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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204411

RESUMEN

COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019) has significantly resulted in a large number of psychological consequences. The aim of this study is to explore the impacts of COVID-19 on people's mental health, to assist policy makers to develop actionable policies, and help clinical practitioners (e.g., social workers, psychiatrists, and psychologists) provide timely services to affected populations. We sample and analyze the Weibo posts from 17,865 active Weibo users using the approach of Online Ecological Recognition (OER) based on several machine-learning predictive models. We calculated word frequency, scores of emotional indicators (e.g., anxiety, depression, indignation, and Oxford happiness) and cognitive indicators (e.g., social risk judgment and life satisfaction) from the collected data. The sentiment analysis and the paired sample t-test were performed to examine the differences in the same group before and after the declaration of COVID-19 on 20 January, 2020. The results showed that negative emotions (e.g., anxiety, depression and indignation) and sensitivity to social risks increased, while the scores of positive emotions (e.g., Oxford happiness) and life satisfaction decreased. People were concerned more about their health and family, while less about leisure and friends. The results contribute to the knowledge gaps of short-term individual changes in psychological conditions after the outbreak. It may provide references for policy makers to plan and fight against COVID-19 effectively by improving stability of popular feelings and urgently prepare clinical practitioners to deliver corresponding therapy foundations for the risk groups and affected people.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Ansiedad/psicología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Epidemias , Salud Mental , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Resiliencia Psicológica , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , China , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Emociones , Femenino , Felicidad , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pandemias , Satisfacción Personal , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 141-153, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002927

RESUMEN

Substantial evidence from various studies suggests a preeminent role for early adverse experiences in the development of psychopathology. The most recent studies reviewed here suggest that early life stressors are associated with an increased risk for anxiety disorders in adulthood. Early life stress predisposes individuals to develop a number of psychiatric syndromes, particularly affective disorders, including anxiety disorders, and is therefore a significant health problem.This review examines the emerging literature on the relationship between stress, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, and phobias and the role of early life stress as an important risk factor for HPA axis dysfunction.The most consistent findings in the literature show increased activity of the HPA axis in depression associated with hypercortisolemia and reduced inhibitory feedback. In addition to melancholic depression, a spectrum of other conditions may be associated with increased and prolonged activation of the HPA axis, including panic, GAD, phobias and anxiety. Moreover, HPA axis changes appear to be state-dependent, tending to improve upon resolution of the anxiety syndrome. Interestingly, persistent HPA hyperactivity has been associated with higher rates of relapse. These studies suggest that an evaluation of the HPA axis during treatment may help identify patients who are at a higher risk for relapse. These findings suggest that this dysfunction of the HPA axis is partially attributable to an imbalance between glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors. Evidence has consistently demonstrated that glucocorticoid receptor function is impaired in anxiety disorders. Moreover, normal basal cortisol levels and hyper-responsiveness of the adrenal cortex during a psychosocial stressor are observed in social phobics. Finally, abnormal HPA axis activity has also been observed in generalized anxiety disordered patients. Early stressful life events may provoke alterations of the stress response and thus of the HPA axis that can endure during adulthood, predisposing individuals to develop psychopathology.


Asunto(s)
Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia , Trastornos de Ansiedad/etiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Ansiedad/etiología , Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisario/fisiopatología , Sistema Hipófiso-Suprarrenal/fisiopatología , Estrés Psicológico/complicaciones , Ansiedad/psicología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Humanos , Estrés Psicológico/psicología
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 169-184, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002929

RESUMEN

This chapter describes the various animal models that seem relevant to the development of anxiolytic drugs, as well as the human models of induced anxiety, or more precisely the panic inducers including cholecystokinin. It is also mentioned the theoretical model of Deakin and Graeff which seems to keep all its relevance. The knock animals are evoked as relevant tools as well as a new optogenetic technique that needs to be used in this field.


Asunto(s)
Ansiolíticos , Trastornos de Ansiedad/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Ansiedad/tratamiento farmacológico , Ansiedad/psicología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Descubrimiento de Drogas , Animales , Ansiolíticos/farmacología , Ansiolíticos/uso terapéutico , Colecistoquinina/efectos adversos , Humanos , Optogenética
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 187-196, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002930

RESUMEN

Under the partial influences of paradigm shift form category to dimension, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM) was revised to the fifth edition (DSM-5); however, due to the lack of consistent biological makers and processes and the restricted availability of dimensional meta-structure, the revisions for the DSM-5 were based on a combination of categorical and dimensional approaches. Anxiety disorders were more clearly and consistently defined in the DSM-5 with the removal of obsessive compulsive, acute stress, and post-traumatic stress disorders. Differences between the childhood and adulthood categories of anxiety disorders were decreased, and overall, the symmetrical classification of anxiety subtypes was increased, since separation anxiety disorder and selective mutism were considered anxiety disorders, not neurodevelopmental disorders. Additionally, based on growing evidence, agoraphobia is distinct from panic disorder. Next, considering cultural syndromes including taijin kyofusho, khyal cap, trung gio attacks, and ataque de nervios, cultural influences are considered a significant factor for definitions and presentations of anxiety disorders. Controversies in the DSM-5 criteria for anxiety disorders are lowering the diagnostic thresholds of anxiety disorders and limiting the dichotomous view of anxiety and depression when defining generalized anxiety disorder. Further studies of alternative approaches to the restrictions of the DSM-5 criteria of anxiety disorders, including transdiagnostic specifiers and dimensional assessment tools, may be required.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/clasificación , Trastornos de Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales , Factores de Edad , Ansiedad/complicaciones , Ansiedad/psicología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/complicaciones , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/complicaciones , Depresión/psicología , Humanos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/clasificación , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/diagnóstico
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 237-261, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002933

RESUMEN

Anxiety disorders are debilitating psychological disorders characterized by a wide range of cognitive and somatic symptoms. Anxiety sufferers have a higher lifetime prevalence of various medical problems. Chronic medical conditions furthermore increase the likelihood of psychiatric disorders and overall dysfunction. Lifetime rates of cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and other medical problems are disproportionately high in anxiety and panic/fear sufferers. The heightened comorbidity is not surprising as many symptoms of anxiety and panic/fear mimic symptoms of medical conditions. Panic disorder specifically is strongly linked to medical conditions due to its salient somatic symptoms, such as dyspnea, dizziness, numbness, chest pain, and heart palpitations, all of which can signal danger and deterioration for chronic disease sufferers. This chapter identifies shared correlates of medical illness and anxiety disorders and evidence for misinterpretation of symptoms as medically relevant and offers an analysis of implications for treatment of both types of conditions. We will concentrate on medical conditions with high associations for anxiety and panic by aspects of symptomatology, specifically neurological disorders (fibromyalgia, epilepsy, cerebral palsy), diabetes, gastrointestinal illness (irritable bowel syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease), and cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses (asthma).


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/terapia , Trastornos de Ansiedad/complicaciones , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Enfermedad Crónica , Comorbilidad , Humanos , Trastorno de Pánico/complicaciones , Trastorno de Pánico/epidemiología , Trastorno de Pánico/psicología , Trastorno de Pánico/terapia
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 389-414, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002939

RESUMEN

The principal aim to this chapter is to present the latest ideas in virtual reality (VR), some of which have already been applied to the field of anxiety disorders, and others are still pending to be materialized. More than 20 years ago, VR emerged as an exposure tool in order to provide patients and therapists with more appealing ways of delivering a technique that was undoubtedly effective but also rejected and thus underused. Throughout these years, many improvements were achieved. The first section of the chapter describes those improvements, both considering the research progresses and the applications in the real world. In a second part, our main interest is to expand the discussion of the new applications of VR beyond its already known role as an exposure tool. In particular, VR is enabling the materialization of numerous ideas that were previously confined to a merely philosophical discussion in the field of cognitive sciences. That is, VR has the enormous potential of providing feasible ways to explore nonclassical ways of cognition, such as embodied and situated information processing. Despite the fact that many of these developments are not fully developed, and not specifically designed for anxiety disorders, we want to introduce these new ideas in a context in which VR is experiencing an enormous transformation.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/terapia , Terapia de Exposición Mediante Realidad Virtual , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Cognición , Humanos , Realidad Virtual
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 523-541, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002944

RESUMEN

Exposure therapy, a key treatment for anxiety disorders, can be modelled in the laboratory using Pavlovian fear extinction. Understanding the hormonal and neurobiological mechanisms underlying fear extinction in females, who are twice more likely than males to present with anxiety disorders, may aid in optimising exposure therapy outcomes in this population. This chapter will begin by discussing the role of the sex hormones, estradiol and progesterone, in fear extinction in females. We will also propose potential mechanisms by which these hormones may modulate fear extinction. The second half of this chapter will discuss the long-term hormonal, neurological and behavioural changes that arise from pregnancy and motherhood and how these changes may alter the features of fear extinction in females. Finally, we will discuss implications of this research for the treatment of anxiety disorders in women with and without prior reproductive experience.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/metabolismo , Trastornos de Ansiedad/terapia , Ansiedad/metabolismo , Ansiedad/terapia , Estradiol/metabolismo , Progesterona/metabolismo , Reproducción , Ansiedad/psicología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Extinción Psicológica , Miedo , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(3): e18746, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011456

RESUMEN

Converging evidence reveals the negative interpretation bias in anxiety. Given that anxiety is a severe psychological problem among Chinese military personnel, the present study examined whether high trait anxiety military personnel showed negative interpretation bias in real-world situations and whether their interpretations were influenced by self-relevance.The sample included 24 high trait anxiety (H-TA) and 22 low trait anxiety (L-TA) Chinese military servicemen. Participants completed 20 open-ended ambiguous scenarios by deciding how much they believed in the positive and negative ending of each sentence. The 20 scenarios were designed according to real life in military and half of them were self-relevant and the others were non-self-relevant.A 2(group) ×2(self-relevance) ANOVA of positive and negative endings revealed that compared to L-TA, H-TA believed more in negative continuations and less in positive continuations. Moderate correlations were found between samples' believes in positive and negative endings and their trait anxiety scores. Military personnel showed more positive interpretation biases in non-self-relevant scenarios than in self-relevant scenarios.These findings are the first to show interpretation bias in military situations, and interventional strategies to modify servicemen's interpretation bias could be designed according to military situations.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Personal Militar/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Humanos , Masculino , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Represión Psicológica
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 291-329, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002935

RESUMEN

Anxiety disorders are an enormous societal burden given their high lifetime prevalence among adult populations worldwide. A variety of anxiety disorders can be successfully treated with psychological treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), either as stand-alone individual or group treatment or as adjunctive treatment to pharmacotherapy. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence suggests that therapist-guided Internet-delivered CBT (iCBT) and, to some degree, digitalized mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions may be an efficacious complement to traditional face-to-face therapy. In view of the current advances regarding the integration of traditional and innovative treatment approaches, this chapter provides an overview on the theory and evidence base for different delivery modes of CBT-related interventions for specific phobia, panic disorder, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder in adults. Finally, implications for clinical practice and research will be derived, and future directions for the psychological treatment of anxiety disorders will be outlined.


Asunto(s)
Terapia de Aceptación y Compromiso , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual , Atención Plena , Humanos , Trastornos Fóbicos/psicología , Trastornos Fóbicos/terapia , Resultado del Tratamiento
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 451-464, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002941

RESUMEN

Psychodynamic theory is founded on the idea that much, if not most, of human behavior is influenced by forces and experiences that lie outside of conscious awareness. It posits that despite what we may or may not recognize about our lived experience, an essential connection exists between unconscious processes and everyday psychological functioning. By extension, psychodynamic theory presumes that unconscious conflicts are pathognomonic of anxiety disorders and anxiety symptoms more generally. At the same time, the term "psychodynamic" refers not only to that which occurs within one's mind but also what happens between people and within families, groups, and systems. A comprehensive psychodynamic treatment of anxiety attempts to take into account these multiple domains of experience and functioning (including biological and genetic considerations) and applies a specific therapeutic approach to working with patients based in part on clinical techniques first developed by Sigmund Freud 100 years ago.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/terapia , Ansiedad/psicología , Ansiedad/terapia , Psicoterapia Psicodinámica , Concienciación , Humanos
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 543-559, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002945

RESUMEN

Anxiety is prevalent in childhood and adolescence. Youth with maladaptive responses to common situations and stressors are at risk of having anxiety disorders. Persistent anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders can be debilitating with long-term adverse outcomes in adulthood. Hence, decreasing the burden of anxiety disorders is an important public health priority. Development of anxiety disorders has a multifactorial etiology. There is a considerable complex interaction of genetics, temperament, parenting behavior, environmental triggers, and physiologic factors. Identification of these risk factors is key to early detection, prevention, and development of applicable management approaches. Despite several evidence-based treatments published, there are limited prevention strategies available. Effective implementation of prevention strategies is essential and can be achieved by either elimination or reduction of the negative risk factors or strengthening the protective factors on anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders. This chapter reviews the common risk and protective factors and provides current literature on prevention strategies for pediatric and adolescent anxiety disorders.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/prevención & control , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Adolescente , Trastornos de Ansiedad/genética , Niño , Humanos , Responsabilidad Parental , Prevalencia , Factores Protectores , Factores de Riesgo , Temperamento
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 561-576, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002946

RESUMEN

Recent data has linked anxiety and its disorders in late life to increased morbidity and mortality, especially related to a higher cardiovascular burden and an increased cognitive decline. Clinically, anxiety symptoms may be more difficult to elicit in older adults who are less accurate in identifying anxiety symptoms and tend to minimize symptoms and to attribute symptoms to physical illness. Although SSRIs have proven more effective than psychotherapy in late-life anxiety, many elderly anxious subjects prefer psychotherapeutic interventions. These interventions appear to work best when tailored for the needs, expectations, and cultural background of older anxious subjects.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad , Anciano , Ansiolíticos/uso terapéutico , Ansiedad/complicaciones , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Ansiedad/psicología , Ansiedad/terapia , Trastornos de Ansiedad/complicaciones , Trastornos de Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/terapia , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/complicaciones , Comorbilidad , Humanos , Psicoterapia , Inhibidores de la Captación de Serotonina/uso terapéutico
13.
Muscle Nerve ; 61(1): 69-73, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573094

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The revised 15-item Myasthenia Gravis (MG) Quality of Life Questionnaire (MGQoL15R) is a validated scale of quality of life in patients with MG. We aimed to study the factors causing the variability within the Arabic version of the MGQoL15R (MGQoL15R-A). METHOD: A standardized questionnaire was completed by 118 patients. Correlations and hierarchical regression analyses were used to assess the contribution of sociodemographic variables, clinical factors, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ9-A), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD7-A) to the variability in the MGQoL15R-A. RESULTS: The MGQoL15R-A was highly correlated with PHQ9-A (r = 0.76), and moderately correlated with GAD7-A (r = 0.52). Clinical factors and PHQ9-A independently explained 30.4% and 34.5% of the variability, respectively. Among the clinical factors, uncontrolled MG status, relapse within the past year, and a higher number of current MG therapies were significantly associated with a higher MGQoL15R-A score. CONCLUSIONS: MG severity and depressive symptoms (measured by PHQ9-A) can affect the MGQoL15R-A score.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/complicaciones , Depresión/psicología , Miastenia Gravis/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Trastornos de Ansiedad/complicaciones , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Árabes , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Calidad de Vida , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Traducciones
14.
Psychiatr Hung ; 35(1): 58-67, 2020.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854323

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Several long-term follow-up studies investigate the progression of adolescent onset major depressive disorder but much less explore short and long-term consequences and prognosis into adulthood of childhood- onset depression. The aim of the present study is to follow childhood-onset depression, lifetime comorbid psychiatric disorders and suicidal behavior into adulthood. METHODS: Subjects (N=166) were 25.95+2.42 years old on average, 54.2% were women. Follow-up period lasted for a mean of 14.74+1.31 years. Psychiatric diagnosis was assessed by a DSM-IV based semi-structured interview. Subjects reported on 4 stages of suicidal behavior as one of the symptoms of depressive disorder. RESULTS: The onset of the first depressive episode was at the mean age of 10.17+2.34 years. 40,4% of the sample had only 1 episode while recurrent depressive episode presented in 32.5% above 18 years of age. Lifetime comorbid psychiatric disorders were present in more than 1/3 of the sample. The most frequent lifetime comorbidity was anxiety (42.4%), and specific phobia among anxiety disorders. Lifetime attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and oppositional/conduct disorder were also frequent (25.9% and 16.9%, respectively). Suicidal behavior was not present life-time in 19.1% of the sample. Thoughts of death and thoughts of suicide were quite frequent (80.8% and 69.5%, respectively), specific plans and suicidal attempt were more frequent in girls (plan:female vs male 53.9% vs 38.4%, attempt: 33.3% vs 9.6%) during follow-up. CONCLUSION: About one-third of childhood-onset depression had recurrence above 18 years of age, which is lower than the recurrence rate for adolescent onset depression. A high rate of lifetime comorbidity was found between depression and anxiety disorders. The assessment of the actual level of suicidal behavior is important in the prevention of selfdestructive behavior.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/diagnóstico , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/psicología , Suicidio/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Edad de Inicio , Trastornos de Ansiedad/complicaciones , Trastornos de Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Niño , Comorbilidad , Depresión/complicaciones , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/complicaciones , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Pronóstico , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
15.
Behav Ther ; 50(6): 1042-1052, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735240

RESUMEN

Emotion Regulation Therapy (ERT) has demonstrated efficacy in both open and randomized trials for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) with and without co-occurring depression. An important goal in ERT is to teach clients adaptive emotion regulation, including healthier metacognitive abilities such as decentering and cognitive reappraisal. A few studies thus far have demonstrated a mediating role for these metacognitive abilities in other cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) for GAD. However, a drawback to most of these has been the ability to demonstrate a causal role for improved metacognitive abilities in outcome. In the present study, we utilized multilevel time-lagged segment analyses to explore the temporal dynamics between session-by-session changes in metacognition and anxiety outcomes from ERT. Thirty-one young adults diagnosed with GAD with and without co-occurring depression received 16 sessions of ERT. Prior to each session, participants completed questionnaires pertaining to metacognition (i.e., decentering and cognitive reappraisal) and anxiety symptoms (i.e., worry, trait anxiousness, and generalized anxiety). Changes in decentering temporally preceded changes in worry and trait anxiousness of a medium to large magnitude, and changes in cognitive reappraisal temporally preceded changes in all three outcomes of a medium to large magnitude. The reverse direction, where mediators were predicted by outcomes, was nonsignificant. These findings support the notion that adaptive metacognitive emotion regulation is involved in reducing worry and anxiety in GAD. Having a clearer understanding of the temporal dynamics between metacognitive abilities and symptoms of anxiety can inform and improve not only ERT but other CBTs for GAD, as well.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual , Trastorno Depresivo/terapia , Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Emociones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Metacognición , Motivación , Distribución Aleatoria , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
16.
Behav Ther ; 50(6): 1150-1163, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735249

RESUMEN

Clinically significant anxiety is associated with an array of attentional symptoms (e.g., difficulty concentrating; unwanted thought) that are subjectively experienced as severe. However, neuropsychological findings are mixed with respect to the presence of cognitive deficits that can account for these symptoms. Contextualizing predictions from established clinical theories (e.g., Attentional Control Theory) within contemporary, neurobiologically derived models of cognitive control (Dual Mechanisms of Control Theory), the present study investigated the relationship between "cold" proactive and reactive cognitive control, task effort, and subjective attentional symptoms (difficulty concentrating; unwanted thought) in a mixed clinical sample of individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and a comparison sample of healthy controls. Clinical status moderated the relationship between attentional symptoms (attentional focusing and trait worry) and proactive cognitive control response time. Clinical status also moderated the relationship between trait worry and task effort. Higher trait worry was associated with slower proactive control and lower effort in healthy participants, but faster proactive control in clinical participants. Self-reported attentional focusing showed differential validity vis-à-vis proactive control response time in clinical versus healthy participants. Post-hoc conditional effects analysis suggested more accurate self-appraisals in healthy controls, but was not significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Preliminary evidence suggested that differences in task effort in anxious versus healthy adults may relate to subjective attentional symptoms in GAD and OCD.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Atención , Cognición , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , Femenino , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo/psicología , Autoinforme
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e16973, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567932

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As the most important component of cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease (CHD) is closely related to psychological factors such as anxiety. Anxiety, whether present before or after the onset of illness, can lead to many serious consequences. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the prevalence of and potential risk factors for anxiety after coronary heart disease (post-CHD anxiety). METHOD: Systematic searches were performed in electronic databases including China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Technology Journal database (VIP), PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Medline. RESULT: Thirteen studies were included. With regard to cross-sectional studies, the prevalence of post-CHD anxiety was P = .37, 95% CI (0.26-0.49). The overall analysis among cohort studies revealed that the prevalence of post-CHD anxiety was P = .50, 95% CI (0.05-0.95). Among the 11 potential risk factors, low education level [OR = 1.46, 95% CI (1.05-2.02)] and long duration of disease [OR = 2.05, 95% CI (1.05-4.00)] were statistically significant. CONCLUSION: There is high heterogeneity between studies and many defects; thus, further research is required to support these results. Attention should be paid to post-CHD anxiety, and clinical caring should include psychological counselling and imparting disease-related knowledge to patients with a long disease duration and low educational background.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Infarto del Miocardio/psicología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
18.
Int J Public Health ; 64(9): 1355-1365, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628523

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyse depression and anxiety symptoms changes from the first to the third trimester of pregnancy in non-smokers versus quitters versus continuous smokers, and the contribution of depression and anxiety symptoms to continued tobacco consumption during pregnancy. METHODS: The sample comprises 850 Spanish pregnant women (595 non-smokers, 123 quitters, and 132 continuous smokers), assessed at the first and the third trimester of pregnancy with a questionnaire concerning socio-demographic, obstetric, and tobacco consumption information, and measures of depression and anxiety. RESULTS: Continuous smokers during pregnancy showed more depression and anxiety symptoms than both non-smokers and quitters and no changes from the first trimester to the third trimester of pregnancy, while both non-smokers and quitters revealed a decrease in depression and anxiety symptoms. More anxiety symptoms at the first trimester (OR 1.03) and depression symptoms at the third trimester (OR 1.14) were associated with continued smoking during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety and depression symptoms need to be considered to screening for women at risk of smoking during pregnancy. Future prenatal smoking cessation interventions must take into account these variables.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/psicología , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Fumar Tabaco/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , España , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
19.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3191, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596421

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the impact on the quality of life as well as anxiety and pain in patients with nephrostomy tubes. METHOD: this is a longitudinal descriptive study performed on a sample of n=150 patients. To evaluate the quality of life, the EuroQol-5D questionnaire was used; anxiety was quantified by the Beck Anxiety Inventory; to study pain, a visual analogue scale was employed. RESULTS: statistically significant differences were found in the quality of life, with its worsening (r = 0.51; p <0.01) when evaluated at the first tube replacement. Patients presented mild to moderate anxiety before the procedure, which was reduced at the first tube replacement, although this difference was not significant (r = 0.028, p = 0.393). Finally, the degree of pain was also significantly reduced (r = 0.13, p<0.01) after six weeks. As for gender, women presented the worst values ​​in the three variables studied (worse quality of life and greater anxiety and pain). CONCLUSIONS: nephrostomy tubes have a negative impact on the patient's quality of life. During the time they live with these tubes, patients have mild to moderate pain and anxiety.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Nefrostomía Percutánea/efectos adversos , Dolor/etiología , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Evaluación de Necesidades , Nefrostomía Percutánea/enfermería , Nefrostomía Percutánea/psicología , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Calidad de Vida , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 56(3): 252-255, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633720

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Fatigue is highly prevalent in end stage liver disease, the studies about its association with exercise capacity in cirrhotic patients before liver are scarse. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated fatigue in 95 in end stage liver disease patients awaiting transplantation, compared to healthy volunteers, and tested the association between exercise capacity and fatigue. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of patients with chronic liver disease treated at a referral center in Fortaleza, Brazil. Fatigue was quantified with the Fatigue Severity Scale. The patients were submitted to the 6-min walk test, the 6-min step test, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, C-reative protein measurement and hematocrit count, measurement of dyspnea among other tests. Fatigue data were obtained from healthy individuals for comparison with patients. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 45.9±12.3 years, and 53.7% were male. Fatigue, anxiety and depression levels were higher among end stage liver disease patients than among controls. A negative correlation was observed between 6 min step test and Fatigue Severity Scale score (r= -0.2; P=0.02) and between hematocrit count and Fatigue Severity Scale score (r= -0.24; P=0.002). Dyspnea on the Borg scale and fatigue were positively correlated (r=31; P=0.002). In the multivariate analysis, low 6-min step test values and high levels of dyspnea were associated with fatigue. CONCLUSION: Fatigue was more prevalent and severe in end stage liver disease patients than in healthy controls. Low 6MST values and high levels of dyspnea were associated with fatigue in this scenario.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Hepática en Estado Terminal/psicología , Tolerancia al Ejercicio/fisiología , Fatiga/psicología , Trasplante de Hígado/psicología , Adulto , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Trastorno Depresivo/psicología , Enfermedad Hepática en Estado Terminal/fisiopatología , Fatiga/fisiopatología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Listas de Espera
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