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1.
Wiad Lek ; 77(2): 345-347, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592999

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Aim: To study the level of compliance of the National Classifier of Ukraine ≪Classifier of Medical Devices of Ukraine NC 024: 2023≫ with international approaches to the classification and use of medical devices. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and Methods: National Classifier of Ukraine ≪Classifier of Medical Devices of Ukraine NC 024: 2023≫ and the international nomenclature of medical devices Global Medical Device Nomenclature. Methods: bibliosemantic, of content analysis and of structural-and-logical analysis. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: In the course of the study, full compliance of the national classifier of medical devices of Ukraine NC 024: 2023 with the GMDN system was established.


Asunto(s)
Equipos y Suministros , Ucrania , Equipos y Suministros/clasificación
2.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 208, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622687

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The current war in Ukraine has affected the well-being of people worldwide. In order to understand how difficult the situation is, specific stressors associated with war need to be measured. In response, an inventory of war-related stressors including its short form, has been developed. METHODS: A list of potential war-related stressors was created, and the content validity of each item assessed. The list, along with other validated scales, was administered to a representative sample of the Slovak population (effective N = 1851). Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, convergent validity analysis and network analysis were carried out to determine the optimal scale (long and short form) focused on war-related stressors. RESULTS: The full version of the scale consists of 21 items, further divided into three factors: society-related stressors, person-related stressors, and security-related stressors. The short version of the scale comprises nine items loaded onto one factor. These items cover concerns for one's safety and future, access to necessities, potential worsening of the economic situation, and the risk of conflict escalation, including a nuclear threat. The results of the network analysis indicate that concern about escalation and fear of an economic crisis play a central role. CONCLUSIONS: The scale attempts to encompass a wide spectrum of areas that are affected by war and its potential consequences on individuals who reside outside the conflict zone. Given the complexity of the issue, researchers are invited to modify the scale, tailoring it to specific cultural, geographical, and temporal contexts.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Humanos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Análisis Factorial , Miedo , Ucrania
3.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 979, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589836

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the size of key and bridge populations is crucial for an efficient HIV/AIDS response in resource-limited settings, enabling efficient program planning and resource allocation. The hidden nature of these groups poses challenges to traditional methods, leading to the adoption of innovative approaches like the network scale-up method (NSUM). In this article we present the results of a NSUM study conducted in 2020 in Ukraine, focusing on four key populations and three bridge populations, highlighting challenges and contributions to development of the method. METHODS: From July to September 2020, we conducted a nationally representative survey in Ukraine via computer-assisted telephone interviews, and applied the known population method and summation method to estimate social networks sizes. Results were weighted based on individual sampling probability and adjusted for social respect and visibility factors to address potential limitations. RESULTS: Our study achieved a 20% response rate with 10,000 completed interviews. The social network size, using the known population method, was 213 people, and 125 using the summation method. Adjusting for the social respect and visibility, estimated key populations sizes were 295,857 [248,714-343,001] people who inject drugs, 152,267 [109,960-194,573] men who have sex with men, 78,385 [57,146-99,619] sex workers, and 9,963 [7,352-12,571] transgender people, detailed by age and gender. Bridge populations were estimated at 62,162 [50,445-73,879] sexual partners of people who inject drugs, 284,348 [233,113-335,583] clients of sex workers, and 13,697 [7,370-20,026] female partners of men who have sex with men. CONCLUSIONS: NSUM proves reliable for estimating key populations size with appropriate corrections. It shows promise for further use in Ukraine, considering limited geographic coverage of the integrated bio-behavioral studies to use multiplier-based methods. However, the validity concerns persist for estimating bridge populations size, emphasizing the need for further method refinement and addressing implementation issues, particularly those related to data collection.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Trabajadores Sexuales , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Homosexualidad Masculina , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Ucrania , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
Wiad Lek ; 77(2): 214-224, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592981

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Aim: Based on retrospective analysis recognize the key factors of development of premature childbirth and elaborate highly specific criteria for individual prognosis to improve perinatal outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the birth histories of 250 women and their newborns with spontaneous preterm births at 22-36 weeks was conducted using archival data from the department for pregnant women with obstetric pathology of the State Institution "Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology named by academician OM Lukianova of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine". RESULTS: Results: Important risk factors for premature rupture of membranes (PROM) in preterm pregnancy include the presence of sexually transmitted diseases (χ2=31.188, p=0.001), bacterial vaginosis (χ2=30.913, p=0.0001), a history of abortion and/or preterm birth (χ2=16.62, p=0.0002), SARS during pregnancy (χ2=16.444, p=0.0002), chronic adnexitis in anamnesis (χ2=11.522, p=0.0031), inflammatory cervical disease (χ2=11.437, p=0.0032), anaemia (χ2=10.815, p=0.0044), isthmic-cervical insufficiency (ІСІ) (χ2=10.345, p=0.0057), chronic pyelonephritis with exacerbation (χ2=9.16, p=0.01), smoking during pregnancy (χ2=10.815, p=0.0044). CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The results of a retrospective analysis of 250 cases of preterm birth at 22 to 36 weeks allowed us to identify ways to effectively use existing diagnostic measures to determine readiness for pregnancy and the possibility of prolonging pregnancy to the viability of the newborn. Ways to improve the prevention of preterm birth and the design of further research were identified.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Espontáneo , Rotura Prematura de Membranas Fetales , Nacimiento Prematuro , Embarazo , Recién Nacido , Femenino , Humanos , Niño , Nacimiento Prematuro/prevención & control , Estudios Retrospectivos , Rotura Prematura de Membranas Fetales/prevención & control , Ucrania
5.
Wiad Lek ; 77(2): 187-193, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592977

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Aim: To determine the current prevalence of endometritis after hysteroscopic procedures and antimicrobial resistance of responsible pathogens in Ukraine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and Methods: Multicenter prospective cohort study was conducted from January 2020 to December 2022 in fifteen hospitals from twelve regions of Ukraine. Definitions of endometritis were adapted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network. Antibiotic susceptibility was done by the disc diffusion test as recommended by EUCAST. RESULTS: Results: Among 13,872 patients with hysteroscopic procedures, 1027 (7.4%) endometritis were observed. Of these cases, 0.4% were detected after diagnostic hysteroscopy, and 7.0% were detected after operative hysteroscopy. Of all endometritis cases, 64.2% were detected after hospital discharge. The most commonly reported bacterial species were Escherichia coli (24.3%), followed by Enterobacter spp. (12.7%), Enterococcus spp. (8.3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.1%), Serratia marcescens (6.8%), Staphylococcus aureus (5.9%), Proteus mirabilis (5.8%), Klebsiella oxytoca (5.1%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (4.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (4.1%). A significant proportion of patients were affected by endometritis caused by bacteria developed resistance to several antimicrobials, varying widely depending on the bacterial species, antimicrobial group, and geographical region of Ukraine. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Our data suggest a high prevalence of endometritis after hysteroscopic procedures. Risk for endometritis was higher after operative hysteroscopy compared with diagnostic hysteroscopy. Many most of patients were affected by endometritis caused by bacteria developed resistance to several antimicrobials. These data underscore the importance of tracking antimicrobial resistance of responsible pathogens of HAIs in hospitals.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Endometritis , Femenino , Humanos , Endometritis/epidemiología , Endometritis/etiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Ucrania/epidemiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Bacterias , Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Antibacterianos/farmacología
6.
Wiad Lek ; 77(2): 319-326, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592996

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Aim: To identify the impact of meeting the housing needs on human health, which must be taken into account when developing the health care policy for the country's population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and Methods: The system of general scientific and special research methods was used during the research. The materials of the work were: statistical data; standards and recommendations regarding sanitary living conditions; court case-law; reports in mass media; scientific sources; regulatory legal acts of Ukraine. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Sanitary and hygienic conditions of living in housing provide for the formation of a human life environment, where there is no harmful effect of its factors on human health and there are opportunities to ensure normal and to restore impaired body functions. Each person is responsible for maintaining own sanitary and hygienic living conditions in the housing. Sanitary and hygienic living conditions of a person must be considered through the principle of reasonableness and safety of public health.


Asunto(s)
Vivienda , Salud Pública , Humanos , Ucrania , Proyectos de Investigación
7.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 18: e62, 2024 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38606438

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This risk assessment aims to investigate the analysis of cascading disaster risks from the perspective of the chemical industry and public health subsequent to the Kakhovka dam bombing in Ukraine. METHOD: The study utilized a modified observational cross-sectional risk assessment method to assess disaster risk. The method involved identifying the location of chemical factories, determining flooded or at-risk factories, analyzing the type and frequency of chemical hazards, assessing population exposure, and plotting a disaster risk metric. Data on chemical industries and flood extent were collected from open-source secondary data. RESULTS: The destruction of the Kakhovka dam in June 2023 led to severe flooding, placing 42 000 individuals at risk. The analysis identified four chemical factories, with 1 affected by flooding and 3 at risk. The overall risk assessment indicated a high likelihood and severe consequences, including loss of life, environmental contamination, and property damage. CONCLUSION: The combination of complex emergencies and high-risk chemical facilities in Kherson Oblast poses a significant risk of a chemical industry disaster. The interplay between compound and cascading risks during complex emergencies amid the current war further exacerbates the situation, leading to the devastation and destruction of the environment to the detriment of life, and aligns with the characterization of ecocide.


Asunto(s)
Industria Química , Desastres , Humanos , Urgencias Médicas , Ucrania , Estudios Transversales , Medición de Riesgo
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8561, 2024 04 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609468

RESUMEN

Trauma scientists have raised the alarm about the devastating consequences of the Ukraine war on mental health. We examined how higher education students-as indirect victims-coped with this conflict and how they emotionally reacted during 2022. We involved 2314 students from 16 countries through an online survey. A structural equation model indicated significant relations between war-related worry about military and macroeconomics domains and two coping strategies (opposition, support giving), in turn significantly linked with six emotions. The model was strongly invariant across gender, study field, and geographic area. The most frequent emotions were anger and anxiety, followed by two future-centred emotions (hopelessness and hope). Emotions were more frequent for females and students of the countries geographically close to the war region. Our findings call for evidence-based policy recommendations to be implemented by institutions to combat the negative short and long-term psychological sequelae of being witnesses of armed conflicts.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , Emociones , Femenino , Humanos , Ucrania , 60670 , Estudiantes
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5996, 2024 03 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38472234

RESUMEN

The geopolitical conflict between Russia and Ukraine has disrupted Europe's natural gas supplies, driving up gas prices and leading to a shift towards biomass for residential heating during colder months. This study assessed the consequent air quality and toxicological impacts in Milan, Italy, focusing on fine particulate matter (PM2.5, dp < 2.5 µm) emissions. PM2.5 samples were analyzed for their chemical composition and assessed for their oxidative potential using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay across three periods reflecting residential heating deployment (RHD): pre-RHD, intra-RHD, and post-RHD periods. During the intra-RHD period, PM2.5 levels were significantly higher than those in other periods, with concentrations reaching 57.94 ± 7.57 µg/m3, indicating a deterioration in air quality. Moreover, levoglucosan was 9.2 times higher during the intra-RHD period compared to the pre-RHD period, correlating with elevated levels of elemental carbon (EC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These findings were compared with previous local studies before the conflict, underscoring a significant rise in biomass-related emissions. DTT assay levels during the intra-RHD were 2.1 times higher than those observed during the same period in 2022, strongly correlating with biomass burning emissions. Our findings highlight the necessity for policies to mitigate the indirect health effects of increased biomass burning emissions due to the energy crisis triggered by the geopolitical conflict.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Ucrania , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Italia , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Estaciones del Año
11.
Georgian Med News ; (346): 80-87, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501625

RESUMEN

The purpose of the article is to analyze the specifics of the Ukrainian doctrine regarding the legal nature of medical services and areas for improving legal regulation. The research is based on the analysis and comparison of Ukrainian and EU law, content analysis of the terminology of legal sources, legal positions of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine, scientific researches, description and generalization of existing achievements and issues in the field of legal regulation of healthcare services. Research methods are monographic analysis, systematic and structural analysis, comparative and legal analysis, linguistic analysis, content analysis, method of generalization. The need to unify the special categorical apparatus of Ukrainian legislation has been substantiated. It has been proved that due to the improvement of domestic legislation through the implementation of the norms of European private law, the doctrine and practice of legal regulation will correspond to the nature of the regulated relations. The content, structure, and specific features of legal relations for the provision of medical services in the Ukrainian legal system have been determined. The authors have made a conclusion about the private legal nature of medical services in the domestic legal doctrine. Recommendations have been made for the legislation of Ukraine, which regulates civil relations for the provision of medical services, regarding the introduction of special norms related to the personal non-property rights of the relations' participants, contractual representation of a patient, legal terms for the provision of medical services without obtaining the consent.


Asunto(s)
Legislación Médica , Medicina , Humanos , Ucrania
12.
Wiad Lek ; 77(1): 17-24, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431802

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Aim: To investigate the epidemiology, microbiology, and risk factors for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) after a neurosurgical procedure in Ukraine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and Methods: Prospective multicentre surveillance was conducted from January 2020 to December 2022 in 10 regional hospitals of Ukraine. Definitions of HAIs were adapted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network. RESULTS: Results: Of 8,623 neurosurgical patients, 1,579 (18.3%) HAIs were observed. The most frequently of HAI types were pneumonia (38.4%), surgical site infection (34.2%), urinary tract infection (18.1%) and bloodstream infection (9.3%). Death during hospitalization was reported in 11.3% of HAI cases. There was an association between HAIs after neurosurgical procedures and patients with diabetes mellitus, end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis, and leukaemia. The strongest independent associations were observed for intubation, urinary catheters, and vascular catheters. Klebsiella pneumoniae were most commonly reported, accounting for 25.1% of all organisms, followed by Escherichia coli (17.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (9.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.9%), Acinetobacter baumannii (8.5%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (6.8%), and Streptococcus spp. (5.5%). In total, 76.3% isolates from neurosurgical patients were MDROs. Antimicrobial resistance in Ukraine varies greatly by bacterial species, antimicrobial group, and region. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Healthcare-associated infections are a cause for mortality and morbidity among neurosurgical patients. This is due to increase emergence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. Routinely collected surveillance data are of great value as a basis for studying the consequences of HAIs.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Infecciones Relacionadas con Catéteres , Infección Hospitalaria , Infecciones Urinarias , Humanos , Infecciones Relacionadas con Catéteres/epidemiología , Infecciones Relacionadas con Catéteres/microbiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Ucrania/epidemiología , Infección Hospitalaria/epidemiología , Infección Hospitalaria/microbiología , Infecciones Urinarias/etiología , Infecciones Urinarias/microbiología , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana
13.
Wiad Lek ; 77(1): 42-46, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431806

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Aim: To investigate the quality of life of women who left Ukraine and those who did not leave their homes under the threat of war. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and Methods: We used the WHOQOL-100 questionnaire for quality assessment. 376 young women (aged 25-44) were interviewed using a Google questionnaire (WHOQOL BREF). The respondents were divided into 2 groups: group 1 - women who left the territory of Ukraine during the war (n-176); group 2 - women who did not leave their homes (n-200). RESULTS: Results: The general level of quality of life for group 1 (62.9% ± 9.3) was slightly lower than group 2 (66.7% ± 9.1). In terms of quality of life, group 2 prevails over group 1 in the domain of microsocial support. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Therefore, women who did not leave their homes during the full-scale invasion of Russia on the territory of Ukraine rate their quality of life higher than women who left the territory of Ukraine. Respondents of group 2 are more satisfied with their social support, sexual life, support from friends, enjoy life more than respondents of group 1.


Asunto(s)
Calidad de Vida , Apoyo Social , Humanos , Femenino , Ucrania , Federación de Rusia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
Wiad Lek ; 77(1): 77-84, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431811

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Aim: To study the dynamics of the prevalence and structure of primary disability, including due to cancer, among the population of the Poltava region. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and Methods: The study used a retrospective analysis - the depth of the research search was six years (2019-2023); a comparative analysis - to establish the differences in disability indicators. Determining the trends of disability: analyzing the dynamic series. RESULTS: Results: The rate of initial disability due to neoplasms (including malignant) for 2019-2023 in Ukraine population is generally stable with a slight downward trend, in the Poltava region, there is a slight downward trend during the years 2019-2021, starting from 2022, begins to increase sharply, while throughout Ukraine the indicator remains stable. Among the able-bodied population of the Poltava region: if until 2021 the picture is identical to the indicators among the adult population, then starting from 2022 the disability of this contingent in the Poltava region begins to increase, while in Ukraine - to decrease. In 2023 among the population of the Poltava region, diseases of the musculoskeletal system became the cause of disability in 20.5 per 10,000 working-age population (І rank place) ; from circulatory system diseases was 12.3 (ІІ rank place); the rate of disability from a neoplasm is 16.1(ІІІ rank place). CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Analysis of the dynamics and structure of disabling pathology is important and necessary, as it allows to identify diseases that lead to permanent disability, as well as to develop medical and social measures to prevent disability.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Adulto , Humanos , Ucrania/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Prevalencia , Neoplasias/epidemiología
15.
Wiad Lek ; 77(1): 85-93, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431812

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Aim is to analyze the possibilities of using the electronic system Moodle for the formation of professional and terminological competence of medical students during the study of terminological competence for improving the quality of medical education. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and Methods: The research used a number of scientific methods: general scientific (analysis, synthesis, generalization), specific research and others which ensured the selection and analysis of the source base, made it possible to determine the general trends in the study of the problem of using the electronic system Moodle for the formation of professional and terminological competence of medical students during the study of terminological competence for improving the quality of medical education. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: At I. Horbachevsky Ternopil National Medical University we actively use the e-learning system Moodle (Modular Object Oriented Distance Learning Environment), to which there is free and unrestricted access. Using this program, the student takes on the role of an active subject who independently acquires knowledge, forms his/her own system of skills, of course with the help of certain sources, and the role of the teacher in this scheme is to motivate and suport learners, prepare information sources used in self-study, etc. This is due to a significant increase in the requirements for quality training of future specialists n the medical field and market conditions in Ukraine, which set before the higher school the task of training specialists of the new generation who would be highly qualified, competitive, literate, and have perfect command of their professional terminology. The Moodle system is able to optimize the learning process, promote the formation of terminological competence and master professional vocabulary. When creating educational and methodological complexes for the formation of terminological competence, the means of teaching, as well as the ways of presenting educational material and the principles of organizing the educational activities of students become important. The electronic platform Moodle, which has a wide range of resources for teaching and testing, is able to expand the communicative competencies and skills of students needed to effectively master professional Latin terminology. The Moodle system has the optimal set of resource opportunities for the implementation of blended learning - classroom and extracurricular, which is its main advantage.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica , Estudiantes de Medicina , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Aprendizaje , Curriculum , Ucrania
16.
Wiad Lek ; 77(1): 126-134, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431817

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Aim: To determine the problematic issues of ensuring the rights and freedoms of persons suffering from mental disorders and to whom CMM are applied in criminal proceedings under the legislation of Ukraine and the legislation of the states that adhere to the modern concepts of international standards of human rights ensuring to a person the CMM are applied to. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and Methods: Legal positions of the ECHR, criminal procedural legislation of a number of states, and a survey of scientists and practitioners conducted by the authors are used in this paper (total number of respondents was 168). A set of general scientific and special methods are used to achieve the aim of the study. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The practice of applying СMM to persons suffering from mental disorders in criminal proceedings in Ukraine and other states does not fully meet international standards and needs improvement. It was suggested to make changes to the legal acts on the use of CMM in criminal proceedings.


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Trastornos Mentales , Médicos , Humanos , Derechos Humanos , Ucrania , Trastornos Mentales/terapia
17.
Wiad Lek ; 77(1): 94-104, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431813

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Aim: The research is aimed to study certain aspects and experience of functioning of the Ukrainian Public Healthcare public management mechanisms during an outbreak of the acute respiratory disease COVID19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and Methods: The studied materials include personal observations and accumulated practical material, as well as generalization of the collected data and their empirical treatment, conducted by the scientists, according to the present legislation requirements. The study was held using general scientific methods, including observation, description of results, specification and statistical data generalization. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Generalization, arrangement and analysis of the Ukrainian experience of the Public Healthcare public management during the outbreak of the acute respiratory disease COVID19, provides exchange of experience between all subjects of the process. This helps to produce certain practical decisions, aimed at effective responding of the state healthcare system onto management of the COVID19 outbreak. Such activities are also directed at detection of flaws in the whole system, with their subsequent correction, and elimination or neutralization of possible negative outcomes. To adopt the priority activity directions within public relations, which make the subject of the study, the authors have studied a complex of activities against spread of the COVID19 in 2019-2020. These activities include issues, related to prompt responding onto the infection spread and approving quick professional decisions; fulfilling epidemiological supervision and introducing anti-epidemic activities; providing diagnostics, and accessibility of the safe and high-quality vaccine.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Médicos , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Ucrania/epidemiología , Atención a la Salud , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control
18.
Nature ; 627(8005): 805-810, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448591

RESUMEN

Stone tools stratified in alluvium and loess at Korolevo, western Ukraine, have been studied by several research groups1-3 since the discovery of the site in the 1970s. Although Korolevo's importance to the European Palaeolithic is widely acknowledged, age constraints on the lowermost lithic artefacts have yet to be determined conclusively. Here, using two methods of burial dating with cosmogenic nuclides4,5, we report ages of 1.42 ± 0.10 million years and 1.42 ± 0.28 million years for the sedimentary unit that contains Mode-1-type lithic artefacts. Korolevo represents, to our knowledge, the earliest securely dated hominin presence in Europe, and bridges the spatial and temporal gap between the Caucasus (around 1.85-1.78 million years ago)6 and southwestern Europe (around 1.2-1.1 million years ago)7,8. Our findings advance the hypothesis that Europe was colonized from the east, and our analysis of habitat suitability9 suggests that early hominins exploited warm interglacial periods to disperse into higher latitudes and relatively continental sites-such as Korolevo-well before the Middle Pleistocene Transition.


Asunto(s)
Entierro , Migración Humana , Datación Radiométrica , Humanos , Arqueología , Entierro/historia , Europa (Continente) , Fósiles , Historia Antigua , Migración Humana/historia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Ucrania , Factores de Tiempo
19.
J Environ Manage ; 356: 120579, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503230

RESUMEN

In contemporary times, geopolitical risk, and natural resources prices are susceptible due to the Russian-Ukraine conflict. In the meantime, emerging economies are struggling to explore the factors that could reduce ecological challenges and enhance environmental management. This research aims to analyze several economic, environmental, political, and institutional variables to ascertain their influence on greenhouse gas emissions in China. Covering the latest period from 1990 to 2022, various time series tests, including normality, stationarity, and cointegration tests. The results confirm that the variables studied have a stable pattern over time and are connected in the long run. The non-normal distribution of variables leads to opt novel moment quantile regression, where the results are tested for robustness via parametric approaches. The empirical results asserted that economic growth, natural resource prices, and trade significantly enhance ecological challenges (emissions). However, globalization, geopolitical risk, and institutional quality significantly reduce such environmental challenges. The results are robust, and both unidirectional and bidirectional causal associations confirm the importance of these variables in environmental management. Based on the results, this study recommends engagement in environmentally-friendly trading, investment in clean and green energy, and strengthening institutional quality for the region's environmental recovery.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ucrania , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Desarrollo Económico , China , Federación de Rusia , Energía Renovable
20.
Nat Plants ; 10(3): 390-401, 2024 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467801

RESUMEN

Scientific testing including stable isotope ratio analysis (SIRA) and trace element analysis (TEA) is critical for establishing plant origin, tackling deforestation and enforcing economic sanctions. Yet methods combining SIRA and TEA into robust models for origin verification and determination are lacking. Here we report a (1) large Eastern European timber reference database (Betula, Fagus, Pinus, Quercus) tailored to sanctioned products following the Ukraine invasion; (2) statistical test to verify samples against a claimed origin; (3) probabilistic model of SIRA, TEA and genus distribution data, using Gaussian processes, to determine timber harvest location. Our verification method rejects 40-60% of simulated false claims, depending on the spatial scale of the claim, and maintains a low probability of rejecting correct origin claims. Our determination method predicts harvest location within 180 to 230 km of true location. Our results showcase the power of combining data types with probabilistic modelling to identify and scrutinize timber harvest location claims.


Asunto(s)
Fagus , Pinus , Ucrania , Betula , Genes de Plantas
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