Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 16.028
Filtrar
1.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2334190, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590137

RESUMEN

Background: Research indicates refugees from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), particularly females, have a higher incidence of mental health problems compared to the global norm for conflict-affected populations.Objective: This study aimed to unpack gender differences in the mental health of Congolese refugees by examining specific risk (trauma exposure, adaptation challenges, and discrimination) and protective factors (marital status, literacy, and social resources) in relation to posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depression. Method: Utilizing systematic random sampling, we surveyed 667 adult refugees (370 females, 297 males) in the Kyaka II refugee settlement in Western Uganda. A multi-group path analysis was conducted, initially allowing for variance between genders and subsequently comparing a constrained model, where paths were set equal across groups.Results: The unconstrained model presented an excellent fit to the data. When paths were set to be equal across groups, the decline in model fit, confirmed by a chi-square difference test, indicated differences in the model for males and females. A series of Z-tests were used to compare individual paths. Experiencing discrimination was a stronger risk factor for depression among men, whereas a history of rape was more strongly associated with depression for females. Being literate and a member of a social group in the settlement were stronger protective factors for depression among men, whereas living with a partner and a felt sense of connection to their community was more important for women. Associations between risk and protective factors and PTSS were more similar across groups, only membership in a group was significantly moderated by gender; with group membership being more impactful for males.Conclusion: The results highlight similarities and differences in predictors of distress for male and female Congolese refugees and point to potential avenues for tailoring programming to be gender sensitive.


This research identified key differences in how specific traumatic experiences and social factors correlate with psychological distress for male and female Congolese refugees, underscoring the need for tailored support strategies.The study reveals that while discrimination is a stronger predictor of depression in men, experiences of rape are more closely linked to depression in women. Conversely, social factors like literacy and group membership offer more protection to men, whereas relationship status and community connection are more protective for women.The findings shed light on the importance of gender-sensitive mental health and psychosocial support interventions.


Asunto(s)
Violación , Refugiados , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Uganda/epidemiología , Refugiados/psicología , Factores Protectores , Estado de Salud
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8026, 2024 04 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580752

RESUMEN

Air quality negatively impacts agriculture, reducing the yield of staple food crops. While measured data on African ground-level ozone levels are scarce, experimental studies demonstrate the damaging impact of ozone on crops. Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), an ozone-sensitive crop, are widely grown in Uganda. Using modelled ozone flux, agricultural surveys, and a flux-effect relationship, this study estimates yield and production losses due to ozone for Ugandan beans in 2015. Analysis at this scale allows the use of localised data, and results can be presented at a sub-regional level. Soil nutrient stress, drought, flood risk, temperature and deprivation were also mapped to investigate where stresses may coincide. Average bean yield losses due to ozone were 17% and 14% (first and second growing season respectively), equating to 184 thousand tonnes production loss. However, for some sub-regions, losses were up to 27.5% and other crop stresses also coincided in these areas. This methodology could be applied widely, allowing estimates of ozone impact for countries lacking air quality and/or experimental data. As crop productivity is below its potential in many areas of the world, changing agricultural practices to mitigate against losses due to ozone could help to reduce the crop yield gap.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Ozono , Ozono/efectos adversos , Ozono/análisis , Uganda , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Agricultura , Productos Agrícolas , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis
3.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 165, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616259

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To assess the prevalence of low corneal endothelial cell density and correlates of corneal endothelial cell density among adults attending Mbarara University and Referral Hospital Eye Centre in Uganda. METHODS: In this hospital-based cross-sectional study, participants 18 years and older, were enrolled. We obtained informed consent, and basic demographic data. We also conducted visual acuity, a detailed slit lamp examination, intra-ocular pressure, corneal diameter, tear-film break-up time, keratometry, A-scan, and pachymetry on all participants. A confocal microscope Heidelberg HRT3 was used to examine the central cornea and to obtain the mean cell density (cells/mm2). To calculate the proportion of low endothelial cell density, descriptive statistics were used, whereas correlates of endothelial cell density were assessed, using linear regression analyses. RESULTS: We evaluated a total of 798 eyes of 404 participants aged between 18 and 90 years (males = 187, females = 217). The average endothelial cell density was 2763.6 cells/mm2, and there was a decrease in endothelial cell density with increasing age, irrespective of gender. There was no significant difference in endothelial cell density between males and females. Increasing age (adjusted coefficient - 10.1, p < 0.001), history of smoking (adjusted coefficient - 439.6, p = 0.004), history of ocular surgery (adjusted coefficient - 168.0, p = 0.023), having dry eye (adjusted coefficient - 136.0, p = 0.051), and having arcus senilis (adjusted coefficient - 132.0, p = 0.08), were correlated with lower endothelial cell density. However, increasing corneal diameter (adjusted coefficient 134.0, p = 0.006), increasing central corneal thickness (adjusted coefficient 1.2, p = 0.058), and increasing axial length (adjusted coefficient 65.8, p = 0.026), were correlated with higher endothelial cell density. We found five eyes (0.63%) from different participants with a low endothelial cell density (< 1000cells/mm2). CONCLUSION: Our study established baseline normal ranges of ECD in a predominantly black African population, and found that low ECD is rare in our population. The elderly, smokers, and those with past ocular surgery are the most vulnerable. The low prevalence could be due to a lack of reference values for the black African population.


Asunto(s)
Córnea , Hospitales , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Uganda/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Células Endoteliales
4.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1356635, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562926

RESUMEN

Background: To determine the pattern of immune cell subsets across the life span in rural sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and to set a reference standard for cell subsets amongst Africans, we characterised the major immune cell subsets in peripheral blood including T cells, B cells, monocytes, NK cells, neutrophils and eosinophils, in individuals aged 3 to 89 years from Uganda. Methods: Immune phenotypes were measured using both conventional flow cytometry in 72 individuals, and full spectrum flow cytometry in 80 individuals. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) IFN-γ T cell responses were quantified in 332 individuals using an ELISpot assay. Full blood counts of all study participants were also obtained. Results: The percentages of central memory (TCM) and senescent CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, effector memory (TEM) CD8+ T cells and neutrophils increased with increasing age. On the other hand, the percentages of naïve T (TN) and B (BN) cells, atypical B cells (BA), total lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils decreased with increasing age. There was no change in CD4+ or CD8+ T effector memory RA (TEMRA) cells, exhausted T cells, NK cells and monocytes with age. Higher eosinophil and basophil percentages were observed in males compared to females. T cell function as measured by IFN-γ responses to EBV increased with increasing age, peaking at 31-55 years. Conclusion: The percentages of cell subsets differ between individuals from SSA compared to those elsewhere, perhaps reflecting a different antigenic milieu. These results serve as a reference for normal values in this population.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Virus de Epstein-Barr , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Linfocitos T CD4-Positivos , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Uganda , Fenotipo
5.
Glob Health Action ; 17(1): 2325728, 2024 Dec 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596846

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with poor health-related quality of life in adults with cancer in Uganda. METHODS: This cross-sectional study surveyed 385 adult patients (95% response rate) with various cancers at a specialised oncology facility in Uganda. Health-related quality of life was measured using the EORTC QLQ-C30 in the Luganda and English languages. Predetermined validated clinical thresholds were applied to the instrument in order to identify patients with poor health-related quality of life, that is, functional impairments or symptoms warranting concern. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with poor health-related quality of life in six subscales: Physical Function, Role Function, Emotional Function, Social Function, Pain and Fatigue. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 48 years. The majority self-reported poor functioning ranging between 61% (Emotional Function) to 79% (Physical Function) and symptoms (Fatigue 63%, Pain 80%) at clinically concerning levels. These patients were more likely to be older, without formal education and not currently working. Being an inpatient at the facility and being diagnosed with cervical cancer or leukaemia was a predictor of poor health-related quality of life. CONCLUSION: Improvement of cancer care in East Africa requires a comprehensive and integrated approach that addresses various challenges specific to the region. Such strategies include investment in healthcare infrastructure, for example, clinical guidelines to improve pain management, and patient education and support services.


Main findings: The majority of adult patients attending specialized cancer care in Uganda report impaired physical and emotional functioning, and pain, at levels that merit clinical concern.Added knowledge: The large proportion of in- and outpatients with poor self-reported health-related quality of life indicates supportive care needs, exceeding corresponding figures from high-income settings.Global health impact for policy and action: Improvement of cancer care in East Africa requires a comprehensive approach that should include investment in healthcare infrastructure, e.g. clinical guidelines to improve pain management, and patient education and support services.


Asunto(s)
Calidad de Vida , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Uganda/epidemiología , Dolor/epidemiología , Dolor/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Fatiga/epidemiología , Fatiga/etiología , Fatiga/psicología
6.
Blood ; 143(14): 1326-1327, 2024 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573609
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 418, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570820

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Approximately 1.3 billion people worldwide face barriers in accessing inclusive healthcare due to disabilities, leading to worse health outcomes, particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). However, there is a lack of training of healthcare workers about disability, both globally and in Uganda. OBJECTIVES: To use mixed research methods to develop a comprehensive training program with standardisedelements for healthcare workers in Uganda, focusing on improving their knowledge, attitudes, and skills inproviding care for people with disabilities. METHODS: The Medical Research Council (MRC) approach was employed to guide the development of the training intervention. We conducted an umbrella review to gather relevant literature on disability training for healthcare workers. Interviews were conducted with international experts to gain insights and perspectives on the topic. Additionally, interviews were undertaken with people with disabilities and healthcare workers in Uganda to understand their experiences and needs. A participatory workshop was organised involving key stakeholders, to collaboratively design the training material based on the findings from these data sources. RESULTS: Eight review articles examined training programs for healthcare workers on disability. Training settings ranged from specialised clinical settings to non-clinical settings, and the duration and evaluation methods of the training varied widely. Lectures and didactic methods were commonly used, often combined with other approaches such as case studies and simulations. The impact of the training was assessed through healthcare worker reports on attitudes, knowledge, and self-efficacy. Interviews emphasised the importance of involving people with disabilities in the training and improving communication and understanding between healthcare providers and people with disabilities. Five themes for a training on disability for healthcare workers were generated through the workshop, including responsibilities and rights, communication, informed consent, accommodation, and referral and connection, which were used to guide the development of the curriculum, training materials and training approach. CONCLUSION: This study presents a novel approach to develop a training program that aims to enhance healthcare services for people with disabilities in Uganda. The findings offer practical insights for the development of similar programs in LMICs. The effectiveness of the training program will be evaluated through a pilot test, and policy support is crucial for its successful implementation at scale.


KEY MESSAGES: 1. Healthcare workers require training to effectively address the health concerns of people with disabilities, yet this is rarely included in curricula worldwide. 2. Uganda recognises the importance of addressing this issue and is taking steps to improve training programs about disability for healthcare workers. 3. We used multiple research methods (umbrella review, semi-structured interviews, participatory research and collaborative design) to co-develop a comprehensive training program with standardised elements for healthcare workers in Uganda, focusing on improving their knowledge, attitudes, and skills in providing care for people with disabilities. 4. The developed training material could be adapted for healthcare workers in other resource-limited settings, and policy support is needed to ensure its implementation at scale.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Uganda , Personal de Salud/educación , Atención a la Salud , Actitud
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 422, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570839

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic presented a myriad of challenges for the health workforce around the world due to its escalating demand on service delivery. A motivated health workforce is critical to effectual emergency response and in some settings, incentivizing health workers motivates them and ensures continuity in the provision of health services. We describe health workforce experiences with incentives and dis-incentives during the COVID-19 response in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Senegal, Nigeria, and Uganda. METHODS: This is a multi-country qualitative research study involving four African countries namely: DRC, Nigeria, Senegal, and Uganda which assessed the workplace incentives instituted in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Key informant interviews (n = 60) were conducted with staff at ministries of health, policy makers and health workers. Interviews were virtual using the telephone or Zoom. They were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. Themes were identified and quotes were used to support findings. RESULTS: Health worker incentives included (i) financial rewards in the form of allowances and salary increments. These motivated health workers, sustaining the health system and the health workers' efforts during the COVID-19 response across the four countries. (ii) Non-financial incentives related to COVID-19 management such as provision of medicines/supplies, on the job trainings, medical care for health workers, social welfare including meals, transportation and housing, recognition, health insurance, psychosocial support, and supervision. Improvised determination and distribution of both financial and non-financial incentives were common across the countries. Dis-incentives included the lack of personal protective equipment, lack of transportation to health facilities during lockdown, long working hours, harassment by security forces and perceived unfairness in access to and inadequacy of financial incentives. CONCLUSION: Although important for worker motivation, financial and non-financial incentives generated some dis-incentives because of the perceived unfairness in their provision. Financial and non-financial incentives deployed during health emergencies should preferably be pre-determined, equitably and transparently provided because when arbitrarily applied, these same financial and non-financial incentives can potentially become dis-incentives. Moreover, financial incentives are useful only as far as they are administered together with non-financial incentives such as supportive and well-resourced work environments. The potential negative impacts of interventions such as service delivery re-organization and lockdown within already weakened systems need to be anticipated and due precautions exercised to reduce dis-incentives during emergencies.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Motivación , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Nigeria/epidemiología , República Democrática del Congo/epidemiología , Senegal , Uganda/epidemiología , Pandemias , Urgencias Médicas , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles
9.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e084539, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582537

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Unintended teenage pregnancies have become a global public health challenge, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. There is a notably high prevalence of unintended pregnancies among unmarried teenagers in Uganda. This study will develop an intervention programme using mobile money shops (vendors) as a platform to deliver sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) services to teenagers and assess its effectiveness and scalability in Uganda. METHODS AND ANALYSES: This hybrid study comprises two integral components: an intervention study to assess the effectiveness of vendor-mediated intervention and implementation research to evaluate the implementation process. 30 vendors will be recruited for both intervention and control arms in 2 municipalities in Eastern Uganda, which have a high unintended pregnancy prevalence rate among unmarried teens aged 15-19 years. A preintervention and postintervention repeated survey involving 600 participants for each arm will be conducted over 4 months. The primary outcome is the rate of condom users among teenage vendor users. The secondary outcomes include the rate of preference for receiving SRHR services at vendors and knowledge regarding SRHR. A difference-in-differences analysis will be used to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. The Bowen model will be employed to evaluate the implementation design. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Review Committee of Uganda Christen University and JICA Ogata Sadako Research Institute for Peace and Development in Japan. The findings will be widely disseminated. This study was registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network in Japan (UMIN000053332) on 12 January 2024. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: UMIN000053332.


Asunto(s)
Embarazo en Adolescencia , Embarazo no Planeado , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Adolescente , Uganda , Embarazo en Adolescencia/prevención & control , Conducta Sexual , Consejo
10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 249, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589779

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Uganda with 17.8 stillbirths per 1,000 deliveries in 2021, is among the countries with a high burden of stillbirths globally. In 2014, Uganda adopted the World Health Organization Every New-born Action Plan (ENAP), which targets < 10 stillbirths per 1,000 deliveries by 2035. Little is known about the trends of stillbirth burden since ENAP was introduced. We assessed the temporal, and spatial distribution of stillbirths, in Uganda, 2014-2020, to inform programming for safe pregnancies and deliveries. METHODS: We obtained and analysed stillbirth surveillance data from the District Health Information System, 2014-2020. A stillbirth was defined as the death of a foetus > 28 weeks of pregnancy or weighing > 1000 g before or during birth and reported to a health facility. We calculated annual incidence rates of stillbirths per 1,000 deliveries at district, regional, and national levels. We used logistic regression to determine the significance of trends. RESULTS: The overall national annual incidence of stillbirths decreased from 24/1,000 deliveries in 2014 to 17/1,000 deliveries in 2020. During the same period, reporting rates declined from 71% in 2014 to 46% in 2020. The central region continuously had the highest incidence rate for the past 5 years despite the largest decline (OR = 0.79; CI = 0.77-0.83, P < 0.001) while the eastern region had the smallest decline (OR = 0.59; CI = 0.57-0.61, P < 0.001). Districts with persistently high annual incidence rates of stillbirths (> 30/1000) included Mubende, Kalangala, Hoima, and Nebbi. There was no difference in the reporting rates of the most- vs. least-affected districts. CONCLUSION: Even with suboptimal reporting, the incidence of stillbirths remained above the national target. Specific areas in the country appear to have particularly high stillbirth rates. We recommend continuous capacity building in managing pregnant women with an emphasis on the most affected districts, and investigation into the reasons for low reporting.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones de Salud , Mortinato , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Mortinato/epidemiología , Uganda/epidemiología , Incidencia
11.
Microbiome ; 12(1): 72, 2024 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600530

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Zoonotic viruses cause substantial public health and socioeconomic problems worldwide. Understanding how viruses evolve and spread within and among wildlife species is a critical step when aiming for proactive identification of viral threats to prevent future pandemics. Despite the many proposed factors influencing viral diversity, the genomic diversity and structure of viral communities in East Africa are largely unknown. RESULTS: Using 38.3 Tb of metatranscriptomic data obtained via ultradeep sequencing, we screened vertebrate-associated viromes from 844 bats and 250 rodents from Kenya and Uganda collected from the wild. The 251 vertebrate-associated viral genomes of bats (212) and rodents (39) revealed the vast diversity, host-related variability, and high geographic specificity of viruses in East Africa. Among the surveyed viral families, Coronaviridae and Circoviridae showed low host specificity, high conservation of replication-associated proteins, high divergence among viral entry proteins, and frequent recombination. Despite major dispersal limitations, recurrent mutations, cocirculation, and occasional gene flow contribute to the high local diversity of viral genomes. CONCLUSIONS: The present study not only shows the landscape of bat and rodent viromes in this zoonotic hotspot but also reveals genomic signatures driven by the evolution and dispersal of the viral community, laying solid groundwork for future proactive surveillance of emerging zoonotic pathogens in wildlife. Video Abstract.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros , Virus , Humanos , Animales , Roedores , Animales Salvajes , Uganda/epidemiología , Recombinación Genética , Filogenia , Genoma Viral/genética
12.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1352787, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38601496

RESUMEN

The global emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) posed unprecedented challenges, jeopardizing decades of progress in healthcare systems, education, and poverty eradication. While proven interventions such as handwashing and mass vaccination offer effective means of curbing COVID-19 spread, their uptake remains low, potentially undermining future pandemic control efforts. This systematic review synthesized available evidence of the factors influencing vaccine uptake and handwashing practices in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania in the context of COVID-19 prevention and control. We conducted an extensive literature search across PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Out of 391 reviewed articles, 18 were eligible for inclusion. Some of the common barriers to handwashing in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania included lack of trust in the government's recommendations or messaging on the benefits of hand hygiene and lack of access to water, while some of the barriers to vaccine uptake included vaccine safety and efficacy concerns and inadequate awareness of vaccination sites and vaccine types. Enablers of handwashing practices encompassed hand hygiene programs and access to soap and water while those of COVID-19 vaccine uptake included improved access to vaccine knowledge and, socio-economic factors like a higher level of education. This review underscores the pivotal role of addressing these barriers while capitalizing on enablers to promote vaccination and handwashing practices. Stakeholders should employ awareness campaigns and community engagement, ensure vaccine and hygiene resources' accessibility, and leverage socio-economic incentives for effective COVID-19 prevention and control. Clinical trial registration: [https://clinicaltrials.gov/], identifier [CRD42023396303].


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Desinfección de las Manos , Humanos , COVID-19/prevención & control , Tanzanía , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Kenia , Uganda , Agua
13.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 450, 2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605317

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of risk factors and symptoms of cervical cancer has been found to promote uptake of screening of cervical cancer. Most interventions targeted women without much involvement of men (husbands/decision makers) who are often decision makers in many low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed at assessing baseline knowledge and intended behavior of both women and men to enable design specific targeted messages to increase uptake of cervical cancer screening and promote early detection of women with symptoms. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two districts in Western Uganda using the modified African Women Awareness of CANcer (AWACAN) questionnaire. Women aged 30-49 years and their husbands/decision makers were interviewed. Knowledge on risk factors and symptoms, intended behavior and barriers towards participation in cervical cancer screening and treatment were assessed. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were done to establish the association between knowledge levels and other factors comparing women to men. RESULTS: A total of 724 women and 692 men were enrolled. Of these, 71.0% women and 67.2% men had ever heard of cervical cancer and 8.8% women had ever been screened. Knowledge of risk factors and symptoms of cervical cancer was high and similar for both women and men. Lack of decision making by women was associated with low knowledge of risk factors (X2 = 14.542; p = 0.01), low education (X2 = 36.05, p < 0.01) and older age (X2 = 17.33, p < 0.01). Men had better help seeking behavior than women (X2 = 64.96, p < 0.01, OR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.31-0.50) and were more confident and skilled in recognising a sign or symptom of cervical cancer (X2 = 27.28, p < 0.01, OR = 0.52, CI (0.40-0.67). CONCLUSION: The baseline knowledge for cervical cancer was high in majority of participants and similar in both women and men. Their intended behavior towards screening was also positive but screening uptake was very low. This study suggests developing messages on multiple interventions to promote screening behavior in addition to education, consisting of male involvement, women empowerment and making services available, accessible and women friendly.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Femenino , Masculino , Humanos , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Uganda/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Factores de Riesgo , Tamizaje Masivo
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 391, 2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605355

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Vaccination has been recommended as one of the approaches for the control of COVID-19 pandemic. However, adequate vaccine coverage is critical to the effectiveness of the vaccine at population level. Data on acceptability of the vaccine in Ugandan urban areas are limited. This study examined the prevalence, factors associated with willingness to accept COVID-19 vaccine including reasons for not taking COVID-19 vaccine in a predominantly urban population of Wakiso, central Uganda. METHODS: Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study conducted between March 1st, 2021 and September 30th, 2021 in the urban population-based cohort of the Africa Medical and behavioral Sciences Organization (AMBSO). A Multivariable modified Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals of willingness to accept the COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: A total of 1,903 participants were enrolled in this study; 61% of whom were females. About 63% of participants indicated their willingness to accept the COVID-19 vaccine. Persons aged 13-19 years (aPR = 0.79; [95% CI: 0.74, 0.84]) or 20-29years (aPR = 0.93; [95% CI: 0.88, 0.98]) were less likely to accept the vaccine compared to persons aged 40-49 years. Persons with post-primary level of education (aPR = 1.05; [95% CI: 1.02, 1.09]) were more likely to accept the vaccine compared to persons with primary level of education. Additionally, students or individuals working in government (aPR = 1.13; [95% CI: 1.04, 1.23]) were more likely to accept the vaccine compared to individuals doing construction and Mechanic work as their main occupation. Reported reasons for not taking a COVID-19 vaccine included; concerns about side effects of the vaccine 154(57.0%), 64(23.7%) did not think the vaccines were effective, while 32(11.9%) did not like the vaccines. CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of individuals were not willing to accept the COVID-19 vaccine. Health education campaigns on vaccination within urban communities could help reduce COVID-19 vaccine misconceptions in the urban populations more especially the young and persons with low levels of formal education.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Estudios Transversales , Uganda/epidemiología , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunación
15.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e079497, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589266

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations between intravaginal practices (IVPs) and the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women using the dapivirine vaginal ring (DVR) or placebo vaginal ring in southwestern Uganda. METHODS: This was a retrospective secondary analysis of data collected from women at risk of HIV infection recruited into the Ring Study. The latter evaluated the safety and efficacy of the DVR between 2013 and 2016. At baseline, a behavioural questionnaire was administered to obtain information on sexual activity and IVP (exposure) defined as; insertion inside the vagina of any items aimed at cleaning the vagina for any reason before, during or after sex other than practices to manage menses. Each participant self-inserted the DVR/placebo and replaced it every 4 weeks for 2 years. Outcomes were diagnosis of STIs, that is, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), HIV and BV. The incidence rate of STI/BV was estimated, overall, by IVP and trial arm in single-event-per-participant and multiple-event-per-participant analyses. RESULTS: Of the 197 women enrolled, 66 (33.5%) were <25 years of age. Overall, 93 (47.2%) practised at least one form of IVP. During the follow-up, 172 (87.3%) women were diagnosed with an STI/BV at least once. The majority had TV (73.6%, n=145). Overall rate of STI/BV was 51.9/100 person-years, 95% CI 44.7 to 60.3 (IVP: yes, 51.0 (40.8-63.8) vs no, 52.6 (43.0-64.4)). IVPs were not statistically significantly associated with rate of individual STIs/BV. Similar results were observed when the analyses were conducted separately for each trial arm. CONCLUSIONS: IVP was not associated with risk of STIs/BV in the Ring Study. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01539226.


Asunto(s)
Dispositivos Anticonceptivos Femeninos , Infecciones por VIH , Pirimidinas , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Trichomonas vaginalis , Vaginosis Bacteriana , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Vaginosis Bacteriana/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Incidencia , Uganda/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/complicaciones
16.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0286894, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603636

RESUMEN

In 2021, an estimated 10.6 million people fell ill with tuberculosis (TB) globally and 11.3% were children. About 40% of children aged five to fourteen years with TB are missed annually. In Uganda, 44% of adolescents with chronic cough of more than two weeks do not seek care from health facilities. Therefore, strategies to promote health care-seeking behaviour among adolescents were urgently needed to resolve the gap. In regard to this, the research project utilized a before and after design, in which the number of adolescents (10-19years) enrolled in the project health facilities were compared before and after the intervention. The intervention package that comprised of tuberculosis awareness and screening information was developed together with adolescents, thus; a human-centred approach was used. The package consisted of TB screening cards, poster messages and a local song. The song was broadcasted in the community radios. Poster messages were deployed in the community by the village health teams (VHTS). The TB screening cards were given to TB positive and presumptive adults to screen adolescents at home. Adolescents that were found with TB symptoms were referred to the project health facilities. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of eligible adolescents were collected in a period of six months from Kawolo, Iganga, Gombe and Kiwoko health facilities. To determine the effectiveness of the package, before and after intervention data were equally collected. A total of 394 adolescents were enrolled, majority (76%) were school going. The intervention improved adolescent TB care seeking in the four project health facilities. The average number of adolescents screened increased from 159 to 309 (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.9, P<0.001, 95% CI [1.9, 2.0]). Those presumed to have TB increased from 13 to 29(IRR = 2.2, P<0.001, 95% CI [1.9, 2.5]). The ones tested with GeneXpert increased in average from 8 to 28(IRR = 3.3, P<0.001, 95% CI [2.8, 3.8]). There was a minimal increase in the average monthly number of adolescents with a positive result of 0.8, from 1.6 to 2.4(p = 0.170) and linkage to TB care services of 1.1, from 2 to 3.1(p = 0.154). The project improved uptake of TB services among adolescents along the TB care cascade. We recommend a robust and fully powered randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the Package.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud , Tuberculosis , Adulto , Niño , Humanos , Adolescente , Proyectos Piloto , Uganda/epidemiología , Tuberculosis/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Tuberculosis/terapia , Instituciones de Salud
17.
J Patient Rep Outcomes ; 8(1): 40, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564035

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Forcibly displaced populations are highly vulnerable to psychosocial distress and mental disorders, including alcohol misuse. In an ongoing trial that seeks to develop a transdiagnostic intervention addressing psychological distress and alcohol use disorders among conflict-affected populations, we will carry out a cost-effectiveness evaluation using a capability-based Oxford Capabilities Mental Health (OxCAP-MH) measure. The OxCAP-MH is a 16-item questionnaire developed from the Capability Approach, that covers multiple domains of functioning and welfare. The aim of the current paper is to present the results of the translation, cultural adaptation and valuation of the OxCAP-MH into Juba Arabic for South Sudanese refugees living in Uganda. We adhered to the official Translation and Linguistic Validation process of the OxCAP-MH. To carry out the translation, the Concept Elaboration document, official English version of the OxCAP-MH, and the Back-Translation Review Template were used. Four independent translators were used for forward and back translations. The reconciled translated version was then piloted in two focus group discussions (N = 16) in Rhino refugee settlement. A most important to least important valuation of the sixteen capability domains covered in the OxCAP-MH was also done. RESULTS: The Juba Arabic version of the OxCAP-MH was finalized following a systematic iterative process. The content of the Juba Arabic version remained unchanged, but key concepts were adapted to ensure cultural acceptability, feasibility, and comprehension of the measure in the local context of Rhino refugee settlement. Most participants had low levels of literacy and required support with filling in the tool. Participants suggested an additional capability that is currently not reflected in the OxCAP-MH, namely access to food. Furthermore, discussions around the valuation exercise of the sixteen domains led to two separate importance scales, which showed relevant differences. CONCLUSIONS: In this context, the OxCAP-MH was considered culturally acceptable. The valuation exercise proved cognitively demanding. Participants voiced confusion over how to answer the questions on the OxCAP-MH instrument due to low levels of literacy. These concerns invite consideration for future research to consider how measures such as the OxCAP-MH can be made more accessible to individuals with low literacy rates in resource poor settings.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo , Refugiados , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Uganda , Población Negra
18.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301586, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574007

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: While there have been several studies examining the understanding and quality of informed consent in clinical trials of cancer therapies, there is limited empirical research on health practitioners' experiences on the informed consent process in cancer care, especially from low resource settings. This study explored health professionals' perspectives on information disclosure during the consenting process in cancer care. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive approach was used to collect data. Face to face interviews were conducted with 10 purposively selected healthcare professionals who were actively involved in soliciting informed consent at a cancer treatment centre in Uganda. A thematic approach was used to interpret the results. RESULTS: There were five key themes, and these included information disclosure to patients; assessment of patients' cancer awareness, treatment preferences and expectations; informed consent practices; barriers to optimal informed consent and information disclosure; and recommendations for improving the consenting process. All respondents appreciated the value of disclosing accurate information to patients to facilitate informed decision making. However, the informed consent process was deemed sub-optimal. Respondents asserted that patients should be the psychological wellbeing of patients should be protected by mentally preparing them before disclosing potentially distressing information. All healthcare professionals were appreciative of the central role the family plays in the consenting process. CONCLUSION: Overall, informed consent practices were not ideal because of the several challenges. Inadequate time is devoted to information disclosure and patient education; there is lack of privacy; and informed consent documentation is poor. There is a need for significant improvement in informed consent practices and healthcare professional-patient communication.


Asunto(s)
Revelación , Neoplasias , Humanos , Uganda , Consentimiento Informado/psicología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Atención a la Salud , Neoplasias/terapia
19.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301512, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574088

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is a major contributor to childhood morbidity and mortality. As many infants are discharged by 24 hours of age, mothers are key in detecting severe forms of jaundice. Mothers with limited knowledge of NNJ have a hard time identifying these infants who could go on to have the worst outcomes. This study aimed to determine the effect of a jaundice education package delivered to mothers prior to hospital discharge on maternal knowledge after discharge. METHODS: This was a before and after interventional study involving an education package delivered through a video message and informational voucher. At 10-14 days after discharge, participants were followed up via telephone to assess their post-intervention knowledge. A paired t-test was used to determine the effectiveness of the intervention on knowledge improvement. Linear regression was used to determine predictors of baseline knowledge and of change in knowledge score. RESULTS: Of the 250 mothers recruited, 188 were fit for analysis. The mean knowledge score was 10.02 before and 14.61 after the intervention, a significant difference (p<0.001). Factors determining higher baseline knowledge included attendance of 4 or more antenatal visits (p < 0.001), having heard about NNJ previously (p < 0.001), having experienced an antepartum illness (p = 0.019) and higher maternal age (p = 0.015). Participants with poor baseline knowledge (ß = 7.523) and moderate baseline knowledge (ß = 3.114) had much more to gain from the intervention relative to those with high baseline knowledge (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Maternal knowledge of jaundice can be increased using a simple educational intervention, especially in settings where the burden of detection often falls on the mother. Further study is needed to determine the impact of this intervention on care seeking and infant outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Ictericia Neonatal , Ictericia , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Niño , Madres , Ictericia Neonatal/terapia , Ictericia Neonatal/diagnóstico , Uganda , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Hospitales , Derivación y Consulta
20.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 59(9): 1111-1121, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459720

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite numerous risk factors and serious consequences, little is known about metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) at population level in Africa. AIM: The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of MASLD in people living with and without HIV in Uganda. METHODS: We collected data from 37 communities in South Central Uganda between May 2016 and May 2018. We estimated MASLD prevalence using the fatty liver index and advanced liver fibrosis using the dynamic aspartate-to-alanine aminotransferase ratio. We collected additional data on sociodemographics, HIV and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the association between HIV, CVD risk factors and MASLD. RESULTS: We included 759 people with HIV and 704 HIV-negative participants aged 35-49. MASLD prevalence was 14% in women and 8% in men; advanced liver fibrosis prevalence was estimated to be <1%. MASLD prevalence was more common in women (15% vs. 13%) and men (9% vs. 6%) with HIV. Being female (odds ratio [OR] = 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-3.3) was associated with a higher odds of MASLD after adjustment for confounders; HIV infection was borderline associated with MASLD (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0-2.0). CONCLUSIONS: In a relatively young cohort in Uganda, 14% of women and 8% of men had MASLD. There was an indication of an association between HIV and MASLD in multivariable analysis. These data are the first to describe the population-level burden of MASLD in sub-Saharan Africa using data from a population-based cohort.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Hígado Graso , Infecciones por VIH , Enfermedades Metabólicas , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Uganda/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Cirrosis Hepática/complicaciones , Cirrosis Hepática/epidemiología , Aspartato Aminotransferasas , Hígado Graso/epidemiología
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...