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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(8)2024 Apr 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673998

RESUMEN

As one of the largest and most diverse classes of specialized metabolites in plants, terpenoids (oprenoid compounds, a type of bio-based material) are widely used in the fields of medicine and light chemical products. They are the most important secondary metabolites in coniferous species and play an important role in the defense system of conifers. Terpene synthesis can be promoted by regulating the expressions of terpene synthase genes, and the terpene biosynthesis pathway has basically been clarified in Pinus massoniana, in which there are multiple rate-limiting enzymes and the rate-limiting steps are difficult to determine, so the terpene synthase gene regulation mechanism has become a hot spot in research. Herein, we amplified a PmDXR gene (GenBank accession no. MK969119.1) of the MEP pathway (methyl-erythritol 4-phosphate) from Pinus massoniana. The DXR enzyme activity and chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid contents of overexpressed Arabidopsis showed positive regulation. The PmDXR gene promoter was a tissue-specific promoter and can respond to ABA, MeJA and GA stresses to drive the expression of the GUS reporter gene in N. benthamiana. The DXR enzyme was identified as a key rate-limiting enzyme in the MEP pathway and an effective target for terpene synthesis regulation in coniferous species, which can further lay the theoretical foundation for the molecularly assisted selection of high-yielding lipid germplasm of P. massoniana, as well as provide help in the pathogenesis of pine wood nematode disease.


Asunto(s)
Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Pinus , Proteínas de Plantas , Trementina , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Transferasas Alquil y Aril/genética , Transferasas Alquil y Aril/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Vías Biosintéticas , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila/biosíntesis , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Pinus/genética , Pinus/metabolismo , Pinus/parasitología , Pinus/enzimología , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente , Regiones Promotoras Genéticas , Terpenos/metabolismo , Trementina/química , Trementina/metabolismo
2.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 66(4): 775-779, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38084531

RESUMEN

Background: Microscopic examination of cells and tissues requires the preparation of very thin and good-quality sections mounted on glass slides and appropriately stained to demonstrate normal and abnormal structures. Before this step, the tissue must undergo preparatory treatment known as tissue processing. The various stages of tissue processing are dehydration, clearing, impregnation, and embedding, each with a particular duration for proper completion of the process. Xylene is the most frequently used clearing agent whose carcinogenic potential is well documented. Hence, attempts were made to substitute xylene with a biosafe clearing agent. The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the efficacy of hematoxylin and eosin stain (H and E stain) when xylene is completely replaced by turpentine or kerosene oil. Materials and Methods: A total number of 50 tissue samples were taken in the study, which included 40 study samples and 10 controls. All the samples were randomly separated into three groups and routine tissue processing and H and E staining were performed. The result was further subjected to statistical analysis by using Fisher's exact test. Group-1: Ten tissue samples were processed and H and E staining was done in xylene. Group-2: Twenty tissue samples were processed and H and E staining was done in turpentine oil. Group-3: Twenty tissue samples were processed and H and E staining was done in kerosene oil. Results: Nuclear staining, cell morphology, and uniformity of staining were better in kerosene sections, while cytoplasmic and clarity of staining of turpentine sections were comparable with xylene sections. Conclusion: Turpentine and kerosene as clearing agents can be used in the future with certain modifications in their concentration and routine staining protocol.


Asunto(s)
Trementina , Xilenos , Humanos , Eosina Amarillenta-(YS) , Hematoxilina , Queroseno , Coloración y Etiquetado , Xilenos/química
3.
Skin Pharmacol Physiol ; 36(5): 259-266, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38104550

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Folliculitis is a painful infection and inflammation of the hair follicles, mostly caused by bacterial, fungal, or, more rarely, viral infections. Turpentine derivatives have been used traditionally to treat various skin infections and could thus also be effective in treating folliculitis. We carried out an open, prospective, randomized, placebo- and comparator-controlled multicenter trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of an ointment containing pine turpentine oil, larch turpentine, and eucalyptus oil in the treatment of acute folliculitis. METHODS: Seventy outpatients with acute folliculitis were treated with the turpentine ointment, a comparator (povidone iodine solution), or a placebo (Vaseline) for 7 days. Photographs of the affected skin areas were taken by the physicians at four visits and by the patients on a daily basis. Photographs were evaluated by blinded observers. Primary efficacy endpoint was the change in total hair follicle lesion counts. Secondary endpoints included the evolution of the lesion counts in the course of the study, responder rate (improvement of follicle lesions by at least one count), and the patient's global assessment. Safety endpoints were the tolerability of the treatments and adverse event recording. RESULTS: A decrease of follicle lesions counts was detected for both active treatments but not for placebo, but the differences among groups were not statistically significant. As for the secondary endpoints, the ointment showed statistically significant superiority over placebo for the evolution of the lesions during the course of the study (p = 0.017), the responder rate (p = 0.032), and the subjective efficacy assessment by patients (p = 0.029). All treatments were equally well tolerated, with a similar number of treatment-emergent adverse events. CONCLUSION: The turpentine ointment is an effective and safe option for the treatment of folliculitis.


Asunto(s)
Foliculitis , Trementina , Humanos , Pomadas , Estudios Prospectivos , Foliculitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Piel , Resultado del Tratamiento , Método Doble Ciego
4.
Metallomics ; 15(10)2023 10 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37738439

RESUMEN

Anemia of inflammation (or inflammation-associated anemia) decreases the quality of life in billions of patients suffering from various inflammatory diseases, such as infection, autoimmune diseases, and cancer, associated with a prolonged state of immune activation. While proper utilization of iron, a nutrient metal essential for erythropoiesis, is important for the prevention of anemia, the alteration of body iron homeostasis upon inflammation, which can contribute to the development of anemia, is not completely understood. Thus, we sought to examine temporal and spatial changes in the distribution of iron and iron-associated molecules during inflammation in mice. To induce inflammation, C57BL/6J mice were injected with turpentine oil weekly for 3 weeks, which resulted in anemia, decreased protein expression of ferroportin, a cellular iron exporter, in the spleen, duodenum, and liver, and increased iron stores in the duodenum and spleen. Tracer kinetic studies after oral administration of 59Fe revealed that more iron was found in the spleen and less in the femur bone in turpentine oil-injected mice compared to the saline-injected mice, indicating tissue-specific abnormalities in iron distribution during inflammation. However, there was no difference in the utilization of iron for red blood cell production after turpentine oil injection; instead, serum hemopexin level and lactate dehydrogenase activity were increased, suggesting increased red blood cell destruction upon inflammation. Our findings provide an improved understanding of temporal and spatial changes in the distribution and utilization of iron during inflammation.


Asunto(s)
Anemia , Hierro , Humanos , Ratones , Animales , Hierro/metabolismo , Bazo/metabolismo , Trementina/farmacología , Cinética , Calidad de Vida , Hepcidinas/metabolismo , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Anemia/complicaciones , Inflamación/metabolismo
5.
Cannabis Cannabinoid Res ; 8(S1): S11-S24, 2023 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37721993

RESUMEN

Background: Cannabis and its primary psychoactive constituent delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (D9-THC) produce biphasic, dose-dependent effects on anxiety. In addition to D9-THC, cannabis contains other "minor" cannabinoids and terpenes with purported therapeutic potential for the treatment of anxiety. Empirical data on potential therapeutic effects of these compounds is limited. The current study evaluated the effects of selected minor cannabinoids and terpenes in a battery of tests sensitive to anxiolytic and anxiogenic drugs. Methods: In Experiment 1, adult male Sprague Dawley rats (N=7-8/group) were administered acute oral doses of one of five minor cannabinoids: delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (D8-THC; 10 mg/kg), tetrahydrocannabivarin (32 mg/kg), cannabidiolic acid (32 mg/kg), cannabidivarin (32 mg/kg), and cannabigerol (100 mg/kg), or one of five terpenes: D-limonene (17 mg/kg), ⍺-pinene (100 mg/kg), ⍺-terpineol (10 mg/kg), bisabolol (100 mg/kg), and ß-caryophyllene (17 mg/kg), or vehicle (medium-chain triglycerides [MCT] oil). Ethyl alcohol was tested as an active comparator. Thirty minutes post-administration, the marble burying test, the three-chamber social interaction test, and the novelty-induced hypophagia test were completed; motor activity was assessed throughout testing. Experiment 2 examined the potential anxiolytic effects of minor cannabinoids when administered chronically; rats administered MCT oil or minor cannabinoids in Experiment 1 continued receiving once-daily doses for 21 days and were assessed using the same test battery after 7, 14, and 21 days of administration. Results and Conclusions: When compared to vehicle, acute administration of bisabolol and D-limonene increased the amount of food consumed and bisabolol-, D-limonene-, ⍺-pinene-, and ß-caryophyllene decreased percent time spent in the outer zone in the novelty-induced hypophagia test, suggestive of an anxiolytic effect. Only ethanol increased social interaction. After acute administration, anxiogenic effects in the marble burying test were observed for D8-THC, but not for other minor cannabinoids and terpenes. Throughout chronic administration, only D8-THC displayed anxiogenic effects in the novelty-induced hypophagia test. The other cannabinoids did not show anxiolytic or anxiogenic effects in any of the tests at the doses or times tested. The minor cannabinoids and terpenes did not impair or stimulate general motor activity. These data provide a foundation for future studies investigating cannabinoid/terpene interactions.


Asunto(s)
Ansiolíticos , Cannabinoides , Cannabis , Alucinógenos , Masculino , Ratas , Animales , Terpenos/farmacología , Ansiolíticos/farmacología , Limoneno , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Agonistas de Receptores de Cannabinoides , Administración Oral , Trementina , Carbonato de Calcio , Cannabinoides/farmacología
6.
Biomolecules ; 13(7)2023 06 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37509089

RESUMEN

Turpentine oil, owing to the presence of 7-50 terpenes, has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antioxidant, and antitumor properties, which are important for medical emulsion preparation. The addition of turpentine oil to squalene emulsions can increase their effectiveness, thereby reducing the concentration of expensive and possibly deficient squalene, and increasing its stability and shelf life. In this study, squalene emulsions were obtained by adding various concentrations of turpentine oil via high-pressure homogenization, and the safety and effectiveness of the obtained emulsions were studied in vitro and in vivo. All emulsions showed high safety profiles, regardless of the concentration of turpentine oil used. However, these emulsions exhibited dose-dependent effects in terms of both efficiency and storage stability, and the squalene emulsion with 1.0% turpentine oil had the most pronounced adjuvant and cytokine-stimulating activity as well as the most pronounced stability indicators when stored at room temperature. Thus, it can be concluded that the squalene emulsion with 1% turpentine oil is a stable, monomodal, and reliably safe ultradispersed emulsion and may have pleiotropic effects with pronounced immunopotentiating properties.


Asunto(s)
Escualeno , Trementina , Emulsiones , Escualeno/farmacología , Aceites , Adyuvantes Inmunológicos
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(7)2023 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37047841

RESUMEN

Studies have been actively conducted to ensure that gadolinium-based contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are accompanied by various biological functions. A new example is the anti-inflammatory theragnostic MRI agent to target inflammatory mediators for imaging diagnosis and to treat inflammatory diseases simultaneously. We designed, synthesized, and characterized a Gd complex of 1,4,7-tris(carboxymethylaza) cyclododecane-10-azaacetylamide (DO3A) conjugated with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that exerts the innate therapeutic effect of NSAIDs and is also applicable in MRI diagnostics. Gd-DO3A-fen (0.1 mmol/kg) was intravenously injected into the turpentine oil-induced mouse model, with Gd-DO3A-BT as a control group. In the in vivo MRI experiment, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was higher and persisted longer than that with Gd-DO3A-BT; specifically, the CNR difference was almost five times at 2 h after injection. Gd-DO3A-fen had a binding affinity (Ka) of 6.68 × 106 M-1 for the COX-2 enzyme, which was 2.1-fold higher than that of fenbufen, the original NSAID. In vivo evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity was performed in two animal models. In the turpentine oil-induced model, the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory parameters such as COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 were reduced, and in the carrageenan-induced edema model, swelling was suppressed by 72% and there was a 2.88-fold inhibition compared with the saline group. Correlation analysis between in vitro, in silico, and in vivo studies revealed that Gd-DO3A-fen acts as an anti-inflammatory theragnostic agent by directly binding to COX-2.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos Organometálicos , Animales , Ratones , Compuestos Organometálicos/química , Gadolinio/química , Ciclooxigenasa 2/genética , Trementina , Medios de Contraste/química , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/farmacología
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(14): 5507-5515, 2023 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36988236

RESUMEN

To overcome the high volatility, low aqueous solubility, and few definite action sites of monoterpenoid pesticides and improve their properties and effectiveness in the control of crop pathogenic fungi, herein, a series of natural turpentine-based amide derivatives exhibiting satisfactory antifungal activity were designed and synthesized. A systematic study was conducted on antifungal activity and the physiological and biochemical response of compounds 5o (EC50 = 1.139 µg/mL) and 5j (EC50 = 1.762 µg/mL) against Rhizoctonia solani. The effect of the target compound on the potential target-site succinate dehydrogenase was evaluated. The soluble concentrates of compounds 5o and 5j possessing good performance and control effects were prepared for practical application. To conduct a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between structural descriptors and activity, four representative title compounds were selected for theoretical calculation: 5o, 5j, 5k, and 5j. The binding mode of compound 5o and boscalid with succinate dehydrogenase was analyzed via molecular docking. This study provides a reference for the development of monoterpene pesticides with high efficiency, elucidated target sites, and the appropriate formula.


Asunto(s)
Antifúngicos , Plaguicidas , Amidas , Antifúngicos/farmacología , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Relación Estructura-Actividad , Succinato Deshidrogenasa/metabolismo , Trementina , Terpenos/química , Plantas/química
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115697, 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087846

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Borneol (BO) represents a global trade-driven spreading of ethnic medicine traceable to the classical age, and won its name specific to its original habitat "Borneo". BO shows broad spectral pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, inducing resuscitation, and widely applied in the protection and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, used singly or mostly in compound formulae. AIM OF THE STUDY: Three stereoscopic configuration forms of BO, l-borneol (LB), d-borneol (DB), and dl-borneol (synthetic, SB), are formulated in broad spectral application, yet their diverse pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties caused by configurations, and accurate assay and quality assessment are often overlooked. A systematic review and analysis of lumped studies and applications is necessary to clarify the relationship between configuration and its original plant, analysis method, activity and side effect BO in order to guarantee the efficacy and safety during their application. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The public databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure were referenced to summarize a comprehensive research and application data of BO published up to date. RESULTS: This review includes following sections: History and current status, Stereochemistry, Ethnopharmacology, and Quality assessment. In the section of history, the changes of the plant origins of the two isomeric forms of natural BO were described respectively, and the methods for synthetic racemate SB were also included. The section of stereochemistry deals with the stereoscopic structures, physical/chemical property, optical rotation of the three forms of BO, as well as the main related substances like isoborneol, obtained in SB via chemical transformation of camphor and turpentine oil. In the section of Ethnopharmacology, pharmacological activities and pharmacokinetics of different forms of BO were discussed. BO is usually used as an "adjuvant", by enhancing the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and intervene the ADME/T pathways of the other ingredients in the same formulation. In the section of quality assessment, the analytical methods, including chromatography, especially GC, and spectroscopy were addressed on the chiral separation of the coexisting enantiomers. CONCLUSIONS: This overview systematically summarized three forms of BO in terms of history, stereochemistry, ethnopharmacology, and quality assessment, which, hopefully, can provide valuable information and strategy for more reasonable application and development of the globally reputed ethnic medicine borneol with characteristics in stereochemistry.


Asunto(s)
Antipiréticos , Alcanfor , Analgésicos , Antiinflamatorios , Canfanos , Etnofarmacología , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/química , Trementina
10.
Complement Med Res ; 30(1): 56-62, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417842

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Turpentine-containing substances are considered effective in treating cutaneous bacterial infections, but reliable clinical data are scant. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the efficacy and safety of an ointment containing larch turpentine (from Larix decidua), eucalyptus oil (from Eucalyptus globulus), and turpentine oil (from Pinus pinaster) in outpatients with painful skin abscesses in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. INTERVENTION: 116 outpatients with skin abscesses used verum or placebo for 10 days. Sum score of the patient's discomforts, changes in abscess size, rate of therapeutic success, and complete healing served as outcome parameters. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients were treated with verum and 56 with placebo. According to the patient's discomfort sum score, patients in the verum group showed a better improvement compared to the placebo group (7.3 vs. 4.7; p = 0.024), and subjective assessment by the investigators revealed a higher treatment success rate after verum (70% vs. 48%; p = 0.021). Complete healing was documented in 67% of the patients receiving verum versus 46% in the placebo group (p = 0.037). There was a positive trend toward a larger decrease in the abscess sizes in the verum group compared to the placebo group (p = 0.07). CONCLUSION: The ointment studied is an effective and safe option for the treatment of bacterial skin diseases.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cutáneas Bacterianas , Trementina , Humanos , Absceso , Método Doble Ciego , Pomadas
11.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080248

RESUMEN

Verbenone and carvone are allylic monoterpenoid ketones with many applications in the fine chemicals industry that can be obtained, respectively, from the allylic oxidation of α-pinene and limonene over a silica-supported iron hexadecachlorinated phthalocyanine (FePcCl16-NH2-SiO2) catalyst and with t-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as oxidant. As there are no reported analyses of the environmental impacts associated with catalytic transformation of terpenes into value-added products that include the steps associated with synthesis of the catalyst and several options of raw materials in the process, this contribution reports the evaluation of the environmental impacts in the conceptual process to produce verbenone and carvone considering two scenarios (SI-raw-oils and SII-purified-oils). The impact categories were evaluated using ReCiPe and IPCC methods implemented in SimaPro 9.3 software. The environmental impacts in the synthesis of the heterogeneous catalyst FePcCl16-NH2-SiO2 showed that the highest burdens in terms of environmental impact come from the use of fossil fuel energy sources and solvents, which primarily affect human health. The most significant environmental impacts associated with carvone and verbenone production are global warming and fine particulate matter formation, with fewer environmental impacts associated with the process that starts directly from turpentine and orange oils (SI-raw-oils) instead of the previously extracted α-pinene and limonene (SII-purified-oils). As TBHP was identified as a hotspot in the production process of verbenone and carvone, it is necessary to choose a more environmentally friendly and energy-efficient oxidizing agent for the oxidation of turpentine and orange oils.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Silicio , Trementina , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Monoterpenos Ciclohexánicos , Humanos , Limoneno , Aceites de Plantas
12.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 187: 105180, 2022 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127042

RESUMEN

Bark beetles rely on detoxifying enzymes to resist the defensive terpenoids of the host tree. Insect cytochrome P450 (CYPs) plays a key role in the detoxification of pesticides and plant allelochemicals. CYP6 family is unique to Insecta, and its biochemical function is basically related to the metabolism of exogenous substances. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the full-length cDNAs of two CYP6 genes from Chinese white pine beetle, Dendroctonus armandi. Spatiotemporal expression profiling revealed that the expression of CYP6CR2 and CYP6DE5 was higher in larval and adult stages of D. armandi than that in other developmental stages, and that two genes predominantly expressed in brain, midgut, fat body, Malpighian tubules or hemolymph. The expression of CYP6CR2 and CYP6DE5 was significantly induced after feeding on the phloem of Pinus armandii and exposure to six stimuli [(±)- α -pinene, (-)-α-pinene, (-)-ß-pinene, (+)-3-carene, (±)-limonene and turpentine]. Importantly, silencing CYP6CR2 and CYP6DE5 separately could increase the sensitivity, led to a significant reduction of the activity of P450, resulting a significant increase in adult mortality after treatment with terpenoids. The comprehensive results of this study showed that in the process of host selection and colonization, the functions of CYPs were mainly to hydrolyze the chemical defense of the host and degrade odor molecules. These findings may help to develop new treatments to control this important pest.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Plaguicidas , Pinus , Animales , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , China , Escarabajos/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático del Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Familia 6 del Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Limoneno , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/farmacología , Plaguicidas/metabolismo , Feromonas/metabolismo , Terpenos , Trementina/metabolismo
13.
BMC Biol ; 20(1): 190, 2022 08 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36002826

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Biological invasions are responsible for substantial environmental and economic losses. The red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte, is an important invasive bark beetle from North America that has caused substantial tree mortality in China. The lack of a high-quality reference genome seriously limits deciphering the extent to which genetic adaptions resulted in a secondary pest becoming so destructive in its invaded area. RESULTS: Here, we present a 322.41 Mb chromosome-scale reference genome of RTB, of which 98% of assembled sequences are anchored onto fourteen linkage groups including the X chromosome with a N50 size of 24.36 Mb, which is significantly greater than other Coleoptera species. Repetitive sequences make up 45.22% of the genome, which is higher than four other Coleoptera species, i.e., Mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae, red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, blister beetle Hycleus cichorii, and Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata. We identify rapidly expanded gene families and positively selected genes in RTB, which may be responsible for its rapid environmental adaptation. Population genetic structure of RTB was revealed by genome resequencing of geographic populations in native and invaded regions, suggesting substantial divergence of the North American population and illustrates the possible invasion and spread route in China. Selective sweep analysis highlighted the enhanced ability of Chinese populations in environmental adaptation. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our high-quality reference genome represents an important resource for genomics study of invasive bark beetles, which will facilitate the functional study and decipher mechanism underlying invasion success of RTB by integrating the Pinus tabuliformis genome.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Pinus , Animales , Cromosomas , Escarabajos/genética , Genómica , Metagenómica , Pinus/genética , Trementina
14.
Exp Mol Pathol ; 128: 104820, 2022 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35908617

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: ST2 is the receptor for interleukin (IL)-33, the last discovered member of the IL-1 cytokine family. Acute inflammation is an early response of vascularized tissue to injury, in which alteration of micro- and macro-elements occurs. This study aimed to examine the alteration of cobalt, sodium, potassium, and calcium concentration at the site of acute inflammation and the role of ST2 in these alterations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Wild-type (WT) and ST2 knockout (ST2-/-) mice were divided into groups: WT control group (WT-C), ST2 knockout control group (KO-C), WT inflammatory group (WT-I), and ST2 knockout inflammatory group (KO-I). We induced acute inflammation by intramuscular injection of turpentine oil or saline in the case of the control group. After 12 h, we anesthetized mice and collected treated tissues for histopathological analysis and determination of cobalt, sodium, potassium, and calcium concentration by atomic absorption spectrometer. RESULTS: Histopathological analysis showed the inflammatory infiltrate and cell necrosis in the treated tissue in WT-I and KO-I. The concentration of sodium was significantly lower in WT-I than in WT-C. The concentration of potassium and cobalt was significantly lower in WT-I and KO-I when compared to WT-C and KO-C, respectively. However, the concentration of potassium and cobalt in the tissue was significantly lower in WT-I than in KO-I. The concentration of calcium in the tissue did not significantly differ between groups. CONCLUSION: We reported, to our knowledge for the first time, that ST2 is involved in decreasing sodium, potassium, and cobalt concentration at the site of acute inflammation.


Asunto(s)
Calcio , Proteína 1 Similar al Receptor de Interleucina-1 , Animales , Ratones , Cobalto , Citocinas , Inflamación/inducido químicamente , Inflamación/patología , Interleucina-1 , Interleucina-33 , Ratones Noqueados , Potasio , Sodio , Trementina
15.
Ann Nucl Med ; 36(10): 845-852, 2022 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35760973

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: p38α, a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase superfamily, is activated by external stimuli, followed by nuclear translocation for the regulation of inflammatory responses at the transcriptional and translational levels in inflammatory diseases. Thus, activated p38α would be an appropriate target molecule for in vivo noninvasive imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy. For this purpose, we designed a radiobrominated compound, 6-(4-[77Br]bromo-2-fluorophenoxy)-8-methyl-2-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-ylamino)-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7(8H)-one ([77Br]4-BR), based on a potent p38α selective inhibitor, R1487, for use with single-photon emission computed tomography. We synthesized [77Br]4-BR and evaluated its effectiveness as an activated p38α imaging probe compared with our previous radioiodinated probe (6-(2-fluoro-4-[125I]iodophenoxy)-8-methyl-2-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-ylamino)-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7(8H)-one ([125I]4-IR)) in a mouse inflammatory model. METHODS: We designed [77Br]4-BR by replacing the radioiodine of [125I]4-IR or the fluorine of R1487 with radiobromine at the 4-position of the phenoxy ring. We synthesized 4-BR via a four-step process. The inhibitory potency of 4-BR was measured using an ADP-Glo™ kinase assay system. Radiosynthesis of [77Br]4-BR was performed via an organotin-radiobromine exchange reaction using the corresponding tributyltin precursor. Radioactivity biodistribution was evaluated in normal ddY mice and turpentine oil-induced inflammation model mice for 120 min after intravenous administration of [77Br]4-BR. The temporal changes in radioactivity in blood fractions were compared between [77Br]4-BR and [125I]4-IR. RESULTS: 4-BR was synthesized at a total yield of 9.1% and showed a p38α inhibitory potency similar to that of 4-IR. [77Br]4-BR was successfully obtained from a tributyltin precursor with high radiochemical yield (89.9%), purity (95.9%), and molar activity (2.0 TBq/µmol). [77Br]4-BR showed accumulation of high radioactivity in the inflamed tissue (3.4% ± 0.9% ID/g, peaking at 15 min), rapid delivery throughout the body, and rapid blood clearance with approximately half of the blood radioactivity existing as an intact form at 60 min. Although the maximum radioactivity accumulation in inflamed tissue after [77Br]4-BR administration was approximately half that of [125I]4-IR because of its faster blood clearance and lower free fraction in the input function, the inflamed tissue-to-blood ratio was comparable between [77Br]4-BR and [125I]4-IR. CONCLUSIONS: [77Br]4-BR would be a promising imaging agent for detecting activated p38α in inflammatory diseases.


Asunto(s)
Flúor , Radioisótopos de Yodo , Proteína Quinasa 14 Activada por Mitógenos/metabolismo , Adenosina Difosfato , Animales , Inflamación , Ratones , Proteínas Quinasas Activadas por Mitógenos , Piranos , Distribución Tisular , Compuestos de Trialquiltina , Trementina
16.
J Chem Ecol ; 48(7-8): 641-649, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505046

RESUMEN

The black turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus terebrans, is an economically important pest of pines in the Southeastern U.S., with a high potential for invasion to other pine-rich regions. Dendroctonus terebrans attraction to an injured host tree lessens over time as the host material degrades. Likewise, kairomonal volatiles emitted from the host change as constituents of the defensive resin oxidize. Therefore we hypothesized that volatiles associated with a fresh host would be more attractive to D. terebrans than those associated with a dead or dying host. We replicated the natural oxidation process of turpentine, fractionated the distilled products to isolate the oxidized products, and deployed the complex mixtures to measure field attraction based on the amount of oxidation performed. Contrasting with previous studies, our results suggest that D. terebrans attraction is not primarily based on host tree degradation. In a second experiment incorporating Dendroctonus pheromones, we demonstrate D. terebrans has a displacement-dependent response to endo-brevicomin, a pheromone associated with the sympatric southern pine beetle, D. frontalis. This has implications not only for possible interspecific signaling, but also for the role of endo-brevicomin in D. terebrans colonization behavior. The results from this study broaden the understanding of D. terebrans chemical ecology and directly contribute to the development of an effective lure-based monitoring system that will benefit future research and management efforts. This may become important if the species is established outside its native range, as in the closely related red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens, which caused mass pine tree mortality following its introduction to Asia.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Pinus , Animales , Escarabajos/fisiología , Feromonas/farmacología , Resinas de Plantas , Trementina/farmacología
17.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 276: 121176, 2022 Aug 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439653

RESUMEN

The great interest in terpene compounds such as 2-, 3- and 4-carene is due to their undeniable biological activity. However, in recent years, there has been increasing interest in carenes in the context of biofuels. The current growing and insatiable demand for petroleum fuels creates an area for alternative biofuels. Research shows that natural products, which contain compounds from the carenes family, such as pine oil or turpentine (3-carene can constitute up to 70% of the composition of turpentine), can be successfully used as biofuels or additives in biofuels. In this work, both experimental and calculated (DFT/B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ) Raman and ROA (Raman optical activity) spectra of 1S,3R-cis-4-carene and 1S,3S-trans-4-carene were reported and analyzed for the first time. Then these spectra were compared with Raman and ROA spectra of other chiral members of the carenes family (1S-2-carene and 1S-3-carene). This knowledge about the spectra of individual carenes made it possible to identify (+)-1S-3-carene in selected samples of pine essential oil from the needles of Pinius sylvestris (Scots pine).


Asunto(s)
Aceites Volátiles , Espectrometría Raman , Biocombustibles , Rotación Óptica , Espectrometría Raman/métodos , Terpenos , Trementina
18.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 139, 2022 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35428339

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Procalcitonin (PCT) is a widely used biomarker of sepsis in human medicine and can have potential applications in the veterinary field. This study aimed to explore whether PCT could be measured in the saliva of pigs and whether its concentration changes in sepsis. Therefore, a specific assay was developed and analytically validated, and changes in PCT concentration were evaluated in two conditions: a) in an experimental model of sepsis produced by the administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to pigs (n = 5), that was compared with a model of non-septic inflammation induced by turpentine oil (n = 4), and b) in healthy piglets (n = 11) compared to piglets with meningitis (n = 20), a disease that usually involves sepsis and whose treatment often requires large amounts of antibiotics in farms. RESULTS: The assay showed coefficients of variation within the recommended limits and adequate linearity after serial sample dilutions. The method's detection limit was set at 68 µg/L, and the lower limit of quantification was 414 µg/L. In the LPS experiment, higher concentrations of PCT were found after 24 h in the animals injected with LPS (mean = 5790 µg/L) compared to those treated with turpentine oil (mean = 2127 µg/L, P = 0.045). Also, animals with meningitis had higher concentrations of PCT (mean = 21515 µg/L) than healthy pigs (mean = 6096 µg/L, P value < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: According to these results, this assay could be potentially used as a tool for the non-invasive detection of sepsis in pigs, which is currently a topic of high importance due to antibiotic use restriction.


Asunto(s)
Sepsis , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Animales , Antibacterianos , Biomarcadores , Lipopolisacáridos , Proyectos Piloto , Polipéptido alfa Relacionado con Calcitonina , Pronóstico , Saliva , Sepsis/diagnóstico , Sepsis/veterinaria , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico , Trementina
19.
Microb Pathog ; 166: 105530, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429586

RESUMEN

Turpentine essential oil (TEO) is a commercially available product having application as food additive, due to its ethno-botanical and ethnopharmacological properties. In the present study, we performed chemical composition of TEO by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Further, TEO was nanoemulsified, encapsulated and characterized by droplet size, PDI, Zeta potential and transmittance. The obtained turpentine nanoemulsion (TNE) was investigated for its antibacterial and antibiofilm potentiality against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a model biofilm-forming microorganism. Small micellar TEO nanoparticles were succesfully formed with a mean droplet size ranging from 22.52 to 26.54 nm. Thermodynamic stability studies revealed homogeneous dispersion of the droplets size confirming the stability of TNEs. The developed nano-emulsions displayed two fold enhanced antagonistic activity against S. aureus in comparison with TEOs, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values at 0.039% (v/v) against MRSA. Additionally, TNEs displayed potent antibiofilm activity against MRSA strains with percent biofilm disruption of around 70.83%. Findings from this study validates the phytomedicinal significance of turpentine nanoemulsions and envisage its exploration as a natural and cost-effective strategy against bacterial biofilms in medical and industrial sectors.


Asunto(s)
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina , Aceites Volátiles , Antibacterianos/química , Biopelículas , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Aceites Volátiles/química , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Staphylococcus aureus , Trementina/farmacología
20.
Chem Biodivers ; 19(4): e202100746, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35233905

RESUMEN

Three series of secondary ammonium chloride from turpentine were synthesized and evaluated as botanical herbicides. The preemergence herbicidal activities against ryegrass (Loliun multiflorum) and barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) were investigated using water as the only solvent. Their toxicity was evaluated by cytotoxicity assays. Preliminary results demonstrated that the herbicidal performance of the prepared salts was similar or much higher than that of corresponding secondary amines and even commercial herbicide glyphosate. Promisingly, compound 14e containing a cyclohexyl-substituted p-menthene skeleton with an IC50 value of 0.0014 mM against root growth of ryegrass showed 39-fold higher herbicidal activity than glyphosate. Besides, this compound was found to be nontoxic to human and animal cells, indicating the potential application as a water-soluble herbicide for ryegrass control.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Amonio , Echinochloa , Herbicidas , Herbicidas/toxicidad , Sales (Química) , Trementina , Agua , Control de Malezas
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