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1.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(7): e1008031, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614817

RESUMEN

The 2019-2020 pandemic of atypical pneumonia (COVID-19) caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2 has spread globally and has the potential to infect large numbers of people in every country. Estimating the country-specific basic reproductive ratio is a vital first step in public-health planning. The basic reproductive ratio (R0) is determined by both the nature of pathogen and the network of human contacts through which the disease can spread, which is itself dependent on population age structure and household composition. Here we introduce a transmission model combining age-stratified contact frequencies with age-dependent susceptibility, probability of clinical symptoms, and transmission from asymptomatic (or mild) cases, which we use to estimate the country-specific basic reproductive ratio of COVID-19 for 152 countries. Using early outbreak data from China and a synthetic contact matrix, we estimate an age-stratified transmission structure which can then be extrapolated to 151 other countries for which synthetic contact matrices also exist. This defines a set of country-specific transmission structures from which we can calculate the basic reproductive ratio for each country. Our predicted R0 is critically sensitive to the intensity of transmission from asymptomatic cases; with low asymptomatic transmission the highest values are predicted across Eastern Europe and Japan and the lowest across Africa, Central America and South-Western Asia. This pattern is largely driven by the ratio of children to older adults in each country and the observed propensity of clinical cases in the elderly. If asymptomatic cases have comparable transmission to detected cases, the pattern is reversed. Our results demonstrate the importance of age-specific heterogeneities going beyond contact structure to the spread of COVID-19. These heterogeneities give COVID-19 the capacity to spread particularly quickly in countries with older populations, and that intensive control measures are likely to be necessary to impede its progress in these countries.


Asunto(s)
Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Predicción/métodos , Modelos Estadísticos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Factores de Edad , Infecciones Asintomáticas/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Betacoronavirus/fisiología , China/epidemiología , Biología Computacional/métodos , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Replicación Viral/fisiología
3.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 21(7): 933-936, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674822

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the American Testing Guidance for Nursing Homes (NHs)-updated May 19, 2020-with a new COVID-19 case. DESIGN: Case investigation. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: All 79 residents and 34 health care personnel (HCP) of an NH. METHODS: Seven days after identification of a COVID-19 resident, all residents and HCP underwent real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) testing for SARS-CoV-2 with nasopharyngeal swabs. This was repeated weekly in all previously negative subjects until the testing identified no new cases, and in all positive subjects until the testing was negative. COVID-19 infection prevention and control (IPC) measures were implemented in all residents and HCP with positive testing or with COVID-19 symptoms. Standard IPC was also implemented in all HCP. Six weeks after initial testing, all residents underwent testing for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based IgG antibodies directed against the SARS-CoV-2. Symptoms were serially recorded in residents and HCP. RESULTS: A total of 36 residents had a positive rRT-PCR at baseline and 2 at day 7. Six HCP had a positive rRT-PCR at baseline and 2 at day 7. No new COVID-19 cases were diagnosed later. Among the SARS-CoV-2-positive cases, 6 residents (16%) and 3 HCP (37%) were asymptomatic during the 14 days before testing. Twenty-five residents (92.3%) and all 8 HCP (100%) with a positive rRT-PCR developed IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Among the residents and HCP always having tested negative, 2 (5%) and 5 (11.5%), respectively, developed IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. These 2 residents had typical COVID-19 symptoms before and after testing and 2/5 HCP were asymptomatic before and after testing. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: This study shows the validity of the updated American Testing Guidance for Nursing Homes (NHs). It suggests implementing COVID-19 IPC in both residents and HCP with positive testing or COVID-19 symptoms and warns that asymptomatic HCP with repeated negative rRT-PCR testing can develop antibodies against SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/métodos , Trazado de Contacto/estadística & datos numéricos , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Casas de Salud/organización & administración , Anticuerpos Antivirales/análisis , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/estadística & datos numéricos , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , ADN Viral/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Pandemias , Seguridad del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Instituciones de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermería/organización & administración , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
4.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 93, 2020 Jul 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660568

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has sparked attention in many countries, especially those that have experienced a steep spike in the number of identified cases. The continued spread of the coronavirus suggests that this situation may be here to stay for a while. Contact tracing is a time-consuming and resource-intensive process, which taps on the already lean healthcare resource in certain countries. Furthermore, the massive infodemic on COVID-19 on the Internet has also resulted in widespread circulation of misinformation online. This outbreak has evoked irrational fear and anxiety from the public, which has resulted in destabilizing of societal norms, such as panic buying and hoarding of daily necessities, and can potentially pose serious health risks to the public. The aim of this paper is to present a COVID-19 Symptom Monitoring and Contact Tracking Record (CoV-SCR) web-app as a bottom-up, proactive approach to supplement the current management strategies for COVID-19. MAIN TEXT: The CoV-SCR web-app ( http://bit.ly/covscrapp ) enables individuals to keep a personal record of their close contacts and monitor their symptoms on a daily basis, so that they can provide relevant and accurate details when they see the doctor and during the contact tracing process. Individuals can record their temperature and rate their symptoms on a 5-point severity scale, as well as record details of their travel and contact history for the last 14 days. The recorded information will be sent to their e-mail address for potential symptom monitoring and contact tracing purposes. In addition, this web-app consolidates evidence-based information on the coronavirus from credible sources, such as the World Health Organization, countries' health authorities, and PubMed literature. CONCLUSIONS: A COVID-19 Symptom Monitoring and Contact Tracking web-app has been developed to facilitate contact tracing efforts through public engagement. This app serves an additional purpose of providing information about COVID-19 from reliable resources.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Registros de Salud Personal , Aplicaciones Móviles , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Trazado de Contacto/instrumentación , Humanos , Pandemias
6.
Indian J Public Health ; 64(Supplement): S156-S167, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496248

RESUMEN

Background: In the absence of any approved treatment or vaccine against novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus -2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs) are the cornerstone to prevent the disease, especially in a populous country like India. Objectives: To understand the effectiveness of NPIs reported in the contemporary literatures describing prediction models for prevention of the ongoing pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 specifically in Indian population. Methods: Original research articles in English obtained through keyword search in PubMed, WHO Global Database for COVID19, and pre-print servers were included in the review. Thematic synthesis of extracted data from articles were done. Results: Twenty-four articles were found eligible for the review - four published articles and twenty pre-print articles. Compartmental model was found to be the most commonly used mathematical model; along with exponential, time varying, neural network and cluster kinetic models. Social distancing, specifically lockdown, was the most commonly modelled intervention strategy. Additionally, contact tracing using smartphone application, international travel restriction, increasing hospital/ICU beds, changes in testing strategy were also dealt with. Social distancing along with increasing testing seemed to be effective in delaying the peak of the epidemic and reducing the peak prevalence. Conclusion: Although there is mathematical rationality behind implementation of social distancing measures including lockdown, this study also emphasised the importance of other associated measures like increasing tests and increasing the number of hospital and ICU beds. The later components are particularly important during the social mixing period to be observed after lifting of lockdown.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Simulación por Computador , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Planificación en Desastres/organización & administración , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Modelos Teóricos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Cuarentena/métodos , Viaje
7.
Indian J Public Health ; 64(Supplement): S240-S242, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496265

RESUMEN

The response to the first health worker case in India and novel strategies adopted in the context of evolving pandemic of COVID-19 is presented here. On the same day of confirmation, institutional COVID cell was established, and contact tracing was started. A total of 184 contacts were identified and quarantined. Hospital services were scaled down, and responsibilities were reassigned. In-house digital platforms were used for daily meetings, contact tracing, line listing, risk stratification, and research. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction-based severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV2 testing facility was established in the institute. All high-risk contacts were given hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis. No secondary cases were found. Hospital preparedness, participatory decision-making through institutional COVID cell, optimal use of in-house digital platforms, and coordination with the state health department and national bodies, including Indian Council of Medical Research, were the supporting factors. Rapidly evolving guidelines, trepidation about the disease, logistic delays, and lack of support systems for people under quarantine were the challenges in the containment exercise.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Administración Hospitalaria , Control de Infecciones/organización & administración , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Humanos , Cuarentena/métodos
8.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 1): 2487-2492, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520293

RESUMEN

Data has become increasingly important and valuable for both scientists and health authorities searching for answers to the COVID-19 crisis. Due to difficulties in diagnosing this infection in populations around the world, initiatives supported by digital technologies are being developed by governments and private companies to enable the tracking of the public's symptoms, contacts and movements. Considering the current scenario, initiatives designed to support infection surveillance and monitoring are essential and necessary. Nonetheless, ethical, legal and technical questions abound regarding the amount and types of personal data being collected, processed, shared and used in the name of public health, as well as the concomitant or posterior use of this data. These challenges demonstrate the need for new models of responsible and transparent data and technology governance in efforts to control SARS-COV2, as well as in future public health emergencies.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Salud Global , Registros de Salud Personal , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Privacidad , Confidencialidad , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Anonimización de la Información , Humanos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales
9.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 Jun 23.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572019

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In times of pandemic, case management and tracking people with contact can be differential elements for controlling the spread. The objective of this review was to evaluate the digital tools used to track contacts of people infected with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: A systematic exploratory review was conducted in the electronic databases Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science on May 29, 2020 through the descriptors: coronavirus, digital surveillance and contact tracing. A total of 11 studies were finally selected. RESULTS: The results showed that some countries are implementing digital tools for contact tracking through mobile apps that allow user data to be shared via the device's GPS and/or Bluetooth. The terms on the privacy and confidentiality of the population data are, in some cases, questionable. CONCLUSIONS: The use of digital surveillance tools to track contacts of people infected with an infectious disease, such as SARS-CoV-2, can be key to reducing the number of people infected and reducing the spread of the virus.


Asunto(s)
Trazado de Contacto/instrumentación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Betacoronavirus , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Aplicaciones Móviles , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , España
11.
Indian J Med Res ; 151(5): 468-473, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474557

RESUMEN

Background & objectives: The potential benefits of mobile health (mHealth) initiatives to manage the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have been explored. The Government of India, State governments, and healthcare organizations have developed various mobile apps for the containment of COVID-19. This study was aimed to systematically review COVID-19 related mobile apps and highlight gaps to inform the development of future mHealth initiatives. Methods: Google Play and the Apple app stores were searched using the terms 'COVID-19', 'coronavirus', 'pandemic', and 'epidemic' in the first week of April 2020. A list of COVID-19-specific functions was compiled based on the review of the selected apps, the literature on epidemic surveillance, and national and international media reports. The World Health Organization guideline on Digital Health Interventions was used to classify the app functions under the categories of the general public, health workers, health system managers, and data services. Results: The search yielded 346 potential COVID-19 apps, of which 50 met the inclusion criteria. Dissemination of untargeted COVID-19-related information on preventative strategies and monitoring the movements of quarantined individuals was the function of 27 (54%) and 19 (32%) apps, respectively. Eight (16%) apps had a contact tracing and hotspot identification function. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study highlights the current emphasis on the development of self-testing, quarantine monitoring, and contact tracing apps. India's response to COVID-19 can be strengthened by developing comprehensive mHealth solutions for frontline healthcare workers, rapid response teams and public health authorities. Among this unprecedented global health emergency, the Governments must ensure the necessary but least intrusive measures for disease surveillance.


Asunto(s)
Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Autoevaluación Diagnóstica , Aplicaciones Móviles , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Humanos , India , Difusión de la Información/métodos , Movimiento , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Cuarentena
12.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(7): e19902, 2020 07 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568728

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As a counter-cluster measure to prevent the spread of the infectious novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), an efficient system for health observation outside the hospital is urgently required. Personal health records (PHRs) are suitable for the daily management of physical conditions. Importantly, there are no major differences between the items collected by daily health observation via PHR and the observation of items related to COVID-19. Until now, observations related to COVID-19 have been performed exclusively based on disease-specific items. Therefore, we hypothesize that PHRs would be suitable as a symptom-tracking tool for COVID-19. To this end, we integrated health observation items specific to COVID-19 with an existing PHR-based app. OBJECTIVE: This study is conducted as a proof-of-concept study in a real-world setting to develop a PHR-based COVID-19 symptom-tracking app and to demonstrate the practical use of health observations for COVID-19 using a smartphone or tablet app integrated with PHRs. METHODS: We applied the PHR-based health observation app within an active epidemiological investigation conducted by Wakayama City Public Health Center. At the public health center, a list is made of individuals who have been in close contact with known infected cases (health observers). Email addresses are used by the app when a health observer sends data to the public health center. Each health observer downloads the app and installs it on their smartphone. Self-observed health data are entered daily into the app. These data are then sent via the app by email at a designated time. Localized epidemiological officers can visualize the collected data using a spreadsheet macro and, thus, monitor the health condition of all health observers. RESULTS: We used the app as part of an active epidemiological investigation executed at a public health center. During the investigation, 72 close contacts were discovered. Among them, 57 had adopted the use of the health observation app. Before the introduction of the app, all health observers would have been interviewed by telephone, a slow process that took four epidemiological officers more than 2 hours. After the introduction of the app, a single epidemiological officer can carry out health observations. The app was distributed for free beginning in early March, and by mid-May, it had been used by more than 20,280 users and 400 facilities and organizations across Japan. Currently, health observation of COVID-19 is socially recognized and has become one of the requirements for resuming social activities. CONCLUSIONS: Health observation by PHRs for the purpose of improving health management can also be effectively applied as a measure against large-scale infectious diseases. Individual habits of improving awareness of personal health and the use of PHRs for daily health management are powerful armaments against the rapid spread of infectious diseases. Ultimately, similar actions may help to prevent the spread of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Registros de Salud Personal , Aplicaciones Móviles , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Estudios de Factibilidad , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 14642-14644, 2020 06 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522870

RESUMEN

To prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), some types of public spaces have been shut down while others remain open. These decisions constitute a judgment about the relative danger and benefits of those locations. Using mobility data from a large sample of smartphones, nationally representative consumer preference surveys, and economic statistics, we measure the relative transmission reduction benefit and social cost of closing 26 categories of US locations. Our categories include types of shops, entertainments, and service providers. We rank categories by their trade-off of social benefits and transmission risk via dominance across 13 dimensions of risk and importance and through composite indexes. We find that, from February to March 2020, there were larger declines in visits to locations that our measures indicate should be closed first.


Asunto(s)
Conducta , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Exposición por Inhalación/prevención & control , Modelos Estadísticos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Prevención Primaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos , Espacios Confinados , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Trazado de Contacto/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Exposición por Inhalación/estadística & datos numéricos , Museos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Prevención Primaria/economía , Prevención Primaria/métodos , Cuarentena/economía , Cuarentena/métodos , Medición de Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas , Teléfono Inteligente/estadística & datos numéricos , Instalaciones Deportivas y Recreativas , Estados Unidos
16.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 50(3): 43-46, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596893

RESUMEN

Digital contact tracing, in combination with widespread testing, has been a focal point for many plans to "reopen" economies while containing the spread of Covid-19. Most digital contact tracing projects in the United States and Europe have prioritized privacy protections in the form of local storage of data on smartphones and the deidentification of information. However, in the prioritization of privacy in this narrow form, there is not sufficient attention given to weighing ethical trade-offs within the context of a public health pandemic or to the need to evaluate safety and effectiveness of software-based technology applied to public health.


Asunto(s)
Trazado de Contacto/ética , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Privacidad , Teléfono Inteligente/ética , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Aplicaciones Móviles , Pandemias , Salud Pública , Medición de Riesgo
17.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(6): e20369, 2020 06 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501802

RESUMEN

We discuss the concept of a participatory digital contact notification approach to assist tracing of contacts who are exposed to confirmed cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19); the approach is simple and affordable for countries with limited access to health care resources and advanced technology. The proposed tool serves as a supplemental contract tracing approach to counteract the shortage of health care staff while providing privacy protection for both cases and contacts. This tool can be deployed on the internet or as a plugin for a smartphone app. Confirmed cases with COVID-19 can use this tool to provide contact information (either email addresses or mobile phone numbers) of close contacts. The system will then automatically send a message to the contacts informing them of their contact status, what this status means, the actions that should follow (eg, self-quarantine, respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette), and advice for receiving early care if they develop symptoms. The name of the sender of the notification message by email or mobile phone can be anonymous or not. The message received by the contact contains no disease information but contains a security code for the contact to log on the platform to retrieve the information.


Asunto(s)
Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Notificación de Enfermedades , Humanos , Aplicaciones Móviles , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Privacidad
18.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(6): e19457, 2020 06 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499212

RESUMEN

The current pandemic of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has highlighted the importance of rapid control of the transmission of infectious diseases. This is particularly important for COVID-19, where many individuals are asymptomatic or have only mild symptoms but can still spread the disease. Current systems for controlling transmission rely on patients to report their symptoms to medical professionals and be able to recall and trace all their contacts from the previous few days. This is unrealistic in the modern world. However, existing smartphone-based GPS and social media technology may provide a suitable alternative. We, therefore, developed a mini-program within the app WeChat. This analyzes data from all users and traces close contacts of all patients. This permits early tracing and quarantine of potential sources of infection. Data from the mini-program can also be merged with other data to predict epidemic trends, calculate individual and population risks, and provide recommendations for individual and population protection action. It may also improve our understanding of how the disease spreads. However, there are a number of unresolved questions about the use of smartphone data for health surveillance, including how to protect individual privacy and provide safeguards against data breaches.


Asunto(s)
Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vigilancia en Salud Pública/métodos , Inteligencia Artificial , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Aplicaciones Móviles , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Privacidad , Cuarentena , Teléfono Inteligente , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Análisis Espacio-Temporal
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(5): e19540, 2020 05 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353827

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Low infection and case-fatality rates have been thus far observed in Taiwan. One of the reasons for this major success is better use of big data analytics in efficient contact tracing and management and surveillance of those who require quarantine and isolation. OBJECTIVE: We present here a unique application of big data analytics among Taiwanese people who had contact with more than 3000 passengers that disembarked at Keelung harbor in Taiwan for a 1-day tour on January 31, 2020, 5 days before the outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on the Diamond Princess cruise ship on February 5, 2020, after an index case was identified on January 20, 2020. METHODS: The smart contact tracing-based mobile sensor data, cross-validated by other big sensor surveillance data, were analyzed by the mobile geopositioning method and rapid analysis to identify 627,386 potential contact-persons. Information on self-monitoring and self-quarantine was provided via SMS, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) tests were offered for symptomatic contacts. National Health Insurance claims big data were linked, to follow-up on the outcome related to COVID-19 among those who were hospitalized due to pneumonia and advised to undergo screening for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: As of February 29, a total of 67 contacts who were tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were all negative and no confirmed COVID-19 cases were found. Less cases of respiratory syndrome and pneumonia were found after the follow-up of the contact population compared with the general population until March 10, 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Big data analytics with smart contact tracing, automated alert messaging for self-restriction, and follow-up of the outcome related to COVID-19 using health insurance data could curtail the resources required for conventional epidemiological contact tracing.


Asunto(s)
Macrodatos , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vigilancia en Salud Pública/métodos , Cuarentena/métodos , Navíos , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Estudios Retrospectivos , Taiwán/epidemiología
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