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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(6): 208-211, 2021 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571175

RESUMEN

Approximately 41% of adults aged 18-24 years in the United States are enrolled in a college or university (1). Wearing a face mask can reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (2), and many colleges and universities mandate mask use in public locations and outdoors when within six feet of others. Studies based on self-report have described mask use ranging from 69.1% to 86.1% among adults aged 18-29 years (3); however, more objective measures are needed. Direct observation by trained observers is the accepted standard for monitoring behaviors such as hand hygiene (4). In this investigation, direct observation was used to estimate the proportion of persons wearing masks and the proportion of persons wearing masks correctly (i.e., covering the nose and mouth and secured under the chin*) on campus and at nearby off-campus locations at six rural and suburban universities with mask mandates in the southern and western United States. Trained student observers recorded mask use for up to 8 weeks from fixed sites on campus and nearby. Among 17,200 observed persons, 85.5% wore masks, with 89.7% of those persons wearing the mask correctly (overall correct mask use: 76.7%). Among persons observed indoors, 91.7% wore masks correctly. The proportion correctly wearing masks indoors varied by mask type, from 96.8% for N95-type masks and 92.2% for cloth masks to 78.9% for bandanas, scarves, and similar face coverings. Observed indoor mask use was high at these six universities with mask mandates. Colleges and universities can use direct observation findings to tailor training and messaging toward increasing correct mask use.


Asunto(s)
Máscaras/estadística & datos numéricos , Máscaras/normas , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Estudiantes/psicología , Universidades/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adolescente , /prevención & control , Humanos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
8.
PLoS Med ; 16(6): e1002821, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211777

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: College affirmative action programs seek to expand socioeconomic opportunities for underrepresented minorities. Between 1996 and 2013, 9 US states-including California, Texas, and Michigan-banned race-based affirmative action in college admissions. Because economic opportunity is known to motivate health behavior, banning affirmative action policies may have important adverse spillover effects on health risk behaviors. We used a quasi-experimental research design to evaluate the association between college affirmative action bans and health risk behaviors among underrepresented minority (Black, Hispanic, and Native American) adolescents. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a difference-in-differences analysis using data from the 1991-2015 US national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). We compared changes in self-reported cigarette smoking and alcohol use in the 30 days prior to survey among underrepresented minority 11th and 12th graders in states implementing college affirmative action bans (Arizona, California, Florida, Michigan, Nebraska, New Hampshire, Oklahoma, Texas, and Washington) versus outcomes among those residing in states not implementing bans (n = 35 control states). We also assessed whether underrepresented minority adults surveyed in the 1992-2015 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) who were exposed to affirmative action bans during their late high school years continued to smoke cigarettes between the ages of 19 and 30 years. Models adjusted for individual demographic characteristics, state and year fixed effects, and state-specific secular trends. In the YRBS (n = 34,988 to 36,268, depending on the outcome), cigarette smoking in the past 30 days among underrepresented minority 11th-12th graders increased by 3.8 percentage points after exposure to an affirmative action ban (95% CI: 2.0, 5.7; p < 0.001). In addition, there were also apparent increases in past-30-day alcohol use, by 5.9 percentage points (95% CI: 0.3, 12.2; p = 0.041), and past-30-day binge drinking, by 3.5 percentage points (95% CI: -0.1, 7.2, p = 0.058), among underrepresented minority 11th-12th graders, though in both cases adjustment for multiple comparisons resulted in failure to reject the null hypothesis (adjusted p = 0.083 for both outcomes). Underrepresented minority adults in the TUS-CPS (n = 71,575) exposed to bans during their late high school years were also 1.8 percentage points more likely to report current smoking (95% CI: 0.1, 3.6; p = 0.037). Event study analyses revealed a discrete break for all health behaviors timed with policy discussion and implementation. No substantive or statistically significant effects were found for non-Hispanic White adolescents, and the findings were robust to a number of additional specification checks. The limitations of the study include the continued potential for residual confounding from unmeasured time-varying factors and the potential for recall bias due to the self-reported nature of the health risk behavior outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found evidence that some health risk behaviors increased among underrepresented minority adolescents after exposure to state-level college affirmative action bans. These findings suggest that social policies that shift socioeconomic opportunities could have meaningful population health consequences.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad/etnología , Conductas de Riesgo para la Salud , Grupos Minoritarios/legislación & jurisprudencia , Fumar/etnología , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Universidades/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adolescente , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/métodos , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Dev World Bioeth ; 19(2): 64-75, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091553

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Scientific researchers are expected to follow the professional norms in their own domain. With a growing number of scientific publications retracted and research misconduct cases revealed in recent years, Chinese biomedical research integrity is questioned. As institutions educating and training future researchers, universities and the guidance they provide are important for the research quality and integrity of the country. Therefore, through a review of the guidance and policy documents on research integrity in Chinese universities, this work aims to investigate how the professional norms are specified in these documents. METHODS: After a stratified sampling, 53 universities were selected. Their guidance and policy documents on research integrity were collected via a web search of their official websites. The search was confirmed by these universities. Then the content of all the collected documents were analyzed using inductive content analysis. RESULTS: 118 active university documents were collected and analyzed. Most of the Chinese universities we investigated had their own guidance or policy on research integrity. They listed principles or examples of desired and undesired academic practices, investigation procedures and punishments of academic misconduct, and put forward measures to promote research integrity. Differences on specific practices and principles were observed between university groups and with European university documents. CONCLUSION: Despite the discrepancy they have, all these documents were designed to promote research integrity and cultivate a good research environment in Chinese biomedical domain. Nevertheless, there is still room for improvement, for example, through more consultation of international guidance.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/normas , Adhesión a Directriz , Investigadores/normas , Mala Conducta Científica/ética , Universidades/ética , Investigación Biomédica/ética , Investigación Biomédica/legislación & jurisprudencia , China , Ética en Investigación , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Plagio , Formulación de Políticas , Investigadores/legislación & jurisprudencia , Mala Conducta Científica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Universidades/legislación & jurisprudencia
12.
Psychiatr Serv ; 70(4): 350-352, 2019 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841841

RESUMEN

What degree of responsibility do universities have to prevent student suicide or violence on campus? This question was the focus of two recent state supreme court decisions, in Massachusetts and in California. Looking to legal rules that define when duties exist to protect third parties, both courts held that the unique aspects of the campus setting create a responsibility for universities to take reasonable steps to protect students from themselves and each other. Widening the scope of institutional liability in this way could encourage schools to overreact to students with mental health problems, making them less likely to come forward for treatment.


Asunto(s)
Responsabilidad Legal , Estudiantes/psicología , Suicidio/psicología , Universidades/legislación & jurisprudencia , Violencia/psicología , California , Humanos , Massachusetts , Decisiones de la Corte Suprema , Estados Unidos
13.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 43(5): 1007-1015, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865305

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol consumption poses significant hazards to health and safety on college campuses. While substantial research exists regarding effective policies for preventing alcohol-related problems in the communities surrounding campuses, on-campus alcohol policies have received far less attention. METHODS: Official campus alcohol policies (CAPs) were retrieved from the websites of the 15 member schools of the Maryland Collaborative to Reduce College Drinking and Related Problems, a voluntary statewide collaborative. CAPs were assessed for accessibility, clarity, and effectiveness. In addition to assessing whether campuses were in compliance with federal regulations for comprehensiveness of policies, a measure of likely policy effectiveness was developed through the use of 2 Delphi panels drawing on alcohol policy researchers and on-campus and community practitioners, respectively. The panels rated 35 potential policies and 13 possible sanctions; lists of policies and sanctions were compiled primarily from what was already in existence at 1 or more member schools. RESULTS: For most campuses, the CAPs could be located within 30 seconds, but tended to be spread across multiple web pages. Language used to communicate the policies tended to be complex and above the reading level of someone with a high school education. At least half of the schools had less than half of the possible policies rated most or somewhat effective by the Delphi panels. Schools were more likely to employ the most effective sanctions, but somewhat and ineffective sanctions were also not uncommon. CONCLUSIONS: CAPs are an important element in reducing negative consequences of alcohol consumption on college campuses. A higher level of research scrutiny is warranted to understand the extent to which CAPs are associated with excessive drinking, but this research describes an evidence- and expert-informed assessment approach that colleges can use to regularly analyze and update their CAPS.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad/psicología , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/normas , Política Organizacional , Servicios de Salud para Estudiantes/normas , Universidades/normas , Adolescente , Técnica Delfos , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Maryland/epidemiología , Servicios de Salud para Estudiantes/legislación & jurisprudencia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Universidades/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adulto Joven
19.
Law Hum Behav ; 43(2): 180-192, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556703

RESUMEN

Little is known about actual incidents of gender-based violence reported by college students or the campus adjudication process or outcomes of reported cases. Data from Annual Security Reports (ASRs) and Title IX Coordinators was used to examine the context, processes, and outcomes of reported incidents of sexual misconduct (N = 1,054) at institutions of higher education (IHEs) in a Mid-Atlantic state. Results showed that ASRs undercounted incidents of sexual misconduct. Few incidents reported to Title IX Coordinators resulted in a formal Title IX complaint, and fewer still resulted in a finding of responsibility or suspension/expulsion of the responsible student. The primary outcome of reports were victim services, not perpetrator punishments. Significant variability within and between IHE types was also uncovered. Findings suggest that better data collection as well as research on victim engagement in the Title IX complaint process and on sexual misconduct at community colleges and independent IHEs is needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Delitos Sexuales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Universidades/legislación & jurisprudencia , Regulación Gubernamental , Adhesión a Directriz/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Estados Unidos
20.
J Forensic Nurs ; 14(4): 238-247, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30433911

RESUMEN

Although federal legislation designed to advance sexual misconduct policies at institutes of higher education (IHEs) has been in effect for decades, recent national attention has put more pressure on IHEs to combat sexual violence on their campuses. Thus, the past few years have yielded significant research that examines federal compliance, dissemination, and perception of IHE sexual misconduct policies. This integrative review was conducted to assess sexual misconduct policies in the United States and the potential to prevent and combat sexual violence at IHEs through these policies. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and using a quality assessment tool to ensure rigor, eight studies were synthesized. Findings indicate that IHE sexual misconduct policies vary widely and that most IHEs lack transparent, legislation-compliant policies. There remains a need for research examining the association between sexual misconduct policy, campus climate, and students' behavior, so as to better inform future sexual misconduct interventions and IHE policies. Forensic nurses may be key stakeholders in policy development that is currently missing from the literature.


Asunto(s)
Política Organizacional , Delitos Sexuales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Acoso Sexual/legislación & jurisprudencia , Universidades/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Estados Unidos
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