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2.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 58, 2021 May 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947468

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Shanghai had a local outbreak of COVID-19 from January 21 to 24. Timely and precise strategies were taken to prevent further spread of the disease. We discussed and shared the experience of COVID-19 containment in Shanghai. PROCESS: The first two patients worked at two hospitals but no staff from the two hospitals were infected. The suspected case and his two close contacts were confirmed to be infected within 12 h. The testing rate of individuals was low. The scope of screening was minimized to two related districts and the close contact tracing was completed within 12 h, which were precise and cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: Active monitoring, precise epidemiological investigation and timely nucleic acid testing help discover new cases, minimize the scope of screening, and interrupt the transmission.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , /transmisión , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , /prevención & control , China/epidemiología , Trazado de Contacto , Complicaciones de la Diabetes , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/complicaciones , Cuarentena/normas
3.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 94(5): 318-326, mayo 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-196939

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: Ante la posible coexistencia de la infección por el virus SARS-CoV-2 con otras infecciones estacionales, se pretende identificar síntomas diferenciales. Se ha estudiado el papel de los niños en el contagio intrafamiliar y la sensibilidad de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa inversa (RT-PCR) en un área con baja transmisión comunitaria. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional transversal. Pacientes entre 0-15 años estudiados por técnica RT-PCR por sospecha clínica de infección por virus SARS-CoV-2 en los meses de marzo-mayo del 2020. Encuesta sobre síntomas y contactos. Determinación de anticuerpos anti-SARS-CoV-2 al menos 21 días después del test RT- PCR. RESULTADOS: Se incluyó a 126 pacientes, 33 con infección confirmada y edad media 8,4 años (IC del 95%, 6,8-10,0) superior a los no infectados. La fiebre fue el síntoma más común y con mayor sensibilidad. Las diferencias encontradas fueron una mayor frecuencia de anosmia (p = 0,029) y cefalea (p = 0,009) entre los niños infectados con una especificidad del 96,7 y el 81,5% respectivamente. No hubo diferencias en la duración de los síntomas. Un 81,8% de los infectados fue probablemente contagiado en el núcleo familiar, en un 85,2% por un progenitor que trabajaba fuera del hogar. La sensibilidad de RT-PCR fue 70,9% y su valor predictivo negativo 91,1%. CONCLUSIONES: El cuadro clínico es inespecífico y los síntomas más específicos difíciles de detectar en niños más pequeños. Los niños tuvieron un papel reducido en la transmisión intrafamiliar. La sensibilidad de la RT-PCR podría estar relacionada con una menor contagiosidad infantil tras una semana de infección


INTRODUCTION: Given the possible coexistence of infection by the SARS-CoV-2 with other seasonal infections, the aim is to identify differential symptoms. I know has studied the role of children in intrafamily contagion and the sensitivity of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in an area with low community transmission. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional observational study. Patients between 0-15 years studied by RT-PCR technique due to clinical suspicion of infection by SARS-CoV-2 virus in the months of March-May 2020. Survey on symptoms and contacts. Determination of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at least 21 days after the RT-PCR test. RESULTS: 126 patients were included, 33 with confirmed infection and age mean 8.4 years (95% CI 6.8-10,5) higher than not infected. Fever was the most common and with greater sensitivity. The differences found were a greater frequency of anosmia (P = 0.029) and headache (P = .009) among children infected with a specificity of 96.7% and 81.5% respectively. There were no differences in the duration of the symptoms. 81.8% of those infected were probably infected in the nucleus 85.2% by a parent who worked outside the home. The sensitivity of RT-PCR was 70.9% and its negative predictive value 91.1%. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical picture is nonspecific and the symptoms more specific difficult to detect in younger children. Children had a reduced role in the intrafamily transmission. The sensitivity of RT-PCR could be related to a less contagiousness in children after one week of infection


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Trazado de Contacto/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Estudios Transversales
4.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249726, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857208

RESUMEN

As social distancing policies and recommendations went into effect in response to COVID-19, people made rapid changes to the places they visit. These changes are clearly seen in mobility data, which records foot traffic using location trackers in cell phones. While mobility data is often used to extract the number of customers that visit a particular business or business type, it is the frequency and duration of concurrent occupancy at those sites that governs transmission. Understanding the way people interact at different locations can help target policies and inform contact tracing and prevention strategies. This paper outlines methods to extract interactions from mobility data and build networks that can be used in epidemiological models. Several measures of interaction are extracted: interactions between people, the cumulative interactions for a single person, and cumulative interactions that occur at particular businesses. Network metrics are computed to identify structural trends which show clear changes based on the timing of stay-at-home orders. Measures of interaction and structural trends in the resulting networks can be used to better understand potential spreading events, the percent of interactions that can be classified as close contacts, and the impact of policy choices to control transmission.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Teléfono Celular , Trazado de Contacto , Algoritmos , Humanos , /aislamiento & purificación
6.
Am Fam Physician ; 103(8): 465-472, 2021 04 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856162

RESUMEN

SARS-CoV-2 is the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19. The spectrum of asymptomatic, presymptomatic, and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 transmission presents challenges for evaluating SARS-CoV-2 test performance for diagnostic or screening purposes and for interpreting test results. Molecular and antigen tests can detect current SARS-CoV-2 infection and are used to diagnose COVID-19. Clinicians should consider a test's characteristics, test timing in relation to symptom onset, and the pretest probability of disease when interpreting results. Molecular and antigen SARS-CoV-2 tests both have high specificity. However, antigen tests generally have lower sensitivity and thus greater potential for false-negative results. Pretest probability of disease should be based on a patient's exposure to someone with a confirmed or probable case, signs or symptoms of COVID-19, local or population-specific COVID-19 prevalence, and presence of an alternative diagnosis. Using a leaf plot is an efficient way to visualize posttest probability of disease based on estimated pretest probability and the test's sensitivity and specificity. A negative molecular or antigen test result might not rule out SARS-CoV-2 infection when pretest probability is high, depending on the test's sensitivity. A symptom-based approach is preferred over a test-based approach for discontinuing isolation precautions for most patients with COVID-19 because prolonged shedding of viral RNA does not necessarily correlate with infectivity. Antibody tests might help identify past SARS-CoV-2 infection if performed two to four weeks after symptom onset; however, because of uncertainty about the extent and durability of postinfection or vaccine-induced immunity, they should not yet be used to infer immunity or guide discontinuation of personal protective measures.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Asintomáticas , Portador Sano , /diagnóstico , /fisiopatología , /métodos , Portador Sano/transmisión , Portador Sano/virología , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Errores Diagnósticos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Humanos , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas
7.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e87, 2021 04 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818348

RESUMEN

Europe is in the midst of a COVID-19 epidemic and a number of non-pharmaceutical public health and social measures have been implemented, in order to contain the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. These measures are fundamental elements of the public health approach to controlling transmission but have proven not to be sufficiently effective. Therefore, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control has conducted an assessment of research gaps that can help inform policy decisions regarding the COVID-19 response. We have identified research gaps in the area of non-pharmaceutical measures, physical distancing, contact tracing, transmission, communication, mental health, seasonality and environment/climate, surveillance and behavioural aspects of COVID-19. This prioritisation exercise is a step towards the global efforts of developing a coherent research road map in coping with the current epidemic but also developing preparedness measures for the next unexpected epidemic.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , /transmisión , Investigación , Comunicación , Trazado de Contacto , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Humanos , Salud Mental
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(14): 514-518, 2021 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830985

RESUMEN

COVID-19 has disproportionately affected persons who identify as non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) (1). The Blackfeet Tribal Reservation, the northern Montana home of the sovereign Blackfeet Nation, with an estimated population of 10,629 (2), detected the first COVID-19 case in the community on June 16, 2020. Following CDC guidance,* and with free testing widely available, the Indian Health Service and Blackfeet Tribal Health Department began investigating all confirmed cases and their contacts on June 25. The relationship between three community mitigation resolutions passed and enforced by the Blackfeet Tribal Business Council and changes in the daily COVID-19 incidence and in the distributions of new cases was assessed. After the September 28 issuance of a strictly enforced stay-at-home order and adoption of a mask use resolution, COVID-19 incidence in the Blackfeet Tribal Reservation decreased by a factor of 33 from its peak of 6.40 cases per 1,000 residents per day on October 5 to 0.19 on November 7. Other mitigation measures the Blackfeet Tribal Reservation used included closing the east gate of Glacier National Park for the summer tourism season, instituting remote learning for public school students throughout the fall semester, and providing a Thanksgiving meal to every household to reduce trips to grocery stores. CDC has recommended use of routine public health interventions for infectious diseases, including case investigation with prompt isolation, contact tracing, and immediate quarantine after exposure to prevent and control transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (3). Stay-at-home orders, physical distancing, and mask wearing indoors, outdoors when physical distancing is not possible, or when in close contact with infected or exposed persons are also recommended as nonpharmaceutical community mitigation measures (3,4). Implementation and strict enforcement of stay-at-home orders and a mask use mandate likely helped reduce the spread of COVID-19 in the Blackfeet Tribal Reservation.


Asunto(s)
/etnología , Indios Norteamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Máscaras , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Cuarentena/legislación & jurisprudencia , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Trazado de Contacto , Femenino , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Montana/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 650243, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796500

RESUMEN

With the beginning of the autumn-winter season, Italy experienced an increase of SARS-CoV-2 cases, requiring the Government to adopt new restrictive measures. The national surveillance system in place defines 21 key process and performance indicators addressing for each Region/Autonomous Province: (i) the monitoring capacity, (ii) the degree of diagnostic capability, investigation and contact tracing, and (iii) the characteristics of the transmission dynamics as well as the resilience of health services. Overall, the traffic light approach shows a collective effort by the Italian Government to define strategies to both contain the spread of COVID-19 and to minimize the economic and social impact of the epidemic. Nonetheless, on what principles color-labeled risk levels are assigned on a regional level, it remains rather unclear or difficult to track.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , /transmisión , Trazado de Contacto , Gobierno , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Probabilidad , Medición de Riesgo
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 358, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863279

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Online respondent-driven detection (RDD) is a novel method of case finding that can enhance contact tracing (CT). However, the advantages and challenges of RDD for CT have not yet been investigated from the perspective of public health professionals (PHPs). Therefore, it remains unclear if, and under what circumstances, PHPs are willing to apply RDD for CT. METHODS: Between March and April 2019, we conducted semi-structured interviews with Dutch PHPs responsible for CT in practice. Questions were derived from the 'diffusion of innovations' theory. Between May and June 2019, we distributed an online questionnaire among 260 Dutch PHPs to quantify the main qualitative findings. Using different hypothetical scenarios, we assessed anticipated advantages and challenges of RDD, and PHPs' intention to apply RDD for CT. RESULTS: Twelve interviews were held, and 70 PHPs completed the online questionnaire. A majority of questionnaire respondents (71%) had a positive intention towards using RDD for CT. Anticipated advantages of RDD were 'accommodating easy and autonomous participation in CT of index cases and contact persons', and 'reaching contact persons more efficiently'. Anticipated challenges were 'limited opportunities for PHPs to support, motivate, and coordinate the execution of CT', 'not being able to adequately convey measures to index cases and contact persons', and 'anticipated unrest among index cases and contact persons'. Circumstances under which PHPs anticipated RDD applicable for CT included index cases and contact persons being reluctant to share information directly with PHPs, digitally skilled and literate persons being involved, and large scale CT. Circumstances under which PHPs anticipated RDD less applicable for CT included severe consequences of missing information or contact persons for individual or public health, involvement of complex or impactful measures for index cases and contact persons, and a disease being perceived as severe or sensitive by index cases and their contact persons. CONCLUSIONS: PHPs generally perceived RDD as a potentially beneficial method for public health practice, that may help overcome challenges present in traditional CT, and could be used during outbreaks of infectious diseases that spread via close contact. The circumstances under which CT is performed, appear to strongly influence PHPs' intention to use RDD for CT.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Enfermedades Transmisibles/patología , Trazado de Contacto , Práctica de Salud Pública , Adulto , Enfermedades Transmisibles/transmisión , Femenino , Personal de Salud/psicología , Humanos , Internet , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 393, 2021 Apr 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910507

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: International air travel plays an important role in the global spread of SARS-CoV-2, and tracing of close contacts is an integral part of the public health response to COVID-19. We aimed to assess the timeliness of contact tracing among airline passengers arriving in Vietnam on flights containing COVID-19 cases and investigated factors associated with timeliness of contact tracing. METHODS: We included data from 2228 passengers on 22 incoming flights between 2 and 19 March 2020. Contact tracing duration was assessed separately for the time between the date of index case confirmation and date of contact tracing initiation (interval I), and the date of contact tracing initiation and completion (interval II). We used log-rank tests and multivariable Poisson regression models to identify factors associated with timeliness. RESULTS: The median duration of interval I and interval II was one (IQR: 1-2) and 3 days (IQR: 2-5), respectively. The contact tracing duration was shorter for passengers from flights where the index case was identified through mandatory testing directly upon arrival (median = 4; IQR: 3-5) compared to flights with index case detection through self-presentation at health facilities after arrival (median = 7; IQR: 5-8) (p-value = 0.018). Cumulative hazards for successful tracing were higher for Vietnamese nationals compared to non-Vietnamese nationals (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Contact tracing among flight passengers in the early stage of the COVID-19 epidemic in Vietnam was timely though delays occurred on high workload days. Mandatory SARS-CoV-2 testing at arrival may reduce contact tracing duration and should be considered as an integrated screening tool for flight passengers from high-risk areas when entering low-transmission settings with limited contact tracing capacity. We recommend a standardized risk-based contact tracing approach for flight passengers during the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic.


Asunto(s)
Viaje en Avión/estadística & datos numéricos , /transmisión , Trazado de Contacto , /aislamiento & purificación , /epidemiología , Humanos , Factores de Tiempo , Vietnam/epidemiología
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(17): 627-631, 2021 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914724

RESUMEN

In late January 2021, a clinical laboratory notified the Maryland Department of Health (MDH) that the SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern B.1.351 had been identified in a specimen collected from a Maryland resident with COVID-19 (1). The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351 lineage was first identified in South Africa (2) and might be neutralized less effectively by antibodies produced after vaccination or natural infection with other strains (3-6). To limit SARS-CoV-2 chains of transmission associated with this index patient, MDH used contact tracing to identify the source of infection and any linked infections among other persons. The investigation identified two linked clusters of SARS-CoV-2 infection that included 17 patients. Three additional specimens from these clusters were sequenced; all three had the B.1.351 variant and all sequences were closely related to the sequence from the index patient's specimen. Among the 17 patients identified, none reported recent international travel or contact with international travelers. Two patients, including the index patient, had received the first of a 2-dose COVID-19 vaccination series in the 2 weeks before their likely exposure; one additional patient had a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection 5 months before exposure. Two patients were hospitalized with COVID-19, and one died. These first identified linked clusters of B.1.351 infections in the United States with no apparent link to international travel highlight the importance of expanding the scope and volume of genetic surveillance programs to identify variants, completing contact investigations for SARS-CoV-2 infections, and using universal prevention strategies, including vaccination, masking, and physical distancing, to control the spread of variants of concern.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , /aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Anciano , /transmisión , Análisis por Conglomerados , Trazado de Contacto , Humanos , Maryland/epidemiología , Filogenia , Viaje
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(8)2021 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917083

RESUMEN

In the last few years, all countries worldwide have fought the spread of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) by exploiting Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to perform contact tracing. In parallel, the pandemic has highlighted the relevance of mobility and social distancing among citizens. The monitoring of such aspects appeared prominent for reactive decision-making and the effective tracking of the infection chain. In parallel to the proximity sensing among people, indeed, the concept of social distancing has captured the attention to signal processing algorithms enabling short-to-medium range distance estimation to provide behavioral models in the emergency. By exploiting the availability of smart devices, the synergy between mobile network connectivity and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), cooperative ranging approaches allow computing inter-personal distance measurements in outdoor environments through the exchange of light-weight navigation data among interconnected users. In this paper, a model for Inter-Agent Ranging (IAR) is provided and experimentally assessed to offer a naive collaborative distancing technique that leverages these features. Although the technique provides distance information, it does not imply the disclosure of the user's locations being intrinsically prone to protect sensitive user data. A statistical error model is presented and validated through synthetic simulations and real, on-field experiments to support implementation in GNSS-equipped mobile devices. Accuracy and precision of IAR measurements are compared to other consolidated GNSS-based techniques showing comparable performance at lower complexity and computational effort.


Asunto(s)
Trazado de Contacto , Humanos , Pandemias , Procesamiento de Señales Asistido por Computador
16.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249394, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852588

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The reporting of Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) mortality among healthcare workers highlights their vulnerability in managing the COVID-19 pandemic. Some low- and middle-income countries have highlighted the challenges with COVID-19 testing, such as inadequate capacity, untrained laboratory personnel, and inadequate funding. This article describes the components and implementation of a healthcare worker surveillance programme in a designated COVID-19 teaching hospital in Malaysia. In addition, the distribution and characteristics of healthcare workers placed under surveillance are described. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A COVID-19 healthcare worker surveillance programme was implemented in University Malaya Medical Centre. The programme involved four teams: contact tracing, risk assessment, surveillance and outbreak investigation. Daily symptom surveillance was conducted over fourteen days for healthcare workers who were assessed to have low-, moderate- and high-risk of contracting COVID-19. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted for data collected over 24 weeks, from the 6th of March 2020 to the 20th of August 2020. RESULTS: A total of 1,174 healthcare workers were placed under surveillance. The majority were females (71.6%), aged between 25 and 34 years old (64.7%), were nursing staff (46.9%) and had no comorbidities (88.8%). A total of 70.9% were categorised as low-risk, 25.7% were moderate-risk, and 3.4% were at high risk of contracting COVID-19. One-third (35.2%) were symptomatic, with the sore throat (23.6%), cough (19.8%) and fever (5.0%) being the most commonly reported symptoms. A total of 17 healthcare workers tested positive for COVID-19, with a prevalence of 0.3% among all the healthcare workers. Risk category and presence of symptoms were associated with a positive COVID-19 test (p<0.001). Fever (p<0.001), cough (p = 0.003), shortness of breath (p = 0.015) and sore throat (p = 0.002) were associated with case positivity. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 symptom surveillance and risk-based assessment have merits to be included in a healthcare worker surveillance programme to safeguard the health of the workforce.


Asunto(s)
/métodos , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Adulto , /tendencias , Comorbilidad , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Estudios Transversales , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Femenino , Personal de Salud , Hospitales de Enseñanza , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Pandemias , /aislamiento & purificación
17.
Arch Iran Med ; 24(3): 260-272, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878884

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, the world has been facing one of the most critical health threats of the last decades. In March 2021, the official number of deaths passed 2.6 million worldwide. Most countries have developed policies to control the disease. Nevertheless, countries have experienced different outcomes related to their various adapted policies. Complementing our first report, in this article, we report our findings of comparing the policies adopted to combat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Iran, with those from nine selected countries, including China, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Germany, the United States, the United Kingdom, Spain, and Italy, to draw evidence-informed policy lessons. METHODS: This is a qualitative study conducted based on document analysis related to COVID-19 policies in Iran and nine selected countries. Using a deductive approach, data were extracted and analyzed based on the components of the WHO Building Blocks Framework. Finally, we compared the Iranian policies with the nine selected countries. RESULTS: Documents analysis revealed a spectrum of policies, which have led to a variety of outcomes. Based on our findings, three main strategies (widespread testing, comprehensive contact tracing, and timely measures) were the most effective directions to combat COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The experience of the first and second waves of COVID-19 showed that the risk of coronavirus is serious and will continue until a vaccine or decisive treatment is achieved. Therefore, countries are required to adopt appropriate and tailored policies to deal with this crisis effectively. Applying the experiences from the previous waves is essential for more efficient performance in the likely upcoming waves.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Política de Salud , Asia/epidemiología , /epidemiología , Trazado de Contacto , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Investigación Cualitativa , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 765, 2021 04 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882896

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Public support of public health measures including physical distancing, masking, staying home while sick, avoiding crowded indoor spaces and contact tracing/exposure notification applications remains critical for reducing spread of COVID-19. The aim of our work was to understand current behaviours and attitudes towards public health measures as well as barriers individuals face in following public health measures. We also sought to identify attitudes persons have regarding a COVID-19 vaccine and reasons why they may not accept a vaccine. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in August 2020, in Alberta, Canada in persons 18 years and older. This survey evaluated current behaviours, barriers and attitudes towards public health measures and a COVID-19 vaccine. Cluster analysis was used to identify key patterns that summarize data variations among observations. RESULTS: Of the 60 total respondents, the majority of persons were always or often physically distancing (73%), masking (65%) and staying home while sick (67%). Bars/pubs/lounges or nightclubs were visited rarely or never by 63% of respondents. Persons identified staying home while sick to provide the highest benefit (83%) in reducing spread of COVID-19. There were a large proportion of persons who had not downloaded or used a contact tracing/exposure notification app (77%) and who would not receive a COVID-19 vaccine when available (20%) or were unsure (12%). Reporting health authorities as most trusted sources of health information was associated with greater percentage of potential uptake of vaccine but not related to contact tracing app download and use. Individuals with lower concern of getting and spreading COVID-19 showed the least uptake of public health measures except for avoiding public places such as bars. Lower concern regarding COVID-19 was also associated with more negative responses to taking a potential COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSION: These results suggest informational frames and themes focusing on individual risks, highlighting concern for COVID-19 and targeting improving trust for health authorities may be most effective in increasing public health measures. With the ultimate goal of preventing spread of COVID-19, understanding persons' attitudes towards both public health measures and a COVID-19 vaccine remains critical to addressing barriers and implementing targeted interventions and messaging to improve uptake.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Alberta , Comunicación , Trazado de Contacto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vacunación/psicología , Adulto Joven
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8605, 2021 04 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883590

RESUMEN

The WHO has described coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a pandemic due to the speed and scale of its transmission. Without effective interventions, the rapidly increasing number of COVID-19 cases would greatly increase the burden of clinical treatments. Identifying the transmission sources and pathways is of vital importance to block transmission and allocate limited public health resources. According to the relationships among cases, we constructed disease transmission network graphs for the COVID-19 epidemic through a visualization technique based on individual reports of epidemiological data. We proposed an analysis strategy of the transmission network with the epidemiological data in Tianjin and Chengdu. The transmission networks showed different transmission characteristics. In Tianjin, an imported case of COVID-19 can produce an average of 2.9 secondary infections and ultimately produce as many as 4 generations of infections, with a maximum of 6 cases being generated before the imported case is identified. In Chengdu, 45 noninformative cases and 24 cases with vague exposure information made accurate information about the transmission network difficult to provide. The proposed analysis framework of visualized transmission networks can trace the transmission source and contacts, assess the current situation of transmission and prevention, and provide evidence for the global response and control of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/transmisión , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8581, 2021 04 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883601

RESUMEN

This study estimates the COVID-19 infection network from actual data and draws on implications for policy and research. Using contact tracing information of 3283 confirmed patients in Seoul metropolitan areas from January 20, 2020 to July 19, 2020, this study created an infection network and analyzed its structural characteristics. The main results are as follows: (i) out-degrees follow an extremely positively skewed distribution; (ii) removing the top nodes on the out-degree significantly decreases the size of the infection network, and (iii) the indicators that express the infectious power of the network change according to governmental measures. Efforts to collect network data and analyze network structures are urgently required for the efficiency of governmental responses to COVID-19. Implications for better use of a metric such as R0 to estimate infection spread are also discussed.


Asunto(s)
/transmisión , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Política de Salud , Humanos , República de Corea , /aislamiento & purificación
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