niño , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Internet , Prevalencia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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