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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17504, 2021 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471196

RESUMEN

Chemosensory impairments have been established as a specific indicator of COVID-19. They affect most patients and may persist long past the resolution of respiratory symptoms, representing an unprecedented medical challenge. Since the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic started, we now know much more about smell, taste, and chemesthesis loss associated with COVID-19. However, the temporal dynamics and characteristics of recovery are still unknown. Here, capitalizing on data from the Global Consortium for Chemosensory Research (GCCR) crowdsourced survey, we assessed chemosensory abilities after the resolution of respiratory symptoms in participants diagnosed with COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic in Italy. This analysis led to the identification of two patterns of chemosensory recovery, partial and substantial, which were found to be associated with differential age, degrees of chemosensory loss, and regional patterns. Uncovering the self-reported phenomenology of recovery from smell, taste, and chemesthetic disorders is the first, yet essential step, to provide healthcare professionals with the tools to take purposeful and targeted action to address chemosensory disorders and their severe discomfort.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/complicaciones , Trastornos del Olfato/epidemiología , Trastornos del Gusto/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos del Olfato/etiología , Autoinforme , Trastornos del Gusto/etiología , Adulto Joven
2.
Mil Med Res ; 8(1): 51, 2021 09 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517915

RESUMEN

To determine the prevalence and clinical features of olfactory and taste disorders among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in China. A cross-sectional study was performed in Wuhan from April 3, 2020 to April 15, 2020. A total of 187 patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) completed face-to-face interviews or telephone follow-ups. We found that the prevalence of olfactory and taste disorders was significantly lower in the Chinese cohort than in foreign COVID-19 cohorts. Females were more prone to olfactory and taste disorders. In some patients, olfactory and taste disorders precede other symptoms and can be used as early screening and warning signs.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/complicaciones , Trastornos del Olfato/etiología , Olfato , Trastornos del Gusto/etiología , Gusto , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos del Olfato/epidemiología , Prevalencia , SARS-CoV-2 , Factores Sexuales , Trastornos del Gusto/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256998, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559820

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Qualitative olfactory (smell) dysfunctions are a common side effect of post-viral illness and known to impact quality of life and health status. Evidence is emerging that taste and smell loss are common symptoms of Covid-19 that may emerge and persist long after initial infection. The aim of the present study was to document the impact of post Covid-19 alterations to taste and smell. METHODS: We conducted exploratory thematic analysis of user-generated text from 9000 users of the AbScent Covid-19 Smell and Taste Loss moderated Facebook support group from March 24 to 30th September 2020. RESULTS: Participants reported difficulty explaining and managing an altered sense of taste and smell; a lack of interpersonal and professional explanation or support; altered eating; appetite loss, weight change; loss of pleasure in food, eating and social engagement; altered intimacy and an altered relationship to self and others. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest altered taste and smell with Covid-19 may lead to severe disruption to daily living that impacts on psychological well-being, physical health, relationships and sense of self. More specifically, participants reported impacts that related to reduced desire and ability to eat and prepare food; weight gain, weight loss and nutritional insufficiency; emotional wellbeing; professional practice; intimacy and social bonding; and the disruption of people's sense of reality and themselves. Our findings should inform further research and suggest areas for the training, assessment and treatment practices of health care professionals working with long Covid.


Asunto(s)
Anosmia , COVID-19 , Percepción Olfatoria , SARS-CoV-2 , Trastornos del Gusto , Percepción del Gusto , Adulto , Anosmia/etiología , Anosmia/fisiopatología , Anosmia/psicología , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/fisiopatología , COVID-19/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos del Gusto/etiología , Trastornos del Gusto/fisiopatología , Trastornos del Gusto/psicología , Factores de Tiempo
5.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(11): 1010-1018, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496986

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the association between olfactory dysfunction or taste impairment and disease severity and radiological findings in coronavirus disease-2019. The secondary goal was to assess the prevalence, severity and course of olfactory dysfunction or taste impairment in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. METHOD: This prospective observational cohort study evaluated patients hospitalised with coronavirus disease 2019 between April 1 and 1 May 2020. Olfactory dysfunction and taste impairment were evaluated by two questionnaires. Chest computed tomography findings and coronavirus disease-2019 severity were assessed. RESULTS: Among 133 patients, 23.3 per cent and 30.8 per cent experienced olfactory dysfunction and taste impairment, respectively, and 17.2 per cent experienced both. The mean age was 56.03 years, and 64.7 per cent were male and 35.3 per cent were female. No statistically significant association was found between olfactory dysfunction (p = 0.706) and taste impairment (p = 0.35) with either disease severity or chest computed tomography grading. CONCLUSION: Olfactory dysfunction or taste impairment does not have prognostic importance in patients with coronavirus disease 2019.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/complicaciones , Trastornos del Olfato/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Trastornos del Gusto/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagen , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos del Olfato/virología , Prevalencia , Pronóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , Trastornos del Gusto/virología , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e040775, 2021 08 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404693

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: Identifying undetected clinical signs is imperative in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2. OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of clinical gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Clinical outcomes and recovery rates associated with gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions were also assessed. DESIGN: A prospective study was performed in 80 patients admitted to Hospital Clínic of Barcelona (Spain) for COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients were re-evaluated in the ward daily until discharge. Gustatory and olfactory dysfunction symptoms were retrospectively collected from emergency room (ER) charts after first assessments. Follow-up was performed in telemedicine consultation. SETTING: The single-centre study was performed in a hospitalisation ward at a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive patients meeting hospitalisation criteria for COVID-19 pneumonia were eligible. Study exclusion criteria were patients who could not speak, had previous gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions or whose PCR tests for SARS-CoV-19 were negative. INTERVENTIONS: Systematic assessment of gustatory and olfactory symptoms with standardised questions. OUTCOMES: Prevalence of gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. RESULTS: Of the 80 study subjects, 62.5% were male and the median age was 57 years. Half of the cohort (n=40) presented with comorbidities. The prevalence of chemosensitive disorder was 73.8% (n=59) (95% CI: 63.8 to 83.8), although self-reported symptoms were recorded in only 26.3% (n=21) of patients in the ER. Gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions were observed in 58.8% (n=47) and 55% (n=44) of cases, respectively. They were also the first symptoms in 25% (n=20) of patients. Anosmia was associated with ageusia, OR: 7, 95% CI: 2.3 to 21.8, p=0.001). No differences in clinical outcomes were observed when patients with and without gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions were compared. Recovery rates were 20% (n=10) and 85% (n=42) at days 7 and 45, respectively. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions in COVID-19 pneumonia was much higher than in self-report. Presence of gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions was not a predictor of clinical outcomes.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Trastornos del Olfato , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos del Olfato/epidemiología , Trastornos del Olfato/etiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Trastornos del Gusto
10.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(17): e65-e73, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425627

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that some patients suffer from persistent symptoms for months after recovery from acute COVID-19. However, the clinical phenotype and its pathogenesis remain unclear. We here present data on complaints and results of a diagnostic workup of patients presenting to the post-COVID clinic at the University Medical Center Freiburg. METHODS: Retrospective data analysis of persistently symptomatic patients presenting to our clinic at least 6 months after onset of acute COVID-19. All patients were assessed by a doctor and routine laboratory analysis was carried out. Quality of life was assessed using SF-36 questionnaire. In case of specific persisting symptoms, further organ-specific diagnostic evaluation was performed, and patients were referred to respective departments/specialists. FINDINGS: 132 Patients (58 male, 74 female; mean age 53.8 years) presented to our clinic at least 6 months after COVID-19. 79 (60 %) had been treated as outpatients and 53 (40 %) as inpatients. Most common complaints were persistent fatigue (82 %) and dyspnea on exertion (61 %). Further common complaints were impairments of concentration (54 %), insomnia (43 %), and impairments of smell or taste (35 %). Quality of life was reduced in all sections of the SF-36 questionnaire, yielding a reduced working capacity. Significant pathological findings in laboratory, echocardiographic and radiological work-up were rare. Impairments in lung function tests were more common in previously hospitalized patients. CONCLUSION: Patients presenting 6 months after onset of acute COVID-19 suffer from a diverse spectrum of symptoms with impaired quality of life, also referred to as Long COVID or Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC). Further research is needed to determine the frequency of these post-COVID syndromes and their pathogenesis, natural course and treatment options. Evaluation and management should be multi-disciplinary.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/complicaciones , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Anosmia , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , COVID-19/epidemiología , Disnea , Fatiga , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Retrospectivos , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Trastornos del Gusto , Adulto Joven
11.
Fam Pract ; 38(Suppl 1): i37-i44, 2021 Aug 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448483

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The early identification of COVID-19 patients is of outmost importance in the current pandemic. As with other pathogens, presenting symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 may vary, depending on sociodemographic factors. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients by age/gender and to assess whether the diagnostic performance of these symptoms varied according to these variables. METHODS: We analysed data from a cross-sectional study involving primary care patients undergoing RT-PCR testing in Lyon, France. Among patients who tested positive, we examined whether there was an association between age/gender and various symptoms. In addition, we calculated the diagnostic performance of the most specific symptoms (smell/taste disorder). RESULTS: Among 1543 consecutive patients, 253 tested positive (16%). There were significant age/gender-related differences in symptoms. In middle-aged women, the diagnostic performance of smell/taste disorders were AUC = 0.65 [95%CI 0.59-0.71] and PPV = 72% [95%CI 53-87%], that is higher than in the entire sample (smell/taste disorders: AUC = 0.59 [95%CI 0.57-0.62] and PPV = 57% [95%CI 47-67%]. In contrast, the negative predictive values of smell/taste disorders were similar in both groups (85% [95%CI 81-89%] for middle-age women and 86% [95%CI 85-88%] for the entire sample). CONCLUSION: We found significant age/gender-related differences in the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients. Screening strategies based on smell/taste disorders performed better in middle-aged women, but could not ensure a diagnosis of COVID-19 in any subgroup of patients. Future diagnostic strategies should use age/gender differentiated approaches.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Trastornos del Olfato/epidemiología , Atención Primaria de Salud , Autoinforme , Trastornos del Gusto/epidemiología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Factores Sexuales
12.
Chem Senses ; 462021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423831

RESUMEN

Several studies have revealed either self-reported chemosensory alterations in large groups or objective quantified chemosensory impairments in smaller populations of patients diagnosed with COVID-19. However, due to the great variability in published results regarding COVID-19-induced chemosensory impairments and their follow-up, prognosis for chemosensory functions in patients with such complaints remains unclear. Our objective is to describe the various chemosensory alterations associated with COVID-19 and their prevalence and evolution after infection. A cross-sectional study of 704 healthcare workers with a RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between 2020 February 28 and 2020 June 14 was conducted 3-7 months after onset of symptoms. Data were collected with an online questionnaire. Outcomes included differences in reported chemosensory self-assessment of olfactory, gustatory, and trigeminal functions across time points and Chemosensory Perception Test scores from an easy-to-use at-home self-administered chemosensory test. Among the 704 participants, 593 (84.2%) were women, the mean (SD) age was 42 (12) years, and the questionnaire was answered on average 4.8 (0.8) months after COVID-19. During COVID-19, a decrease in olfactory, gustatory, and trigeminal sensitivities was reported by 81.3%, 81.5%, and 48.0%, respectively. Three to 7 months later, reduced sensitivity was still reported by 52.0%, 41.9%, and 23.3%, respectively. Chemosensory Perception Test scores indicate that 19.5% of participants had objective olfactory impairment. These data suggest a significant proportion of COVID-19 cases have persistent chemosensory impairments at 3-7 months after their infection, but the majority of those who had completely lost their olfactory, gustatory, and trigeminal sensitivities have improved.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/complicaciones , Trastornos del Olfato/etiología , Trastornos del Gusto/etiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/etiología , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos del Olfato/diagnóstico , Trastornos del Olfato/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Autoinforme , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Trastornos del Gusto/epidemiología , Factores de Tiempo
14.
Cancer Radiother ; 25(6-7): 713-722, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274224

RESUMEN

Cranial irradiation of primary or metastatic lesions is frequent, historically with 3D-conformal radiation therapy and now with stereotactic radiosurgery and intensity modulation. Evolution of radiotherapy technique is concomitant to systemic treatment evolution permitting long time survival. Thus, physicians have to face underestimated toxicities on long-survivor patients and unknown toxicities from combination of cranial radiotherapy to new therapeutics as targeted therapies and immunotherapies. This article proposes to develop these toxicities, without being exhaustive, to allow a better apprehension of cranial irradiation in current context.


Asunto(s)
Irradiación Craneana/efectos adversos , Alopecia/etiología , Supervivientes de Cáncer , Catarata/etiología , Trastornos del Conocimiento/etiología , Irradiación Craneana/métodos , Trastornos de Somnolencia Excesiva/etiología , Síndromes de Ojo Seco/etiología , Epilepsia/etiología , Humanos , Enfermedades Hipotalámicas/etiología , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisario/efectos de la radiación , Inmunoterapia/efectos adversos , Carcinomatosis Meníngea/etiología , Trastornos Migrañosos/etiología , Terapia Molecular Dirigida/efectos adversos , Trastornos del Olfato/etiología , Radiocirugia/métodos , Radioterapia Conformacional/tendencias , Radioterapia de Intensidad Modulada/tendencias , Síndrome , Trastornos del Gusto , Xerostomía/etiología
15.
Neuroepidemiology ; 55(5): 381-386, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198303

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Olfactory and taste disorders (OTDs) have been reported in COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the mechanisms of which remain unclear. We conducted a detailed analysis of OTDs as part of 2 seroepidemiological investigations of COVID-19 outbreaks. METHODS: Two retrospective cohort studies were conducted in a high school and primary schools of Northern France following a COVID-19 epidemic in February-March 2020. Students, their relatives, and school staff were included. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were identified using a flow-cytometry-based assay detecting anti-S IgG. RESULTS: Among 2,004 participants (median [IQR] age: 31 [11-43] years), 303 (15.2%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. OTDs were present in 91 (30.0%) and 92 (30.3%) of them, respectively, and had 85.1 and 78.0% positive predictive values for SARS-CoV-2 infection, respectively. In seropositive participants, OTDs were independently associated with an age above 18 years, female gender, fatigue, and headache. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the higher frequency of OTDs in females than males and adults than children. Their high predictive value for the diagnosis of COVID-19 suggests that they should be systematically searched for in patients with respiratory symptoms, fever, or headache. The association of OTDs with headache, not previously reported, suggests that they share a common mechanism, which deserves further investigation.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/complicaciones , Trastornos del Olfato/etiología , Trastornos del Gusto/etiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticuerpos Antivirales/análisis , Niño , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
16.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 207: 106760, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146842

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the literature on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing in patients with altered olfactory/gustatory function due to COVID-19 for evidence of viral neuroinvasion. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of Medline and Embase to identify publications that described at least one patient with COVID-19 who had altered olfactory/gustatory function and had CSF testing performed. The search ranged from December 1, 2019 to November 18, 2020. RESULTS: We identified 51 publications that described 70 patients who met inclusion criteria. Of 51 patients who had CSF SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing, 3 (6%) patients had positive results and 1 (2%) patient had indeterminate results. Cycle threshold (Ct; the number of amplification cycles required for the target gene to exceed the threshold, which is inversely related to viral load) was not provided for the patients with a positive PCR. The patient with indeterminate results had a Ct of 37 initially, then no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA on repeat testing. Of 6 patients who had CSF SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing, 3 (50%) were positive. Testing to distinguish intrathecal antibody synthesis from transudation of antibodies to the CSF via breakdown of the blood-brain barrier was performed in 1/3 (33%) patients; this demonstrated antibody transmission to the CSF via transudation. CONCLUSION: Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in CSF via PCR or evaluation for intrathecal antibody synthesis appears to be rare in patients with altered olfactory/gustatory function. While pathology studies are needed, our review suggests it is unlikely that these symptoms are related to viral neuroinvasion.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/líquido cefalorraquídeo , COVID-19/epidemiología , Trastornos del Olfato/líquido cefalorraquídeo , Trastornos del Olfato/epidemiología , Trastornos del Gusto/líquido cefalorraquídeo , Trastornos del Gusto/epidemiología , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquídeo , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Humanos , Trastornos del Olfato/diagnóstico , Trastornos del Gusto/diagnóstico
17.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(7): 682-689, 2021 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074933

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Currently, as the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a pandemic, rapidly obtaining accurate information of patient symptoms and their progression is crucial and vital. Although the early studies in China have illustrated that the representative symptoms of COVID-19 include (dry) cough, fever, headache, fatigue, gastrointestinal discomfort, dyspnea, and muscle pain, there is increasing evidence to suggest that olfactory and taste disorder are related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, we conduct this study to review the present literature about the correlation between anosmia or dysgeusia and COVID-19. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search in 2020 of the electronic journal databases, mainly PubMed or Web of Science, was performed using the keywords COVID-19 or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with hyposmia, anosmia, dysgeusia, olfactory disorder, or olfactory dysfunction. The country, study period, case number, inpatient or outpatient medical visit, evaluation method (subjective complaints of dysfunction or objective evaluation), and occurrence rate of olfactory or gustatory function were reviewed. RESULTS: Many studies reported that the recoverable olfactory or gustatory dysfunction may play an important role as the early clinical symptom of COVID-19. It is associated with better prognosis, although further investigation and validation should be carried out. CONCLUSION: Studies have shown that smell and taste disturbances may represent an early symptom of COVID-19 and healthcare professionals must be very vigilant when managing patients with these symptoms. In the pandemic era, this implies testing for COVID-19 by healthcare workers with full personal protective equipment.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/complicaciones , Trastornos del Olfato/etiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Trastornos del Gusto/etiología , Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina 2/fisiología , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Prueba de COVID-19 , Humanos
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 612, 2021 Jun 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174816

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The unexpected outbreak of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused more than 49 million cases and an estimated 2,000,000 associated deaths worldwide. In Germany, there are currently more than 2,000,000 laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases including 51,800 deaths. However, regional differences also became apparent and with the second wave of infections, the detailed characterization of COVID-19 patients is crucial to early diagnosis and disruption of chains of infections. METHODS: Handing out detailed questionnaires to all individuals tested for COVID-19, we evaluated the clinical characteristics of negative and positive tested individuals. Expression of symptoms, symptom duration and association between predictor variables (i.e. age, gender) and a binary outcome (olfactory and gustatory dysfunction) were assessed. RESULTS: Overall, the most common symptoms among individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were fatigue, headache, and cough. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction were also reported by many SARS-CoV-2 negative individuals, more than 20% of SARS-CoV-2 negative tested individuals in our study reported olfactory and gustatory dysfunction. Independent of SARS-CoV-2 status, more females displayed symptoms of gustatory (29.8%, p = 0.0041) and olfactory dysfunction (22.9%, p = 0.0174) compared to men. CONCLUSIONS: Bringing early SARS-CoV-2 tests to the populations at risk must be a main focus for the upcoming months. The reliability of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in COVID-19 negative tested individuals requires deeper investigation in the future.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , Trastornos del Olfato/epidemiología , Trastornos del Olfato/virología , Trastornos del Gusto/epidemiología , Trastornos del Gusto/virología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19/fisiopatología , Tos/epidemiología , Diagnóstico Precoz , Fatiga/epidemiología , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Cefalea/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos del Olfato/diagnóstico , Trastornos del Olfato/fisiopatología , Pandemias , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Caracteres Sexuales , Olfato , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Trastornos del Gusto/fisiopatología , Adulto Joven
19.
Rev. ADM ; 78(3): 167-175, mayo-jun. 2021. ilus
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254949

RESUMEN

La actual pandemia de COVID-19 provocada por el virus SARS-CoV-2 es un problema de salud que afecta a la población globalmente. Su desarrollo puede ser asintomático o exhibir manifestaciones clínicas moderadas o severas dependiendo en gran medida de la respuesta inmune de quien la padece. Esta enfermedad afecta principalmente a los pulmones a través del desarrollo del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (SRAS), tanto como por la «tormenta de citocinas¼, una respuesta inflamatoria exacerbada que podría provocar una falla multisistémica y, en casos severos, la muerte. Se conoce que la enzima convertidora de angiotensina 2 (ECA-2), presente en diversos tejidos del cuerpo, actúa como receptor funcional del virus SARS-CoV-2 facilitando la entrada de éste a las células. Se ha demostrado la presencia de dicho receptor en varios tejidos orales, por lo que se puede considerar a la cavidad bucal como una vía latente de infección por dicho coronavirus, ya que su mecanismo de transmisión es a través de la inhalación de partículas virales, ya sea por vía nasal u oral. Así mismo, la presencia de carga vírica en la saliva y algunos de los síntomas de la COVID-19, por ejemplo la ageusia, pueden indicar la presencia de contagio viral en etapas tempranas. La presente revisión muestra evidencia que sugiere que diversos tejidos en la cavidad oral podrían ser considerados sitios potenciales de contagio por el SARS-CoV-2, teniendo un papel importante en el mecanismo de transmisión y en el desarrollo de coinfecciones (AU)


The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is currently a global healthcare problem. The onset of this disease can exhibit several clinical manifestations ranging from mild to severe symptoms, depending on the individual's immune response. COVID-19 primarily affects the lungs by developing the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and the «cytokine storm¼, an exacerbated inflammatory reaction that can lead to multiorgan failure and consequently death. The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2), present in several tissues in the human body, is known to act as the functional receptor of the SARS-CoV-2 germ facilitating its entrance into the cells. Such receptor is also present in diverse oral cavity tissues, indicating a latent route of infection due to its influence in the transmission mechanism by inhalation, either oral or nasal, of virus particles. Also, viral load in saliva and taste disorder symptoms like ageusia could indicate a viral infection in its early stages. This article presents evidence suggesting that several tissues in the oral cavity can be considered potential sites of SARS-CoV-2 infection, thus playing an essential role in the transmission mechanism and development of co-infections (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Mucosa Bucal/patología , Manifestaciones Bucales , Signos y Síntomas , Trastornos del Gusto , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A , Carga Viral , Inflamación
20.
Rev. cient. odontol ; 9(2): e057, abr.-jun. 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1254596

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de trastornos del gusto en pacientes niños y adolescentes diagnosticados con infección por coronavirus, a través de la evidencia en la literatura científica. Materiales y métodos: Una revisión sistemática de los artículos publicados entre el 19 de diciembre del 2019 y el 20 de diciembre del 2020 en las bases de datos Medline, Lilacs, BVS, Cochrane, SCOPUS y ScienceDirect. La estrategia de búsqueda de información se basó en el diagrama de flujo clásico de PRISMA. Para la evaluación del riesgo de sesgo, se usó la escala Newcastle-Ottawa. Resultados: Se encontraron 443 artículos en seis bases de datos y se incluyó un total de 7 artículos después de la evaluación, según los criterios de selección. Los artículos abordaron la variable de trastornos del gusto en tres formas: ageusia, disgeusia e hipogeusia, y se halló que esta manifestación clínica estaba presente desde los inicios de la infección. Conclusiones: Se ha encontrado una prevalencia de trastornos del gusto en niños y adolescentes diagnosticados con infección por coronavirus desde un 3,3% hasta un 26,9%. (AU)


Aim: To assess the prevalence of taste disorders in children and adolescents diagnosed with coronavirus infection according to the evidence reported in the scientific literature. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of articles published between December 19, 2019, and December 20, 2020 in the Medline, Lilacs, BVS, Cochrane, SCOPUS and ScienceDirect databases. The information search strategy was based on the classic PRISMA flow diagram. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess the risk of bias. Results: 443 articles were found in six databases, and a total of 7 articles were included after evaluation according to the selection criteria. The articles addressed the variable of taste disorders in three ways: ageusia, dysgeusia and hypogeusia; finding that this clinical manifestation was present from the beginning of the infection. Conclusions: The prevalence of taste disorders in children and adolescents diagnosed with coronavirus infection is from 3.3% to 26.9%. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Trastornos del Gusto , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Ageusia , Disgeusia
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