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6.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e24292, 2021 04 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667173

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Significant uncertainty has existed about the safety of reopening college and university campuses before the COVID-19 pandemic is better controlled. Moreover, little is known about the effects that on-campus students may have on local higher-risk communities. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the range of potential community and campus COVID-19 exposures, infections, and mortality under various university reopening plans and uncertainties. METHODS: We developed campus-only, community-only, and campus × community epidemic differential equations and agent-based models, with inputs estimated via published and grey literature, expert opinion, and parameter search algorithms. Campus opening plans (spanning fully open, hybrid, and fully virtual approaches) were identified from websites and publications. Additional student and community exposures, infections, and mortality over 16-week semesters were estimated under each scenario, with 10% trimmed medians, standard deviations, and probability intervals computed to omit extreme outliers. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to inform potential effective interventions. RESULTS: Predicted 16-week campus and additional community exposures, infections, and mortality for the base case with no precautions (or negligible compliance) varied significantly from their medians (4- to 10-fold). Over 5% of on-campus students were infected after a mean of 76 (SD 17) days, with the greatest increase (first inflection point) occurring on average on day 84 (SD 10.2 days) of the semester and with total additional community exposures, infections, and mortality ranging from 1-187, 13-820, and 1-21 per 10,000 residents, respectively. Reopening precautions reduced infections by 24%-26% and mortality by 36%-50% in both populations. Beyond campus and community reproductive numbers, sensitivity analysis indicated no dominant factors that interventions could primarily target to reduce the magnitude and variability in outcomes, suggesting the importance of comprehensive public health measures and surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: Community and campus COVID-19 exposures, infections, and mortality resulting from reopening campuses are highly unpredictable regardless of precautions. Public health implications include the need for effective surveillance and flexible campus operations.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Universidades/organización & administración , /mortalidad , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/epidemiología , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Medición de Riesgo , Incertidumbre , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
8.
Soc Work Health Care ; 60(1): 106-116, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555991

RESUMEN

The issue of dating and sexual violence (DSV) on college campuses has received increased attention nationwide as a criminal justice and public health issue. College and university employed social workers play a critical role in preventing and responding to campus DSV through direct clinical services to students as well as prevention through educational programming and training. COVID-19 has negative implications for DSV student victims, as well as service delivery and accessibility. This paper examines the innovative methods used by university employed social work clinicians and educators to meet evolving mental health care needs and continue violence prevention services during COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Servicios de Salud Mental/organización & administración , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Servicio Social/organización & administración , Universidades/organización & administración , Consejo/organización & administración , Educación en Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/prevención & control , Delitos Sexuales/prevención & control , Telemedicina/organización & administración
9.
South Med J ; 114(2): 81-85, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537788

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This pilot study explores the additional psychiatric problems and their associated professional mental health utilization by students in recovery from addiction in collegiate recovery communities (CRCs) across the US South. The article has three goals: introduce CRCs to a broad medical audience; identify coexisting psychiatric concerns among students in CRC programs; and determine these students' type, rate, and location of professional mental health services. METHODS: During the 2014-2015 academic year, this study recruited participants through e-mail to all known CRC directors, who had the option of forwarding a survey link to its participants. RESULTS: Fourteen percent of students in 13 known southern CRCs completed the survey. Seventy-four percent of them reported at least one coexisting psychiatric issue. The most common issue was depression, followed by anxiety. Other reported disorders included attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, eating disorder, bipolar disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, psychotic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Most of the students in southern CRCs worked with psychiatrists and other therapists off-campus on their psychiatric problems. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study suggests that a significant number of students in southern CRCs have additional psychiatric problems that require professional mental health services.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Compulsiva/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Servicios de Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/psicología , Adulto , Comorbilidad , Conducta Compulsiva/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades/organización & administración , Adulto Joven
11.
Mo Med ; 118(1): 45-49, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551485

RESUMEN

Healthcare providers perform lifesaving work in unusually stressful work environments due to the challenges and related risks of battling the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic. The potential personal and professional toll is substantial. This article describes how one healthcare facility benefited from existing peer support resources to address workforce well-being, ensuring that resources were available to support workforce resilience throughout the protracted COVID response.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Fuerza Laboral en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Laboral/normas , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica/fisiología , Adulto , /epidemiología , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Recursos en Salud/provisión & distribución , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental/tendencias , Missouri/epidemiología , Estrés Laboral/epidemiología , Estrés Laboral/psicología , /aislamiento & purificación , Grupos de Autoayuda/organización & administración , Universidades/organización & administración , Lugar de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e23819, 2021 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429742

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Non-pharmacological intervention methods such as rehabilitation training or psychological treatment are mostly used in the treatment of depression owing to the limitation of adverse reactions such as drug treatment. However, the best non-pharmacological treatment strategy for depression in college students is unclear. Therefore, it is significant to discover non-drug intervention methods that can improve the depression symptoms of college students. METHOD: Electronic databases as of Sep 15, 2019, were searched, and reference lists and pharmaceutical dossiers were reviewed to detect published and unpublished studies from the date of their inception to Sep 15, 2019. With document quality evaluations and data extraction, Meta-Analysis was performed using a random effect model to evaluate the intervention effect of the aerobic exercise, traditional Chinese exercises, and meditation. RESULTS: A total of 44 original studies were included. The random effect model was used to combine the effect values with Standard Mean Difference (SMD), and the results were: aerobic exercise [SMD = -0.53, 95% CI (-0.77, -0.30), I2 = 80%, P < .001], traditional Chinese exercises [SMD = -0.42, 95% CI (-0.74, -0.10), I2 = 90%, P = .01], meditation [SMD = -0.51, 95% CI (-0.90, -0.12), I2 = 79%, P = .01]. There was greater heterogeneity among the included studies: aerobic exercise (I2 = 80%, P < .001), traditional Chinese medicine methods (I2 = 90%, P < .001), and meditation (I2 = 79%, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the depression symptoms of college students can be effectively improved by aerobic exercise, traditional Chinese exercises, and meditation. Aerobic exercise would have a better effect on anxiety and stress while traditional Chinese exercise would have a better effect on stress. Further research (such as high-quality randomized controlled trials and long-term follow-up) is required to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise, traditional Chinese exercise, and meditation on the depressive symptoms of college students to further apply complementary and alternative therapies. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The results of the effects of aerobic exercise, traditional Chinese exercises, and meditation on depressive symptoms for a college student will be reported in a peer-reviewed publication. Hopefully, our findings from this meta-analysis can provide the most up-to-date evidence for the contribution to preventing the occurrence of depressive symptoms in college students.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/terapia , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Meditación/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Distribución de Chi-Cuadrado , Depresión/psicología , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Humanos , Meditación/métodos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Universidades/organización & administración
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(1): 14-19, 2021 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411699

RESUMEN

During early August 2020, county-level incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) generally decreased across the United States, compared with incidence earlier in the summer (1); however, among young adults aged 18-22 years, incidence increased (2). Increases in incidence among adults aged ≥60 years, who might be more susceptible to severe COVID-19-related illness, have followed increases in younger adults (aged 20-39 years) by an average of 8.7 days (3). Institutions of higher education (colleges and universities) have been identified as settings where incidence among young adults increased during August (4,5). Understanding the extent to which these settings have affected county-level COVID-19 incidence can inform ongoing college and university operations and future planning. To evaluate the effect of large colleges or universities and school instructional format* (remote or in-person) on COVID-19 incidence, start dates and instructional formats for the fall 2020 semester were identified for all not-for-profit large U.S. colleges and universities (≥20,000 total enrolled students). Among counties with large colleges and universities (university counties) included in the analysis, remote-instruction university counties (22) experienced a 17.9% decline in mean COVID-19 incidence during the 21 days before through 21 days after the start of classes (from 17.9 to 14.7 cases per 100,000), and in-person instruction university counties (79) experienced a 56.2% increase in COVID-19 incidence, from 15.3 to 23.9 cases per 100,000. Counties without large colleges and universities (nonuniversity counties) (3,009) experienced a 5.9% decline in COVID-19 incidence, from 15.3 to 14.4 cases per 100,000. Similar findings were observed for percentage of positive test results and hotspot status (i.e., increasing among in-person-instruction university counties). In-person instruction at colleges and universities was associated with increased county-level COVID-19 incidence and percentage test positivity. Implementation of increased mitigation efforts at colleges and universities could minimize on-campus COVID-19 transmission.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Universidades/organización & administración , Adolescente , Adulto , /transmisión , Humanos , Incidencia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
16.
Work ; 68(1): 45-67, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459679

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The sanitary emergency due to COVID-19 virus obliged people to face up several changes in their everyday life becauseWorld Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines and countries' Health Systems imposed lockdown of activities and social distancing to flatten the infection curve. One of these rapid changes involved students and professors that had to turn the traditional "in presence" classes into online courses facing several problems for educational delivery. OBJECTIVES: This work aimed to investigate the factors that affected both teaching/learning effectiveness and general human comfort and wellbeing after the sudden transition from classrooms to eLearning platforms due to COVID-19 in Italy. METHODS: A workshop, involving students and experts of Human Factors and Ergonomics, has been performed to identify aspects/factors that could influence online learning. Then, from workshop output and literature studies, a survey composed of two questionnaires (one for students and one for teachers) has been developed and spread out among Italian universities students and professors. RESULTS: 700 people answered the questionnaires. Data have been analysed and discussed to define the most important changes due to the new eLearning approach. Absence of interactions with colleagues and the necessity to use several devices were some of the aspects coming out from questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows an overview of factors influencing both teaching/learning effectiveness and general human comfort and wellbeing. Results could be considered as a basis for future investigation and optimization about the dependencies and correlations among identified factors and the characteristics of the products/interaction/environment during eLearning courses.


Asunto(s)
Salud del Niño/normas , Educación a Distancia/normas , Cuarentena/tendencias , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Transferencia de Experiencia en Psicología/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , /transmisión , Salud del Niño/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación a Distancia/métodos , Educación a Distancia/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuarentena/métodos , Estudiantes/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades/organización & administración , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(4): 118-122, 2021 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507894

RESUMEN

Institutions of higher education adopted different approaches for the fall semester 2020 in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Approximately 45% of colleges and universities implemented online instruction, more than one fourth (27%) provided in-person instruction, and 21% used a hybrid model (1). Although CDC has published COVID-19 guidance for institutions of higher education (2-4), little has been published regarding the response to COVID-19 outbreaks on college and university campuses (5). In August 2020, an Indiana university with approximately 12,000 students (including 8,000 undergraduate students, 85% of whom lived on campus) implemented various public health measures to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Despite these measures, the university experienced an outbreak involving 371 cases during the first few weeks of the fall semester. The majority of cases occurred among undergraduate students living off campus, and several large off-campus gatherings were identified as common sources of exposure. Rather than sending students home, the university switched from in-person to online instruction for undergraduate students and instituted a series of campus restrictions for 2 weeks, during which testing, contact tracing, and isolation and quarantine programs were substantially enhanced, along with educational efforts highlighting the need for strict adherence to the mitigation measures. After 2 weeks, the university implemented a phased return to in-person instruction (with 85% of classes offered in person) and resumption of student life activities. This report describes the outbreak and the data-driven, targeted interventions and rapid escalation of testing, tracing, and isolation measures that enabled the medium-sized university to resume in-person instruction and campus activities. These strategies might prove useful to other colleges and universities responding to campus outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Universidades/organización & administración , /epidemiología , Trazado de Contacto , Humanos , Indiana/epidemiología , Aislamiento de Pacientes , Cuarentena
18.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 34(3): 672-674, 2021 03 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355440

RESUMEN

As COVID-19 swept across the world, it created a global pandemic and an unpredictable and challenging job market. This article discusses the future of the 2020-2021 job market in both academia and industry in the midst and aftermath of this pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Biofarmacia/economía , Industria Química/economía , Universidades/economía , Biofarmacia/organización & administración , Biofarmacia/tendencias , Industria Química/organización & administración , Humanos , Pandemias , Investigación/economía , Investigación/organización & administración , Red Social , Desempleo , Universidades/organización & administración , Recursos Humanos
20.
Health Educ Behav ; 48(1): 29-33, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322924

RESUMEN

Decreased engagement in preventive services, including vaccination, during the COVID-19 pandemic represents a grave threat to global health. We use the case of the Bom Retiro Public Health Clinic in São Paulo, Brazil, to underscore how continuity of care is not only feasible, but a crucial part of health as a human right. The long-standing relationship between the clinic and neighborhood residents has facilitated ongoing management of physical and mental health conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the clinic's history of confronting infectious diseases has equipped it to adapt preventive services to meet patients' needs during the pandemic. Our academic-community partnership used a multidisciplinary approach, relying on analysis of historical data, ethnographic data, and direct clinical experience. We identify specific prevention strategies alongside areas for improvement. We conclude that the clinic serves as a model for continuity of care in urban settings during a pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Servicios Preventivos de Salud/organización & administración , Atención Primaria de Salud/organización & administración , Servicios Urbanos de Salud/organización & administración , Brasil/epidemiología , Relaciones Comunidad-Institución , Humanos , Pandemias , Factores Socioeconómicos , Universidades/organización & administración
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