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2.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 62(3): 668-681, 2019 03 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950741

RESUMEN

Purpose Intelligibility is a core concept of speech-language pathology, central both to the assessment of speech disorders and to intervention in such disorders. One purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and usability of a single-word assessment procedure, the Swedish Test of Intelligibility for Children (STI-CH), in a clinical setting. Another purpose was to investigate the validity and reliability of an assessment method designed to assess functional intelligibility: the Intelligibility in Context Scale (ICS). Method Thirty children aged 4;1-10;1 years;months were recruited from speech-language pathology clinics in Western Sweden. Each child's treating speech-language pathologist served as listener in the STI-CH assessment while the ICS was completed by each child's parents. External listeners (2 last-year speech-language pathology students) were used to assess the validity of the speech-language pathology. Results The mean duration of the test procedure for the STI-CH was about 19 min, and 57% of the test sessions were reported as difficult. There was a weak but statistically significant correlation between the results from the STI-CH and the ICS ( r = .40, p < .05), and both methods showed high reliability in terms of interlistener reliability (intraclass correlation exceeding .97) and internal consistency, respectively. Conclusions The STI-CH had high reliability and was time efficient but had some procedural problems. The ICS had moderate validity but high reliability. The STI-CH is promising for clinical use but needs to be developed further. The validity of the ICS can be discussed and needs to be further investigated.


Asunto(s)
Inteligibilidad del Habla , Medición de la Producción del Habla/métodos , Trastornos de la Articulación/diagnóstico , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Pruebas de Articulación del Habla , Suecia
3.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 122: 180-184, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035177

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Speech and language pathologists need to assess speech stimulability as a crucial component of assessment in clients with speech sound disorders. The purpose of the current survey was to develop and validate an instrument to assess speech stimulability in Persian speaking children. METHODS: The present study was accomplished in two steps. In step I, the test material was developed based on extensive literature review, and five experts were requested to make judgment on the content validity of the test. We evaluated other psychometric properties in step II. A pilot study was performed by the administration of the test on 25 children, and then the correct answer percentages of 100 participants for each item of the Persian test of speech stimulability were calculated. The participants were divided into four groups by six-month intervals. Inter-rater reliability, test-retest, and internal consistency were computed for the reliability measures. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 24.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL) was used for the statistical analysis of the data. The significance level was (P < 0.05). RESULTS: The final version of the test includes 132 items (consonant and vowel singleton words and sentences). There was no significant difference among experts' judgment in the content validity of the items (P > 0.05). All of the children could easily repeat the items in the pilot study. The participants were stimulable more than 80% for all of the consonants except/ʒ/and 100% for the vowels in the items of the final version of the Persian test of speech stimulability. All of the reliability values (inter-rater reliability, test-retest, and internal consistency) were higher than 0.8. CONCLUSION: Investigation of psychometric properties of the Persian test of speech stimulability showed that this test is a valid and reliable scale to assess the speech stimulability in Persian speaking children.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Articulación/diagnóstico , Pruebas de Articulación del Habla , Trastorno Fonológico/diagnóstico , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Irán , Lenguaje , Masculino , Variaciones Dependientes del Observador , Proyectos Piloto , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Patología del Habla y Lenguaje/métodos
4.
Semin Speech Lang ; 40(2): 138-148, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30795024

RESUMEN

The vast majority of treatment efficacy research in the area of phonology focuses on issues relevant to children who have significant limitations in productive phonology but are "typically developing" in most other ways. The base of evidence to guide clinicians on planning intervention for children with phonological and cooccurring expressive language difficulties (PD + LI) is less well developed. Thus, the goal of this paper is to summarize the evidence on two treatment procedures designed to facilitate growth in phonological inventory for children who also require direct intervention to target other aspects of expressive language. We first review what is known about the delicate interaction between phonology and grammatical morphology. We focus the remainder of the summary on what is known about how to best address the more complex needs of children with PD + LI in intervention.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Articulación/terapia , Trastornos del Desarrollo del Lenguaje/terapia , Fonética , Logoterapia/métodos , Trastornos de la Articulación/diagnóstico , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Trastornos del Desarrollo del Lenguaje/diagnóstico , Lingüística , Masculino , Resultado del Tratamiento
5.
Logoped Phoniatr Vocol ; 44(2): 58-66, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29068267

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe speech at 1, 1;6 and 3 years of age in children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and relate the findings to operation method and amount of early intervention received. METHODS: A prospective trial of children born with UCLP operated with a one-stage (OS) palatal repair at 12 months or a two-stage repair (TS) with soft palate closure at 3-4 months and hard palate closure at 12 months was undertaken (Scandcleft). At 1 and 1;6 years the place and manner of articulation and number of different consonants produced in babbling were reported in 33 children. At three years of age percentage consonants correct adjusted for age (PCC-A) and cleft speech errors were assessed in 26 of the 33 children. Early intervention was not provided as part of the trial but according to the clinical routine and was extracted from patient records. RESULTS: At age 3, the mean PCC-A was 68% and 46% of the children produced articulation errors with no significant difference between the two groups. At one year there was a significantly higher occurrence of oral stops and anterior place consonants in the TS group. There were significant correlations between the consonant production between one and three years of age, but not with amount of early intervention received. CONCLUSIONS: The TS method was beneficial for consonant production at age 1, but not shown at 1;6 or 3 years. Behaviourally based early intervention still needs to be evaluated.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Articulación/etiología , Lenguaje Infantil , Labio Leporino/cirugía , Fisura del Paladar/cirugía , Intervención Médica Temprana , Acústica del Lenguaje , Calidad de la Voz , Factores de Edad , Trastornos de la Articulación/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Articulación/fisiopatología , Preescolar , Labio Leporino/complicaciones , Labio Leporino/diagnóstico , Labio Leporino/fisiopatología , Fisura del Paladar/complicaciones , Fisura del Paladar/diagnóstico , Fisura del Paladar/fisiopatología , Humanos , Lactante , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Recuperación de la Función , Medición de la Producción del Habla , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
6.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 61(12): 2869-2883, 2018 12 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481796

RESUMEN

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine differences in phonological accuracy in multisyllabic words (MSWs) on a whole-word metric, longitudinally and cross-sectionally, for elementary school-aged children with typical development (TD) and with history of protracted phonological development (PPD). Method: Three mismatch subtotals, Lexical influence, Word Structure, and segmental Features (forming a Whole Word total), were evaluated in 3 multivariate analyses: (a) a longitudinal comparison (n = 22), at age 5 and 8 years; (b) a cross-sectional comparison of 8- to 10-year-olds (n = 12 per group) with TD and with history of PPD; and (c) a comparison of the group with history of PPD (n = 12) with a larger 5-year-old group (n = 62). Results: Significant effect sizes (ηp2) found for mismatch totals were as follows: (a) moderate (Lexical, Structure) and large (Features) between ages 5 and 8 to 10 years, mismatch frequency decreasing developmentally, and (b) large between 8- to 10-year-olds with TD and with history of PPD (Structure, Features; minimal lexical influences), in favor of participants with TD. Mismatch frequencies were equivalent for 8- to 10-year-olds with history of PPD and 5-year-olds with TD. Classification accuracy in original subgroupings was 100% and 91% for 8- to 10-year-olds with TD and with history of PPD, respectively, and 86% for 5-year-olds with TD. Conclusion: Phonological accuracy in MSW production was differentiated for elementary school-aged children with TD and PPD, using a whole-word metric. To assist with the identification of children with ongoing PPD, the metric has the ability to detect weaknesses and track progress in global MSW phonological production.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Articulación/diagnóstico , Lenguaje Infantil , Fonética , Medición de la Producción del Habla/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Análisis Multivariante
7.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 38(3): 105-112, jul.-sept. 2018. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-176622

RESUMEN

Objetivo: El objetivo de este trabajo es comparar 2 marcadores del trastorno específico del lenguaje en niños españoles de 5 a 7 años. Estos marcadores son la repetición de oraciones y la repetición de pseudopalabras, que son los utilizados para esta función en la investigación sobre este trastorno. Los 2 remiten a déficits de memoria como origen de este trastorno. Se revisan las formas en que estas tareas han sido utilizadas en el marcaje del trastorno específico del lenguaje. Participantes: Se han aplicado estas tareas a 3 grupos de niños de 5 a 7 años; uno constituido por niños con trastorno específico del lenguaje, otro por niños con trastorno de habla y articulación y otro con niños con desarrollo típico. Resultados: Los análisis discriminantes y la curva ROC ponen de manifiesto que es la repetición de oraciones la que tiene una mayor sensibilidad y especificidad para distinguir a los niños con trastorno específico del lenguaje de los niños con desarrollo típico, pero muestra una sensibilidad discreta en la diferenciación de los niños con desarrollo típico de los que tienen trastorno de habla y articulación. Ninguna de las tareas logra diferenciar con una precisión aceptable a los niños con trastorno específico del lenguaje de los que tienen trastorno de habla y articulación. Discusión y conclusiones: Se explican las razones de la distinta potencia marcadora de ambas tareas para identificar a los niños con trastorno específico del lenguaje, trastorno de habla y articulación y desarrollo típico


Objective: This study compares two markers of Specific Language Impairment in Spanish children aged 5 to 7. The markers examined are sentence repetition and pseudoword repetition, which are the two main tasks outlined in the research to identify this disorder. Both contemplate memory deficits as the source of this disorder. We review the ways in which these tasks have been used in marking Specific Language Impairment. Participants: These tasks have been applied to three groups of children, aged 5 to 7 years; one consisting of children with Specific Language Impairment, another of children with Speech Sound Disorder and another of children who are typically developing. Results: The results of the discriminant analysis and ROC curve show that sentence repetition exhibits higher sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing children with Specific Language Impairment from children who are typically developing, but only show modest sensibility in differentiating children who are typically developing from children with Speech Sound Disorder. Neither of the two tasks can distinguish with acceptable accuracy children with Specific Language Impairment from children with Speech Sound Disorder. Discussion and conclusions: We explain the reasons of different marking power to identify children with Specific Language Impairment, Speech Sound Disorder and typical development


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Trastornos del Lenguaje/diagnóstico , Pruebas del Lenguaje , Trastornos de la Articulación/diagnóstico , Trastornos del Habla/diagnóstico , Trastornos del Desarrollo del Lenguaje/diagnóstico , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
8.
Codas ; 30(3): e20170180, 2018 Jul 02.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29972445

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To present evidence of the validity and reliability of a phonological assessment tool developed to assess the phonological inventory of Brazilian Portuguese. METHODS: The study included 866 children aged between 3 and 8:11 years, divided into three groups: typical, control and clinical. Participants were evaluated using a phonological assessment software, which prompted the spontaneous naming of a series of images. The children's responses were audio recorded and transcribed at the time of the assessment, by the software itself. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to evaluate the internal consistency of the instrument for reliability and validity purposes. Criterion validity was examined by comparing the performance of different groups using Student's t-test for independent samples. Intra- and inter-rater agreement were investigated using Kendall's tau. Results were considered significant at p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: The present study provided evidence of validity and reliability (internal consistency) for this phonological assessment tool, confirming the reliability of its items and demonstrating excellent agreement rates between examiners regarding its scoring (intra- and inter-rater reliability). The criterion validity assessment demonstrated that the control group outperformed the clinical group across all phonemes, showing that test scores were successful in identifying children with speech sound disorders (phonological disorders). CONCLUSION: The present findings provide strong evidence of the validity and reliability of this phonological assessment tool.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Articulación/diagnóstico , Pruebas del Lenguaje , Medición de la Producción del Habla/instrumentación , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
9.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 27(2): 616-632, 2018 05 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29570753

RESUMEN

Purpose: A number of intrinsic factors, including expressive speech skills, have been suggested to place children with developmental disabilities at risk for limited development of reading skills. This study examines the relationship between these factors, speech ability, and children's phonological awareness skills. Method: A nonexperimental study design was used to examine the relationship between intrinsic skills of speech, language, print, and letter-sound knowledge to phonological awareness in 42 children with developmental disabilities between the ages of 48 and 69 months. Hierarchical multiple regression was done to determine if speech ability accounted for a unique amount of variance in phonological awareness skill beyond what would be expected by developmental skills inclusive of receptive language and print and letter-sound knowledge. Results: A range of skill in all areas of direct assessment was found. Children with limited speech were found to have emerging skills in print knowledge, letter-sound knowledge, and phonological awareness. Speech ability did not predict a significant amount of variance in phonological awareness beyond what would be expected by developmental skills of receptive language and print and letter-sound knowledge. Conclusion: Children with limited speech ability were found to have receptive language and letter-sound knowledge that supported the development of phonological awareness skills. This study provides implications for practitioners and researchers concerning the factors related to early reading development in children with limited speech ability and developmental disabilities.


Asunto(s)
Apraxias/psicología , Trastornos de la Articulación/psicología , Conducta Infantil , Lenguaje Infantil , Discapacidades del Desarrollo/psicología , Niños con Discapacidad/psicología , Disartria/psicología , Lectura , Trastorno Fonológico/psicología , Habla , Factores de Edad , Apraxias/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Articulación/diagnóstico , Niño , Preescolar , Discapacidades del Desarrollo/diagnóstico , Disartria/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pruebas del Lenguaje , Alfabetización , Acústica del Lenguaje , Inteligibilidad del Habla , Medición de la Producción del Habla , Trastorno Fonológico/diagnóstico , Vocabulario
10.
Ann Dyslexia ; 68(2): 85-103, 2018 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29511958

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to examine different hypotheses in relation to RAN deficits in dyslexia. Thirty university students with dyslexia and 32 chronological-age controls were assessed on RAN Digits and Colors as well as on two versions of RAN Letters and Objects (one with five items repeated 16 times and one with 20 items repeated four times). In addition, participants were tested on discrete letter and object naming, phonological awareness, orthographic knowledge, and speed of processing, and the RAN Letters and Objects total times were partitioned into pause times and articulation times. Results showed first that the dyslexia group was slower than the control group on all RAN tasks and the differences remained significant after controlling for discrete naming time. Second, both groups were slower in the large item set condition (20 × 4) than in the small set condition (5 × 16). Third, the dyslexia group was slower than the control group in both the pause and the articulation times. Although none of the processing skills was sufficient on its own to eliminate group differences in RAN Letters components, phonological awareness, and orthographic processing were sufficient on their own to eliminate group differences in the RAN Objects pause time. Taken together, our findings suggest that the deficits in RAN are not due to impaired anchoring, but rather due to subtle impairments in lexical access (specific to alphanumeric RAN), serial processing, and articulation.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Articulación/psicología , Dislexia/psicología , Lectura , Estudiantes/psicología , Universidades , Adulto , Trastornos de la Articulación/diagnóstico , Concienciación/fisiología , Dislexia/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Lingüística , Masculino , Estimulación Luminosa/métodos , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
11.
Dev Sci ; 21(3): e12588, 2018 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28880490

RESUMEN

Children with reading difficulties and children with a history of repeated ear infections (Otitis Media, OM) are both thought to have phonological impairments, but for quite different reasons. This paper examines the profile of phonological and morphological awareness in poor readers and children with OM. Thirty-three poor readers were compared to individually matched chronological age and reading age controls. Their phonological awareness and morphological awareness skills were consistently at the level of reading age matched controls. Unexpectedly, a significant minority (25%) of the poor readers had some degree of undiagnosed mild or very mild hearing loss. Twenty-nine children with a history of OM and their matched controls completed the same battery of tasks. They showed relatively small delays in their literacy and showed no impairment in morphological awareness but had phonological awareness scores below the level of reading age matched controls. Further analysis suggested that this weakness in phonological awareness was carried by a specific weakness in segmenting and blending phonemes, with relatively good performance on phoneme manipulation tasks. Results suggest that children with OM show a circumscribed deficit in phoneme segmentation and blending, while poor readers show a broader metalinguistic impairment which is more closely associated with reading difficulties.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Articulación/etiología , Dislexia/diagnóstico , Otitis Media/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Articulación/diagnóstico , Concienciación , Niño , Preescolar , Cognición , Femenino , Humanos , Alfabetización , Masculino
12.
J Oral Rehabil ; 45(3): 228-234, 2018 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29230834

RESUMEN

Oro-facial dysfunctions (OFD) or oro-facial myofunctional disorders in children lead to severe problems in teeth and jaw position, articulation, chewing and swallowing. The forces of the tongue, the central muscle for articulation, chewing and swallowing are focused on in several studies. In this examination, isometric tongue protrusion forces (TPF) of children with OFD and controls were compared. Thirty participants with OFD and 30 controls were presented a target force level as a straight line on a monitor that they were supposed to match by generating an isometric tongue force for different target levels (0.25 N and 0.5 N). Correlations of the severity of OFD (symptom score) with the capacities of the TPF 0.25 N and 0.5 N were calculated. Statistical differences were obvious in TPF variability and the accuracy, depending on the weight. Tongue contact time, expressed as per cent (TCT, total contact: 100%), was significantly lower in children with OFD (P = .005). Mean and median TPF was not different between groups. The predictive value of TPF for OFD revealed a level of 58.6% for TPF 0.25 N and 74.5% for TPF 0.5 N. Correlations of the severity of OFD were seen for some parameters. Subjects with OFD show significantly lower competencies in accuracy and endurance of tongue protrusion forces. This may have a high impact on phenotyping children with OFD and influence therapeutical approaches.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Articulación/fisiopatología , Enfermedad Crónica , Trastornos de Deglución/fisiopatología , Músculos Faciales/fisiopatología , Nervio Hipogloso/fisiopatología , Desarrollo Maxilofacial/fisiología , Lengua/fisiopatología , Adolescente , Trastornos de la Articulación/diagnóstico , Niño , Deglución/fisiología , Trastornos de Deglución/diagnóstico , Evaluación de la Discapacidad , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Electromiografía , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Masticación/fisiología , Cooperación del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Fenotipo , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
13.
Logoped Phoniatr Vocol ; 43(1): 20-31, 2018 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28367659

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to develop and content validate specific speech and language intervention picture cards: The Letter-Sound (L&S) cards. The present study was also focused on assessing the influence of these cards on letter-sound correspondences and speech sound production. An expert panel of six speech and language therapists analysed and discussed the L&S cards based on several criteria previously established. A Speech and Language Therapist carried out a 6-week therapeutic intervention with a group of seven Portuguese phonologically delayed pre-schoolers aged 5;3 to 6;5. The modified Bland-Altman method revealed good agreement among evaluators, that is the majority of the values was between the agreement limits. Additional outcome measures were collected before and after the therapeutic intervention process. Results indicate that the L&S cards facilitate the acquisition of letter-sound correspondences. Regarding speech sound production, some improvements were also observed at word level. The L&S cards are therefore likely to give phonetic cues, which are crucial for the correct production of therapeutic targets. These visual cues seemed to have helped children with phonological delay develop the above-mentioned skills.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Articulación/rehabilitación , Conducta Infantil , Lenguaje Infantil , Estimulación Luminosa , Patología del Habla y Lenguaje/métodos , Percepción Visual , Factores de Edad , Trastornos de la Articulación/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Articulación/psicología , Niño , Preescolar , Señales (Psicología) , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal , Medición de la Producción del Habla , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
14.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 37(4): 164-171, sept.-dic. 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-167355

RESUMEN

Evidence based practice calls for clinical decisions to be based on a combination of research evidence, clinical expertise and client perspectives. A relatively small proportion of the research evidence on language intervention efficacy has focused specifically on bilingual children. This article reviews early research as well as recent findings on language intervention with bilingual children. Main questions targeted by this research include the choice of language of intervention, whether intervention effects transfer from one langage to the other, and whether language skills can be improved indirectly by enhancing underlying language processing and memory skills. Given the relative lack of intervention research on bilingual children, it is appropriate to consider the extent to which findings from the larger available evidence base on monolingual children can be applied. This may vary depending on the clinical question being asked and on the types of monolingual and bilingual environments involved. Given that monolingual and bilingual children are similar in a number of key characteristics that impact their ability to benefit from language treatment, it is proposed that clinicians use their experience and expertise to carefully consider the applicability to bilingual populations of research conducted with monolingual children. New directions in bilingual intervention that research is starting to address are reviewed, which will in time, lead to more sophisticated intervention choices tailored to the individual needs of children, both monolingual and bilingual (AU)


La práctica basada en la evidencia requiere decisiones clínicas basadas en una combinación de evidencia de la investigación, experiencia clínica y perspectivas clientelares. Una proporción relativamente pequeña de la evidencia de la investigación sobre la eficacia de la intervención en el lenguaje se ha centrado específicamente en los niños bilingües. Este artículo revisa la investigación precoz, así como los hallazgos recientes sobre la intervención en el lenguaje con niños bilingües. Muchas de las cuestiones focalizadas por esta investigación incluyen la elección del lenguaje de intervención, mientras que los efectos de la intervención se transfieren de una lengua a otra, así como si pueden mejorarse las técnicas del lenguaje indirectamente al acrecentar el procesamiento del lenguaje subyacente y las habilidades de memoria. Dada la falta de investigación sobre intervención en los niños bilingües, es apropiado considerar el alcance de la aplicación de los hallazgos de la más amplia base de evidencia disponible en los niños monolingües. Ello puede variar dependiendo de la cuestión clínica a plantear y de los tipos de entornos monolingües y bilingües implicados. Dado que los niños monolingües y bilingües son similares en cuanto a una serie de características clave que impactan en su capacidad para beneficiarse del tratamiento del lenguaje, se propone que los clínicos utilicen su experiencia y competencia para considerar minuciosamente la aplicabilidad a las poblaciones bilingües de la investigación realizada con los niños monolingües. Se revisan las nuevas direcciones sobre intervención bilingüe que, en un momento dado, darán lugar a opciones de intervención más sofisticadas adaptadas a las necesidades individuales de los niños, tanto monolingües como bilingües (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Niño , Trastornos de la Articulación/complicaciones , Trastornos de la Articulación/diagnóstico , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia/métodos , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia/tendencias , Trastornos del Lenguaje/diagnóstico , Trastornos del Lenguaje/terapia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Lingüística/métodos , Psicoterapia Centrada en la Persona/métodos
15.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 26(4): 1141-1158, 2017 Nov 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28834534

RESUMEN

Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to document the efficacy of electropalatography (EPG) for the treatment of rhotic errors in school-age children. Despite a growing body of literature using EPG for the treatment of speech sound errors, there is little systematic evidence about the relative efficacy of EPG for rhotic errors. Method: Participants were 5 English-speaking children aged 6;10 to 9;10, who produced /r/ at the word level with < 30% accuracy but otherwise showed typical speech, language, and hearing abilities. Therapy was delivered in twice-weekly 30-min sessions for 8 weeks. Results: Four out of 5 participants were successful in achieving perceptually and acoustically accurate /r/ productions during within-treatment trials. Two participants demonstrated generalization of /r/ productions to nontreated targets, per blinded listener ratings. Conclusions: The present findings support the hypothesis that EPG can improve production accuracy in some children with rhotic errors. However, the utility of EPG is likely to remain variable across individuals. For rhotics, EPG training emphasizes one possible tongue configuration consistent with accurate rhotic production (lateral tongue contact). Although some speakers respond well to this cue, the narrow focus may limit lingual exploration of other acceptable tongue shapes known to facilitate rhotic productions.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Articulación/terapia , Biorretroalimentación Psicológica , Fonética , Acústica del Lenguaje , Patología del Habla y Lenguaje/métodos , Terapia Asistida por Computador , Lengua/fisiopatología , Trastornos de la Articulación/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Articulación/fisiopatología , Trastornos de la Articulación/psicología , Biorretroalimentación Psicológica/instrumentación , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Pruebas del Lenguaje , Masculino , Actividad Motora , Percepción del Habla , Medición de la Producción del Habla , Patología del Habla y Lenguaje/instrumentación , Terapia Asistida por Computador/instrumentación , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Percepción Visual
16.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 26(3): 769-790, 2017 Aug 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28637054

RESUMEN

Purpose: This study evaluated the efficacy of an instructive feedback strategy for modeling letter names and sounds during presentation of positive feedback within a small-group phonological awareness intervention for preschoolers. Method: Two experiments were conducted using multiple-baseline designs across children and behaviors. Letter name and sound identification and performance on a phonological awareness fluency measure served as the primary outcome variables. Six children completed Experiment 1. A progressive time delay was added to instructive feedback to elicit a response from the 9 children in the second experiment. Results: In the first experiment, 6 children demonstrated gains on phonological awareness but not alphabet knowledge. With the addition of progressive time delay in the second experiment, all 9 children demonstrated gains on letter name and sound identification as well as phonological awareness skills. Conclusions: Progressive time delay to prompt children's responses appears to bolster the effects of instructive feedback as an efficient strategy for modeling alphabet skills within a broader early literacy curriculum. Modeling alphabet skills did not detract from, and may have enhanced, phonological awareness instruction for preschoolers.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Articulación/rehabilitación , Concienciación , Lenguaje Infantil , Intervención Educativa Precoz/métodos , Retroalimentación Formativa , Fonética , Patología del Habla y Lenguaje/métodos , Trastornos de la Articulación/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Articulación/psicología , Preescolar , Curriculum , Femenino , Humanos , Alfabetización , Masculino , Factores de Tiempo , Vocabulario
17.
Sci Rep ; 7: 44285, 2017 03 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28287166

RESUMEN

Research suggests that musical skills are associated with phonological abilities. To further investigate this association, we examined whether phonological impairments are evident in individuals with poor music abilities. Twenty individuals with congenital amusia and 20 matched controls were assessed on a pure-tone pitch discrimination task, a rhythm discrimination task, and four phonological tests. Amusic participants showed deficits in discriminating pitch and discriminating rhythmic patterns that involve a regular beat. At a group level, these individuals performed similarly to controls on all phonological tests. However, eight amusics with severe pitch impairment, as identified by the pitch discrimination task, exhibited significantly worse performance than all other participants in phonological awareness. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that pitch discrimination thresholds predicted phonological awareness beyond that predicted by phonological short-term memory and rhythm discrimination. In contrast, our rhythm discrimination task did not predict phonological awareness beyond that predicted by pitch discrimination thresholds. These findings suggest that accurate pitch discrimination is critical for phonological processing. We propose that deficits in early-stage pitch discrimination may be associated with impaired phonological awareness and we discuss the shared role of pitch discrimination for processing music and speech.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Percepción Auditiva/fisiopatología , Concienciación/fisiología , Música , Discriminación del Tono/fisiología , Percepción del Tono/fisiología , Estimulación Acústica , Adolescente , Trastornos de la Articulación/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Articulación/fisiopatología , Audiometría de Tonos Puros , Trastornos de la Percepción Auditiva/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis de Regresión , Pruebas de Articulación del Habla , Adulto Joven
18.
Semin Speech Lang ; 38(1): 62-74, 2017 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28201838

RESUMEN

This article provides an overview of phonological treatment approaches for anomia in individuals with aphasia. The role of phonology in language processing, as well as the impact of phonological impairment on communication is initially discussed. Then, traditional phonologically based treatment approaches, including phonological, orthographic, indirect, guided, and mixed cueing methods, are described. Collectively, these cueing treatment approaches aim to facilitate word retrieval by stimulating residual phonological abilities. An alternative treatment approach, phonomotor treatment, is also examined. Phonomotor treatment aims to rebuild sublexical, phonological sequence knowledge and phonological awareness as a means to strengthen lexical processing and whole-word naming. This treatment is supported by a parallel-distributed processing model of phonology and therefore promotes multimodal training of individual phonemes and phoneme sequences in an effort to enhance the neural connectivity supporting underlying phonological processing mechanisms. The article concludes with suggestions for clinical application and implementation.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Articulación/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Articulación/rehabilitación , Terapia del Lenguaje/métodos , Fonética , Trastornos de la Articulación/psicología , Terapia Combinada , Humanos
19.
Int J Lang Commun Disord ; 52(3): 301-310, 2017 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27432555

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Oral-diadochokinesis (oral-DDK) tasks are extensively used in the evaluation of motor speech abilities. Currently, validated normative data for older adults (aged 65 years and older) are missing in Hebrew. The effect of task stimuli (non-word versus real-word repetition) is also non-clear in the population of older adult Hebrew speakers. AIMS: (1) To establish a norm for oral-DDK rate for older adult (aged 65 years and older) Hebrew speakers, and to investigate the possible effect of age and gender on performance rate; and (2) to examine the effects of stimuli (non-word versus real word) on oral-DDK rates. METHODS & PROCEDURES: In experiment 1, 88 healthy older Hebrew speakers (60-95 years, 48 females and 40 males) were audio-recorded while performing an oral-DDK task (repetition of /pataka/), and repetition rates (syllables/s) were coded. In experiment 2, the effect of real-word repetition was evaluated. Sixty-eight older Hebrew speakers (aged 66-95 years, 43 females and 25 males) were asked to repeat 'pataka' (non-word) and 'bodeket' (Hebrew real word). OUTCOMES & RESULTS: Experiment 1: Oral-DDK performance for older adult Hebrew speakers was 5.07 syllables/s (SD = 1.16 syllables/s), across age groups and gender. Comparison of this data with Hebrew norms for younger adults (and equivalent data in English) shows the following gradient of oral-DDK rates: ages 15-45 > 65-74 > 75-86 years. Gender was not a significant factor in our data. Experiment 2: Repetition of real words was faster than that of non-words, by 13.5%. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: The paper provides normative values for oral-DDK rates for older Hebrew speakers. The data show the large impact of ageing on oro-motor functions. The analysis further indicates that speech and language pathologists should consider separate norms for clients of 65-74 years and those of 75-86 years. Hebrew rates were found to be different from English norms for the oldest group, shedding light on the impact of language on these norms. Finally, the data support using a dual-protocol (real- and non-word repetition) with older adults to improve differential diagnosis of normal and pathological ageing in this task.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Apraxias/diagnóstico , Apraxias/terapia , Trastornos de la Articulación/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Articulación/terapia , Judíos , Lenguaje , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Valores de Referencia , Factores Sexuales , Pruebas de Articulación del Habla , Medición de la Producción del Habla
20.
Gene ; 605: 92-98, 2017 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27993705

RESUMEN

Intellectual disability (ID) affects approximately 1-2% of the general population and is characterized by impaired cognitive abilities. ID is both clinically as well as genetically heterogeneous, up to 2000 genes are estimated to be involved in the emergence of the disease with various clinical presentations. For many genes, only a few patients have been reported and causality of some genes has been questioned upon the discovery of apparent loss-of-function mutations in healthy controls. Description of additional patients strengthens the evidence for the involvement of a gene in the disease and can clarify the clinical phenotype associated with mutations in a particular gene. Here, we present two large four-generation families with a total of 11 males affected with ID caused by mutations in ZNF711, thereby expanding the total number of families with ID and a ZNF711 mutation to four. Patients with mutations in ZNF711 all present with mild to moderate ID and poor speech accompanied by additional features in some patients, including autistic features and mild facial dysmorphisms, suggesting that ZNF711 mutations cause non-syndromic ID.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Articulación/genética , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/genética , Proteínas de Unión al ADN/genética , Genes Ligados a X , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Discapacidad Intelectual/genética , Mutación , Adolescente , Adulto , Trastornos de la Articulación/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Articulación/fisiopatología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/fisiopatología , Secuencia de Bases , Niño , Exoma , Femenino , Expresión Génica , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Humanos , Discapacidad Intelectual/diagnóstico , Discapacidad Intelectual/fisiopatología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Linaje , Fenotipo , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
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