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1.
J Environ Radioact ; 241: 106773, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781090

RESUMEN

With the extensive exploitation of nuclear energy and uranium, the problem of uranium-contaminated soil is becoming increasingly prominent. In recent years, various technologies for remediation of uranium-contaminated soil have emerged, such as bioremediation, physical remediation and chemical remediation. Bioremediation technology has the widespread attention because of its environmental friendliness, low cost and high economic benefits. This paper mainly reviews the evaluation index of uranium-contaminated soil, soil remediation technology and its advantages and disadvantages, introduces especially the research status of soil bioremediation technology in detail, and puts forward some suggestions and prospects for bioremediation of uranium-contaminated soil.


Asunto(s)
Restauración y Remediación Ambiental , Monitoreo de Radiación , Contaminantes del Suelo , Uranio , Biodegradación Ambiental , Suelo , Tecnología , Uranio/análisis
2.
J Environ Radioact ; 241: 106776, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823202

RESUMEN

Due to mining activities, concentration of uranium (U) in the environment nearby former and operating sites can be higher than in other areas. The derivation of quality criteria for U in freshwater ecosystems, rivers and lakes includes the consideration of contaminated sediments and the associated risk to the benthic life. Therefore, the derivation of a quality criteria for sediment has been viewed as a logical and necessary extension of the work already done to establish water quality criteria. In order to contribute to the determination of a Quality Standard for sediment (QSsediment) according to the European recommendations, this study focuses on the acquisition of a new toxicity dataset, to enrich the few rare existing data, most often unsuitable. A basic set of organisms, including three complementary benthic organisms (Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca, Myriophyllum aquaticum), was chronically exposed to U spiked to a standard laboratory-formulated sediment, according to the related bioassay guidelines (ISO/FDIS16303, OECD 218/9, ISO/DIS 16191). We looked to determine when possible both NOEC and EC10 values for each organism. For C. riparius, a NOEC (emergence rate) value was estimated at 62 mgU, kg-1, dm and the EC10 value reached 188 mgU, kg-1, dm (CI95% 40-885 mgU kg-1, dm). For H. azteca, a NOEC (survival rate) value of 40 mgU kg-1, dm was observed while the EC10 value at 296 mgU kg-1, dm (CI95% = 155-436 mgU kg-1, dm) was slightly higher than for growth at 199 mgU kg-1, dm (CI95% = 107-291 mgU kg-1 dm). Finally, the less sensitive organism seemed to be the plant, M. aquaticum, for which we determined a NOEC value of 100 mgU kg-1, dm. Results obtained regarding the toxicity of U made it possible to suggest a preliminary QSsediment value of 4 mgU kg-1, dry mass. This value was shown conservative compared to U sediment quality criteria derived by other jurisdictions.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo de Radiación , Uranio , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Ecosistema , Sedimentos Geológicos , Laboratorios , Uranio/toxicidad , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150482, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844331

RESUMEN

This work reports the first high-resolution deposition records of anthropogenic uranium (236U and 233U) in a sediment core taken at the continental slope of the Philippine Sea off Mindanao Island in the equatorial northwest Pacific Ocean. Two notable peaks were observed in both profiles of 236U and 233U concentrations, with a narrower peak in 1951-1957 corresponding to close-in Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) signal, and a broader peak in 1960s-1980s corresponding to the global fallout from nuclear weapons testing. 236U and 233U areal cumulative inventories in the studied sediment core are (2.79 ± 0.20) ∙ 1012 atom ∙ m-2 and (3.12 ± 0.41) ∙ 1010 atom ∙ m-2, respectively, about 20-30% of reported 233U and 236U inventories from the direct global fallout deposition. The overall 233U/236U atomic ratios obtained in this work vary within (0.3-3.5) âˆ™ 10-2, with an integrated 233U/236U atomic ratio of (1.12 ± 0.17) âˆ™ 10-2. The contribution from global fallout and close-in PPG fallout to 236U in the sediment core is estimated to be about 69% and 31%, respectively. We believe the main driving process for anthropogenic uranium deposition in the Philippine sediment is continuous scavenging of dissolved 236U from the surface seawater by sinking particles.


Asunto(s)
Plutonio , Monitoreo de Radiación , Ceniza Radiactiva , Uranio , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua , Océano Pacífico , Filipinas , Plutonio/análisis , Ceniza Radiactiva/análisis , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua/análisis
4.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113835, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600421

RESUMEN

Mining of uranium for defense-related purposes has left a substantial legacy of pollution that threatens human and environmental health. Contaminated waters in the arid southwest are of particular concern, as water resource demand and water scarcity issues become more pronounced. The development of remediation strategies to treat uranium impacted waters will become increasingly vital to meet future water needs. Ion flotation is one technology with the potential to address legacy uranium contamination. The green biosurfactant rhamnolipid has been shown to bind uranium and act as an effective collector in ion flotation. In this study, uranium contaminated groundwater (∼440 µg L-1 U) from the Monument Valley processing site in northeast Arizona was used as a model solution to test the uranium removal efficacy of ion flotation with biosynthetic (bio-mRL) and three synthetic monorhamnolipids with varying hydrophobic chain lengths: Rha-C10-C10, Rha-C12-C12, and Rha-C14-C14. At the groundwater's native pH 8, and at an adjusted pH 7, no uranium was removed from solution by any collector. However, at pH 6.5 bio-mRL and Rha-C10-C10 removed 239.2 µg L-1 and 242.4 µg L-1 of uranium, respectively. By further decreasing the pH to 5.5, bio-mRL was able to reduce the uranium concentration to near or below the Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 30 µg L-1. For the Rha-C12-C12 and Rha-C14-C14 collector ligands, decreasing the pH to 7 or below reduced the foam stability and quantity, such that these collectors were not suitable for treating this groundwater. To contextualize the results, a geochemical analysis of the groundwater was conducted, and a consideration of uranium speciation is described. Based on this study, the efficacy of monorhamnolipid-based ion flotation in real world groundwater has been demonstrated with suitable solution conditions and collectors identified.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Uranio , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua , Contaminación Ambiental , Humanos , Minería , Uranio/análisis , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua/análisis
5.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118385, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673157

RESUMEN

The adverse health effects associated with the inhalation and ingestion of naturally occurring radon gas produced during the uranium decay chain mean that there is a need to identify high-risk areas. This study detected radon-prone areas using a geographic information system (GIS)-based probabilistic and machine learning methods, including the frequency ratio (FR) model and a convolutional neural network (CNN). Ten influencing factors, namely elevation, slope, the topographic wetness index (TWI), valley depth, fault density, lithology, and the average soil copper (Cu), calcium oxide (Cao), ferric oxide (Fe2O3), and lead (Pb) concentrations, were analyzed. In total, 27 rock samples with high activity concentration index values were divided randomly into training and validation datasets (70:30 ratio) to train the models. Areas were categorized as very high, high, moderate, low, and very low radon areas. According to the models, approximately 40% of the study area was classified as very high or high risk. Finally, the radon potential maps were validated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis. This showed that the CNN algorithm was superior to the FR method; for the former, AUC values of 0.844 and 0.840 were obtained using the training and validation datasets, respectively. However, both algorithms had high predictive power. Slope, lithology, and TWI were the best predictors of radon-affected areas. These results provide new information regarding the spatial distribution of radon, and could inform the development of new residential areas. Radon screening is important to reduce public exposure to high levels of naturally occurring radiation.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Radiactivos del Aire , Aprendizaje Profundo , Monitoreo de Radiación , Radón , Uranio , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Aire/análisis , Algoritmos , Radón/análisis , Uranio/análisis
6.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 132193, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826906

RESUMEN

In order to remove and recover uranium from acidic uranium-bearing wastewater in uranium mining and metallurgy. Herein, a novel chitosan/Chlorella pyrenoidosa composite adsorbent bearing phosphate ligand (CSP/CP) was designed and synthesized, demonstrating a high uranium adsorption capacity at a pH of 5 and excellent selectivity in an aqueous solution with eight coexisting ions. The CSP/CP exhibits a maximum adsorption capacity (1393.338 mg g-1) and selectivity (Su = 80.53%) for uranium, which is higher than many reported adsorbents. Mechanism analysis shows that the surface of CSP/CP is rich in hydroxyl, amino, phosphate and carboxyl groups, resulting in an excellent three-dimensional structure with active sites for high-performance uranium adsorption; U(VI) is selectively bound via ion exchanges with -COOH and -OH and through surface complexation with NH2 and PO. Furthermore, by desorption with 0.1 M Na2CO3 + 2% H2O2 at 318 K, CSP/CP can be recycled more than five times. It provides a new scientific basis for the preparation of high selectivity composite adsorbent by chitosan.


Asunto(s)
Quitosano , Chlorella , Uranio , Adsorción , Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Cinética , Ligandos , Fosfatos
7.
Environ Res ; 203: 111791, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333012

RESUMEN

Uranium (U) in groundwater is hazardous to human health, especially if it is present in drinking water. The semiarid regions of southern India chiefly depend on groundwater for drinking purposes. In this regard, a comprehensive sampling strategy was adopted to collect groundwater representing different lithologies of the region. The samples were collected in two different seasons and analysed for major and minor ions along with total U in the groundwater. Two samples during pre monsoon (PRM) and seven samples during post monsoon (POM) had U > 30 µgL-1, which is above the World Health Organization's provisional guideline value. The high concentration of U (188 µgL-1) was observed in the alluvial formation though a few samples showed the release of U near the pink granite (39 µgL-1) and the concentration was low in the lateritic formation (10 µgL-1). The uranyl carbonato complexes UO2(CO3)22- and UO2(CO3)34- were associated with high pH which facilitated the transport of U into groundwater especially during POM. U3O8 is the major form observed in groundwater compared to either UO2 or UO3 in the both seasons. The uranium oxides were observed to be more prevalent at the neutral pH. Though U concentration increases with pH, it is mainly governed by the redox conditions. The principal component analysis (PCA) analysis also suggested redox conditions in groundwater to be the major process facilitating the U release mechanism regardless of the season. The POM season has an additional source of U in groundwater due to the application of nitrogenous fertilizers in the alluvium region. Furthermore, redox mobilization factor was predominantly observed near the coastal region and in the agricultural regions. The process of infiltration of the fertilizer-induced U was enhanced by the agricultural runoff into the surface water bodies in the region. Health risk assessment was also carried out by determining annual effective dose rate, cancer mortality risk, lifetime average daily dose and hazard quotient to assess the portability of groundwater in the study area. Artificial recharge technique and reducing the usage of chemical based fertilizers for irrigation are suggested as sustainable plans to safeguard the vulnerable water resource in this region.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Uranio , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Fertilizantes , Humanos , India , Medición de Riesgo , Uranio/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua/toxicidad
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126872, 2022 01 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399212

RESUMEN

Herein, a dual-function Zeolitic Imidazole Frameworks (ZIFs) ZIF-90 grafted with malononitrile by Knoevenagel reaction and following with an amidoximation reaction to form an efficient U (VI) adsorbent (ZIF-90-AO). The strong chelation power of amidoxime groups (AO) with uranium and ZIF-90's mesoporous structure afforded ZIF-90-AO high maximum uranium adsorption capacity of 468.3 mg/g (pH = 5). In addition, the factors affecting uranium adsorption process were investigated by a batch of adsorption tests under different adsorption conditions. ZIF-90-AO displayed good selectivity to UO22+ in the solution containing multiple co-existing ions and good regeneration property. More importantly, ZIF-90-AO showed excellent antimicrobial property against both E. coli and S. aureus. Therefore, ZIF-90-AO is a U-adsorbent with great application value for removing U (VI) from wastewater due to the high U (VI) adsorption capacity in weak acid condition and good anti-biofouling properties.


Asunto(s)
Uranio , Adsorción , Antibacterianos , Escherichia coli , Nitrilos , Oximas , Staphylococcus aureus , Uranio/análisis
9.
J Environ Radioact ; 243: 106796, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933215

RESUMEN

The chemical and isotopic compositions of fallout melt glasses from nuclear tests contain a range of information constraining the physical conditions within the fireball and the mechanisms of fallout formation but historic studies tended to exclude the behavior of stable major and trace elements. Here, we present a large study specifically focused on major and trace element relationships within a population of macroscale fallout samples from a single event. We interpret these data to better constrain how fallout melt glass formation in near surface environments is influenced by that environment and demonstrate how major and trace element abundances can provide useful insights into chemical processes within the fireball. Data confirm that the uranium in the fallout glass population derives from two isotopically distinct endmembers: isotopically enriched uranium (presumably from the weapon), and natural composition uranium that may be a combination of anthropogenic and environmental materials from within the blast zone. The similarity between major and trace element concentrations in fallout and corresponding local soils from the event site confirm the local soils as the most probable source of entrained material into the fireball and the source of carrier material into which the bomb vapor was incorporated. The lack of correlation between major and trace element abundances with size indicates that volatility driven processes, such as condensation from the fireball, do not control the composition of macroscale fallout melt glass. Although the fallout has major and trace element chemical characteristics broadly similar to those of the local, associated soils, some systematic differences are observed between the two populations. Fallout melt glass is depleted in volatile elements such as K, Na, Tl and Pb, consistent with heating to temperatures above ∼1000 °C for 3-10 s. This is supported by the results of laser heating experiments performed on rhyolitic soil at temperatures (1600-2200 °C) and timescales (1-120 s) that are broadly relevant to fallout formation conditions. Relative enrichments of metals such as Cu and Co do not correlate with the abundance of uranium, suggesting that fallout also records input of near field anthropogenic materials. Our observations suggest that major chemical features can be related to processing in the fireball and used to inform the thermal-chemical evolution of the system. Ultimately, these data are consistent with a fallout formation mechanism that involves rapid melting of surface materials to form carrier material melts with minor incorporation of bomb vapor and a degree of volumetric volatile loss due to heating.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo de Radiación , Oligoelementos , Uranio , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Suelo , Oligoelementos/análisis , Uranio/análisis
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt A): 127208, 2022 02 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592591

RESUMEN

Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) are considered structurally promising adsorption materials, but their application is limited due to their poor native adsorption properties. Improving the adsorption capacity of HNTs for radioactive U(VI) is of great significance. By controlling the mass ratio of HNTs and dopamine (DA), composite adsorbents (HNTs@PDA) with different polydopamine (PDA) layer thicknesses were synthesized. Characterization of HNTs@PDA demonstrated that the original structure of the HNTs was maintained. Adsorption experiments verified that the adsorption capacity of HNTs@PDA for U(VI) was significantly improved. The effects of solution pH, temperature, and coexisting ions on the adsorption process were investigated. The removal efficiency was observed to be 75% after five repeated uses. The adsorption mechanism of U(VI) by HNTs@PDA can be explained by considering electrostatic interactions and the complexation of C-O, -NH- and C-N/CN in the PDA layer. This study provides some basic information for the application of HNTs for U(VI) removal.


Asunto(s)
Nanotubos , Uranio , Arcilla , Indoles , Polímeros
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt A): 127119, 2022 02 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597926

RESUMEN

Uranium (U) immobilization from wastewater by zero valent iron (ZVI) was widely concerned through reduction and surface adsorption. Releasing of U due to re-oxidation of U(IV) into U(VI) limited the application of ZVI in U decontamination. In this work, a kind of biochar supported nano zero valent iron (Fe/BC(900)) was obtained by carbothermal reduction of starch mixed with ferric nitrate at 900 °C. U immobilization behavior by Fe/BC(900) in the presence of phosphate (P) was investigated. The U immobilization reaction was adjusted by controlling the sequence of U, Fe/BC(900) and P. U immobilization efficiency was enhanced to 99.9% in the presence of P. Reaction sequence of U, Fe/BC(900) and P influenced the U immobilization efficiency, which followed the order of (U-P)+Fe/BC(900)>(U- Fe/BC(900))+P>U+Fe/BC(900)>(P-Fe/BC(900))+U. P and nZVI both contributed to enhancing U immobilization through precipitation of uranyl-P and reductive co-precipitate (U(IV)) in a wide pH range. The released Fe ions could precipitate with uranyl and phosphate. Consumption of P and nZVI in the (P-Fe/BC(900))+U system limited U immobilization ability. The precipitate is highly dependent on U, P and Fe elements. U desorption in (U-P)+Fe/BC(900) system was not observed with stability.


Asunto(s)
Uranio , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Adsorción , Carbón Orgánico , Hierro/análisis , Fosfatos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
12.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131942, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426265

RESUMEN

Radioactivity monitoring post-cold war has become more complex due to the nuclear fallout and the surge in use of radioactive materials. This requires novel methods to detect, trace and distinguish natural and anthropogenic radioactive sources in the environment. We explored the feasibility of using ZrSiO4 (Zircon), as a reference signature for radioactivity monitoring due to the unique phenomenon of metamictization. We investigated the variations in microstructural properties of Zircon samples collected from a proposed Uranium site to identify these signatures using analytical techniques such as Gamma-ray Spectroscopy, XRD and Raman spectrum analysis. Besides elevated levels of radioactivity, the samples exhibited distinct properties such as increased lattice parameters observed from the XRD analysis and dramatic broadening of A1g (439 cm-1) and B1g (1008 cm-1) vibrational modes in the Raman spectrum. Structural parameters were further analyzed by modeling the crystal from experimentally observed lattice parameters. Ab-initio calculations were then performed on the modeled structure providing more insight into the microstructural variations. Samples collected from proposed Uranium mines indicate an increase of 1.226% and 0.9389% in Si-O and Zr-O bond lengths of the Zircon crystal signifying the ongoing process of metamictization from radiation damage. By correlating radioactivity levels with the lattice parameters variations of the collected samples, the study establishes a linear relation between the degree of damage to a mineral's crystal structure and the amount of radioactivity. We propose to use the variations in damage found in a mineral's structure as a nuclear forensic signature for advanced assessment of accumulated radioactivity in a particular geographical location.


Asunto(s)
Elementos Radiactivos , Monitoreo de Radiación , Radiactividad , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Suelo , Uranio , Estudios de Factibilidad , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Suelo/análisis , Uranio/análisis
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149783, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482132

RESUMEN

Understanding the hydro-biogeochemical conditions that impact the mobility of uranium (U) in natural or artificial wetlands is essential for the management of contaminated environments. Field-based research indicates that high organic matter content and saturation of the soil from the water table create favorable conditions for U accumulation. Despite the installation of artificial wetlands for U remediation, the processes that can release U from wetland soils to underlying aquifers are poorly understood. Here we used a large soil core from a montane wetland in a 6 year lysimeter experiment to study the stability of U accumulated to levels of up to 6000 ppm. Amendments with electron acceptors showed that the wetland soil can reduce sulfate and Fe(III) in large amounts without significant release of U into the soil pore water. However, amendment with carbonate (5 mM, pH 7.5) resulted in a large discharge of U. After a six-month period of imposed drought, the re-flooding of the core led to the release of negligible amounts of U into the pore water. This long-term experiment demonstrates that U is strongly bound to organic matter and that its stability is only challenged by carbonate complexation.


Asunto(s)
Uranio , Carbonatos , Electrones , Compuestos Férricos , Suelo , Uranio/análisis , Humedales
14.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 132137, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496335

RESUMEN

Uranium extraction and recovery play a critical role in guaranteeing the sustainable nuclear energy supply and protecting the environmental safety. The ideal uranium sorbents possess high adsorption capacity, excellent selectivity and reusability, as well as outstanding antimicrobial property, which are greatly desired for the real application of uranium extraction from seawater. To address this challenge, a novel magnetic core-shell adsorbent was designed and fabricated by a facile method. The obtained amidoximed Fe3O4@TiO2 particles (Fe3O4@TiO2-AO) achieved equilibrium in 2 h and the maximum adsorption capacity calculated from Langmuir model is 217.0 mg/g. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model. Meanwhile, the Fe3O4@TiO2-AO exhibited great selectivity when competitive metal ions and anions coexisted. In addition, the magnetic Fe3O4@TiO2-AO could be conveniently separated and collected by an external magnetic field, the regeneration efficiency maintained at 78.5% even after ten adsorption-desorption cycles. In natural seawater, the uranium uptake reached 87.5 µg/g in 33 days. Furthermore, the TiO2 contained adsorbent showed effective photo induced bactericidal properties against both E. coli and S. aureus. The Fe3O4@TiO2-AO with great U(VI) adsorption performance is highly promising in uranium extraction and reclamation.


Asunto(s)
Uranio , Adsorción , Antibacterianos , Escherichia coli , Oximas , Agua de Mar , Staphylococcus aureus , Titanio
15.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 132139, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509019

RESUMEN

Long-term uranium mobility in tailings is an environmental management issue. The present study focuses on two U-enriched layers, surficial and buried 14.5 m, of the tailings pile of Cominak, Niger. The acidic and oxidizing conditions of the tailings pile combined with evapotranspiration cycles related to the Sahelian climate control U speciation. Uraninite, brannerite, and moluranite as well as uranophane are relict U phases. EXAFS spectroscopy, HR-XRD, and SEM/WDS highlight the major role of uranyl sulfate groups in uranium speciation. Uranyl phosphate neoformation in the buried layer (paleolayer) acts as an efficient trap for uranium.


Asunto(s)
Uranio , Niger , Fosfatos , Sulfatos , Óxidos de Azufre , Uranio/análisis
16.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131626, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346333

RESUMEN

Extraction uranium from complicated aqueous solutions (seawater and nuclear wastewater) has been promoting the development of multi-functional adsorbents with high adsorption capacities and high selectivity. Here, we proposed a co-immobilization approach to preparing uranium adsorbents. Due to specific recognition and binding between functional groups, bayberry tannin (BT) and hydrous titanium oxide (HTO) were co-immobilized onto nano collagen fibrils (NCFs). The adsorption performances of NCFs-HTO-BT to uranium were systematically investigated in two aqueous systems, including nuclear wastewater and seawater. Results proved that NCFs-HTO-BT possessed the remarkable adsorption capacities and affinities for uranium in wastewater (393.186 mg g-1) and spiked seawater (14.878 mg g-1) with the uranium concentration of 320 mg g-1 and 8 mg g-1, respectively. Based on characteristic analysis of the adsorbent before and after uranium adsorption, the hydroxyl groups of HTO, the adjacent phenolic hydroxyl groups of BT, and nitrogen-containing and oxygen-containing functional groups of NCFs were active sites for uranium adsorption.


Asunto(s)
Myrica , Uranio , Adsorción , Agua de Mar , Taninos , Titanio , Aguas Residuales
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150653, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597569

RESUMEN

The influence of ionic strength up to 3 mol kg-1 (background electrolytes NaCl or CaCl2) on U(VI) sorption onto montmorillonite was investigated as function of pHc in absence and presence of CO2. A multi-method approach combined batch sorption experiments with spectroscopic methods (time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR)). In the absence of atmospheric carbonate, U(VI) sorption was nearly 99% above pHc 6 in both NaCl and CaCl2 and no significant effect of ionic strength was found. At lower pH, cation exchange was strongly reduced with increasing ionic strength. In the presence of carbonate, U(VI) sorption was reduced above pHc 7.5 in NaCl and pHc 6 in CaCl2 system due to formation of aqueous UO2(CO3)x(2-2x) and Ca2UO2(CO3)3 complexes, respectively, as verified by TRLFS. A significant ionic strength effect was observed due to the formation of Ca2UO2(CO3)3(aq), which strongly decreases U(VI) sorption with increasing ionic strength. The joint analysis of determined sorption data together with literature data (giving a total of 213 experimental data points) allowed to derive a consistent set of surface complexation reactions and constants based on the 2SPNE SC/CE approach, yielding log K°≡SSOUO2+ = 2.42 ± 0.04, log K°≡SSOUO2OH = -4.49 ± 0.7, and log K°≡SSOUO2(OH)32- = -20.5 ± 0.4. Ternary uranyl carbonate surface complexes were not required to describe the data. With this reduced set of surface complexes, an improved robust sorption model was obtained covering a broad variety of geochemical settings over wide ranges of ionic strengths and groundwater compositions, which subsequently was validated by an independent original dataset. This model improves the understanding of U(VI) retention by clay minerals and enables now predictive modeling of U(VI) sorption processes in complex clay rich natural environments.


Asunto(s)
Bentonita , Uranio , Adsorción , Carbonatos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Concentración Osmolar , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Uranio/análisis
18.
Chemosphere ; 288(Pt 1): 132497, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626657

RESUMEN

The regulation effect of Aspergillus niger to the sorption behavior of U(VI) on kaolinite and illite was studied through investigating the enrichment of U(VI) on kaolinite-Aspergillus niger and illite-Aspergillus niger composites. Kaolinite- or illite-A. niger composites were prepared through co-culturation method. Results showed that U(VI) sorption on kaolinite and illite in different pH ranges could be attributed to ion exchange, outer-sphere complexes (OSCs), and inner-sphere complexes (ISCs), while only the ISCs on the bio-composites. Moreover, micro-spectroscopy tests revealed that U(VI) coordinate with phosphate, amide, and carboxyl groups on illite- and kaolinite- A. niger composites. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) further found that U(VI) was partly reduced to non-crystalline U(IV) by A. niger in the bio-composites, occurring as phosphate coordination polymers or biomass-associated monomers. The findings herein provide further insight into the immobilization and migration of uranium in environments.


Asunto(s)
Caolín , Uranio , Adsorción , Aspergillus niger , Minerales
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 150967, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656603

RESUMEN

Improvement of nutrient use efficiency and limiting trace elements such as arsenic and uranium bioavailability is critical for sustainable agriculture and food safety. Arsenic and uranium possess different properties and mobility in soils, which complicates the effort to reduce their uptake by plants. Here, we postulate that unsaturated soil amended with ferrihydrite nanominerals leads to improved nutrient retention and helps reduce uptake of these geogenic contaminants. Unsaturated soil is primarily oxic and can provide a stable environment for ferrihydrite nanominerals. To demonstrate the utility of ferrihydrite soil amendment, maize was grown in an unsaturated agricultural soil that is known to contain geogenic arsenic and uranium. The soil was maintained at a gravimetric moisture content of 15.1 ± 2.5%, typical of periodically irrigated soils of the US Corn Belt. Synthetic 2-line ferrihydrite was used in low doses as a soil amendment at three levels (0.00% w/w (control), 0.05% w/w and 0.10% w/w). Further, the irrigation water was fortified (~50 µg L-1 each) with elevated arsenic and uranium levels. Plant dry biomass at maturity was ~13.5% higher than that grown in soil not receiving ferrihydrite, indicating positive impact of ferrihydrite on plant growth. Arsenic and uranium concentrations in maize crops (root, shoot and grain combined) were ~ 20% lower in amended soils than that in control soils. Our findings suggest that the addition of low doses of iron nanomineral soil amendment can positively influence rhizosphere geochemical processes, enhancing nutrient plant availability and reduce trace contaminants plant uptake in sprinkler irrigated agroecosystem, which is 55% of total irrigated area in the United States.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Contaminantes del Suelo , Uranio , Arsénico/análisis , Compuestos Férricos , Nutrientes , Rizosfera , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
20.
Environ Pollut ; 295: 118673, 2022 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34923059

RESUMEN

The derivation of sediment quality guideline values (SQGVs) presents significant challenges. Arguably the most important challenge is to conduct toxicity tests using contaminated sediments with physico-chemistry that represents real-world scenarios. We used a novel metal spiking method for an experiment that ultimately aims to derive a uranium SQGV. Two pilot studies were conducted to inform the final spiking design, i.e. percolating a uranyl sulfate solution through natural wetland sediments. An initial pilot study that used extended mixing equilibration phases produced hardened sediments not representative of natural sediments. A subsequent percolation method produced sediment with similar texture to natural sediment and was used as the method for spiking the sediments. The range of total recoverable uranium (TR-U) concentrations achieved was 8-3200 mg/kg. This reflected the concentrations found in natural wetlands and water management ponds found on a uranium mine site and was above natural levels. Dilute-acid extractable uranium (AE-U) concentrations were >80% of total concentrations, indicating that much of the uranium in the spiked sediment was labile and potentially bioavailable. The portion of TR-U extractable as AE-U was similar at the start and end of the 4.5-month field-deployment. Porewater uranium (PW-U) analyses indicated that partition coefficients (Kd) were 2000-20,000 L/kg, and PW-U was greater in post- than pre-field-deployed samples when TR-U was ≤1500 mg/kg, indicating the binding became weaker during the field-deployment period. At higher spiked-U concentrations, the PW-U was lower post-field-deployment. Comparing the physico-chemical data of the spiked sediments with environmental monitoring data from sediments in the vicinity of a uranium mining operation indicated that they were representative of sediments contaminated by mining and that the U-spiked sediments had a clear U concentration gradient. This confirmed the suitability of the spiking procedure for preparing sediments that were suitable for deriving a SQGV for uranium.


Asunto(s)
Uranio , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua , Sedimentos Geológicos , Proyectos Piloto , Uranio/análisis , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua/análisis , Humedales
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