Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.452
Filtrar
3.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110150, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148256

RESUMEN

Brownfields redevelopment creates opportunities for enhanced environmental conditions, improved physical and mental health, community cohesion, and economic prosperity. However, brownfields cleanup and recycling projects sometimes fail due to a lack of community engagement. Recent research suggests that such failures can stem from a lack of equitability in the planning process, especially when it comes to decision making. This paper examines issues of equitability in a recent brownfields redevelopment project in Tampa, Florida funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The project focused on an underserved and under-resourced community with long-term environmental burdens and health disparities. Our ethnographic research shows that, while the project engaged in multiple and intersecting efforts to include a diversity of community voices in the decision-making process, ultimately structural and organizational power imbalances in sustainability transitions influenced participation in redevelopment initiatives. This study suggests that attending to issues of power articulated through expressions of local and authoritative knowledge about environmental cleanup and redevelopment can lead to deeper levels of community engagement.


Asunto(s)
Restauración y Remediación Ambiental , Toma de Decisiones , Florida , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(3): 195, 2020 Feb 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086616

RESUMEN

With air quality issues in urban areas garnering increasing media attention, concerned citizens are beginning to engage with the technology as a means of identifying and responding to the environmental risks posed. However, while much has been written about the accuracy of the units, little research has been conducted into its effects on users. As such, this research deploys coping theory to explore the specific ways in which portable air quality sensors influence user behaviour. This is done using a qualitative exploratory design, targeting parents and carers of children on the school run. Drawing from survey and interview responses, the article illustrates the decision-making pathways underpinning engagement with monitors and the ways in which they influence behaviour and disrupt misconceptions around air pollution. The study demonstrates that personal environmental monitors can play a role in protecting children from air pollution on the school run. They can raise awareness about air pollution and disrupt misconceptions about where does and does not occur. They can also encourage the public to change their behaviour in an attempt to mitigate and manage risks. However, the findings additionally reveal that sensor technology does not generate a simple binary response among users, of behavioural change or not. When attempts at behavioural change fail to reduce risk, resulting negative feelings can lead to inaction. Hence, the relationship between the technology and the individual is entwined with various social circumstances often beyond a parent or carer's control. Thus, top-down support aimed at tackling air pollution at source is essential if this bottom-up technology is to fulfil its full potential.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Instituciones Académicas , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , Niño , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
9.
Science ; 367(6474): 125, 2020 01 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919195
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 94, 2020 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907685

RESUMEN

A multimetric water quality standards (WQS) attainment indicator (MMI) was created to assess the habitat quality of the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries. The indicator uses metrics of dissolved oxygen concentrations, water clarity assessments, underwater bay grass acreages, and season-specific chlorophyll a distributions. This suite of metrics is recognized as symptomatic of eutrophication and responsive to nutrient and sediment management actions. Habitat criteria for these metrics were established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to protect the survival, growth, and reproduction of tidal bay living resources. The criteria were adopted into state WQS used to define outcome targets of the regulatory 2010 Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL). Direct accounting of monitoring results compared with state standards would be the most direct measure of water quality status related to achieving habitat health goal conditions under the TMDL. However, the Chesapeake Bay Program long-term water quality monitoring program that supports Clean Water Act 303d water quality impairment assessments does not provide sufficient measurement resolution across all temporal scales represented in these TMDL-related WQS. Recognizing data and analysis gaps, we developed the indicator to provide estimates of WQS attainment for the Chesapeake Bay. The structure of the indicator uses metrics that have been measured consistently with the historical Chesapeake Bay tidal water quality data collections since 1985. The ability to compute scores on contemporary and historical data will provide for bay-wide and spatially explicit long-term trend evaluations of habitat quality.


Asunto(s)
Bahías/química , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Calidad del Agua/normas , Clorofila A/análisis , Ecosistema , Eutrofización/fisiología , Oxígeno/análisis , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
12.
J Environ Manage ; 255: 109888, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790870

RESUMEN

Since 2010, over $2.4 billion in public funds have been invested in the cleanup and restoration of the Great Lakes Basin through the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative. Efforts have targeted restoration of Areas of Concern and other degraded sites. While the ecological benefits of Great Lakes restoration have been highlighted by the Environmental Protection Agency, and the economic benefits studied by the binational International Joint Commission, public preferences for Great Lakes conservation and restoration have not been well studied. Using best-worst scaling and a seven-preference choice set, 1,215 Basin residents quantitatively ranked their preferred reasons to restore and conserve Great Lakes shorelines and waterways, with a focus on restoration at Areas of Concern and National Park Service sites. The analysis shows the most preferred reason for restoration and conservation is to promote human health, followed by the protection of native species, and the prevention of new invasive species from entering the Great Lakes. The least preferred reason for restoration and conservation is to improve local property values. Although respondents' top reason was human-centered, respondents' preferred ecosystem conservation over the benefits of economic revitalization, recreational use, and improved property values. Preferences analyzed by gender, income, and home location followed these same rankings. Preferences for habitat restoration and the prevention of invasive species align with the focus areas guiding the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, providing evidence of public support for this expansive, publicly funded restoration effort.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Lagos , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Humanos , Especies Introducidas , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(2): 778-789, 2020 01 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845802

RESUMEN

Increasing specific conductance (SC) and chloride concentrations [Cl] negatively affect many stream ecosystems. We characterized spatial variability in SC, [Cl], and exceedances of Environmental Protection Agency [Cl] criteria using nearly 30 million high-frequency observations (2-15 min intervals) for SC and modeled [Cl] from 93 sites across three regions in the eastern United States: Southeast, Mid-Atlantic, and New England. SC and [Cl] increase substantially from south to north and within regions with impervious surface cover (ISC). In the Southeast, [Cl] weakly correlates with ISC, no [Cl] exceedances occur, and [Cl] concentrations are constant with time. In the Mid-Atlantic and New England, [Cl] and [Cl] exceedances strongly correlate with ISC. [Cl] criteria are frequently exceeded at sites with greater than 9-10% ISC and median [Cl] higher than 30-80 mg/L. Tens to hundreds of [Cl] exceedances observed annually at most of these sites help explain previous research where stream ecosystems showed changes at (primarily nonwinter) [Cl] as low as 30-40 mg/L. Mid-Atlantic chronic [Cl] exceedances occur primarily in December-March. In New England, exceedances are common in nonwinter months. [Cl] is increasing at nearly all Mid-Atlantic and New England sites with the largest increases at sites with higher [Cl].


Asunto(s)
Ríos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , New England , Sales (Química) , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
16.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(12): 126001, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850800

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The National Institutes of Health's Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) initiative aims to understand the impact of environmental factors on childhood disease. Over 40,000 chemicals are approved for commercial use. The challenge is to prioritize chemicals for biomonitoring that may present health risk concerns. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to prioritize chemicals that may elicit child health effects of interest to ECHO but that have not been biomonitored nationwide and to identify gaps needing additional research. METHODS: We searched databases and the literature for chemicals in environmental media and in consumer products that were potentially toxic. We selected chemicals that were not measured in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. From over 700 chemicals, we chose 155 chemicals and created eight chemical panels. For each chemical, we compiled biomonitoring and toxicity data, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency exposure predictions, and annual production usage. We also applied predictive modeling to estimate toxicity. Using these data, we recommended chemicals either for biomonitoring, to be deferred pending additional data, or as low priority for biomonitoring. RESULTS: For the 155 chemicals, 97 were measured in food or water, 67 in air or house dust, and 52 in biospecimens. We found in vivo endocrine, developmental, reproductive, and neurotoxic effects for 61, 74, 47, and 32 chemicals, respectively. Eighty-six had data from high-throughput in vitro assays. Positive results for endocrine, developmental, neurotoxicity, and obesity were observed for 32, 11, 35, and 60 chemicals, respectively. Predictive modeling results suggested 90% are toxicants. Biomarkers were reported for 76 chemicals. Thirty-six were recommended for biomonitoring, 108 deferred pending additional research, and 11 as low priority for biomonitoring. DISCUSSION: The 108 deferred chemicals included those lacking biomonitoring methods or toxicity data, representing an opportunity for future research. Our evaluation was, in general, limited by the large number of unmeasured or untested chemicals. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5133.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Bases de Datos Factuales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861610

RESUMEN

Ethylene oxide (EtO) is a known carcinogen and mutagen associated with increased incidence of breast and blood cancers. The largest medical sterilization facility in Michigan had been assessed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as imposing an additional cancer risk greater than one in one thousand in nearby neighborhoods. This prompted the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (now referred to as the Department of Environment, Great Lakes, and Energy) to conduct an air quality modeling study of the ambient EtO impacts of the sterilization facility, followed by 24 h Summa canister sampling and TO-15 analysis in two phases. Inverse modeling of the measured 24 h EtO concentrations during the second phase yielded estimates of 594 lbs/year for the facility's total emissions of EtO and 0.247 µg/m3 for the urban background concentration. The inverse-modeled emissions are similar to reported emissions by the facility operator based on indoor air measurements and simple mass balance assumptions, while the inferred background concentration agrees with estimates from other field investigations. The estimated peak 24 h exposure to EtO caused by the sterilization facility in nearby neighborhoods was 1.83 µg/m3 above the background level, corresponding to an additional cancer risk of approximately one in one hundred, if assumed to represent annual mean exposure.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Óxido de Etileno/análisis , Modelos Teóricos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Óxido de Etileno/efectos adversos , Humanos , Michigan , Neoplasias/inducido químicamente , Medición de Riesgo , Esterilización , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
20.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113332, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606663

RESUMEN

Organophosphate esters (OPEs) in indoor dust were closely related to human health. However, OPE contamination in college library dust remained unknown at present. In this study, OPEs were first investigated in 78 indoor dust samples and 26 field blanks of 26 college libraries from 13 prefecture-level cities across China between October and December 2017. The total OPEs fell in the range of 8706-34872 ng/g, and were dominated by tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP). OPEs exhibited geography-specific distributions, with high levels in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. OPEs significantly correlated with population density and gross domestic product (p < 0.01), indicating the distinct effect of these two indicators on OPE pollution. Analysis of pollution source indicated volatilization and abrasion as main emission pathways of OPEs from OPEs-added products to dust. The daily exposure doses (DEDs) of OPEs via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact were similar for male and female students, ranging from 1.35 to 5.92 ng/kg-bw/day during study time in libraries (25% of day). High DEDs were found in Beijing, shanghai and Guangzhou, indicating high exposure risk of OPEs to college students in large cities. The non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of OPEs to college students were quantitatively evaluated based on the oral reference dose and cancer slope factor of OPEs recently updated by USEPA, and all much lower than the threshold risk values. However, the potential risk may occur if exposure to OPEs is high in other microenvironments over remaining hours of the day.


Asunto(s)
Polvo/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Organofosfatos/análisis , Universidades , Beijing , China , Ciudades , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Ésteres/análisis , Femenino , Retardadores de Llama/análisis , Humanos , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA