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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802382

RESUMEN

Urbanization brings major challenges with regard to livability and the health and quality of life of citizens [...].


Asunto(s)
Calidad de Vida , Urbanización , Ciudades , Humanos
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804509

RESUMEN

The past decades were witnessing unprecedented habitat degradation across the globe. It thus is of great significance to investigate the impacts of land use change on habitat quality in the context of rapid urbanization, particularly in developing countries. However, rare studies were conducted to predict the spatiotemporal distribution of habitat quality under multiple future land use scenarios. In this paper, we established a framework by coupling the future land use simulation (FLUS) model with the Intergrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model. We then analyzed the habitat quality change in Dongying City in 2030 under four scenarios: business as usual (BAU), fast cultivated land expansion scenario (FCLE), ecological security scenario (ES) and sustainable development scenario (SD). We found that the land use change in Dongying City, driven by urbanization and agricultural reclamation, was mainly characterized by the transfer of cultivated land, construction land and unused land; the area of unused land was significantly reduced. While the habitat quality in Dongying City showed a degradative trend from 2009 to 2017, it will be improved from 2017 to 2030 under four scenarios. The high-quality habitat will be mainly distributed in the Yellow River Estuary and coastal areas, and the areas with low-quality habitat will be concentrated in the central and southern regions. Multi-scenario analysis shows that the SD will have the highest habitat quality, while the BAU scenario will have the lowest. It is interesting that the ES scenario fails to have the highest capacity to protect habitat quality, which may be related to the excessive saline alkali land. Appropriate reclamation of the unused land is conducive to cultivated land protection and food security, but also improving the habitat quality and giving play to the versatility and multidimensional value of the agricultural landscape. This shows that the SD of comprehensive coordination of urban development, agricultural development and ecological protection is an effective way to maintain the habitat quality and biodiversity.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ríos , China , Ciudades , Ecosistema , Urbanización
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807858

RESUMEN

Heavy metal poisoning has caused serious and widespread human tragedies via the food chain. To alleviate heavy metal pollution, particular attention should be paid to low accumulating vegetables and crops. In this study, the concentrations of five hazardous heavy metals (HMs), including copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) were determined from soils, vegetables, and crops near four typical mining and smelting zones. Nemerow's synthetical pollution index (Pn), Potential ecological risk index (RI), and Geo-accumulation index (Igeo) were used to characterize the pollution degrees. The results showed that soils near mining and metal smelting zones were heavily polluted by Cu, Cd, As, and Pb. The total excessive rate followed a decreasing order of Cd (80.00%) > Cu (61.11%) > As (45.56%) > Pb (32.22%) > Cr (0.00%). Moreover, sources identification indicated that Cu, Pb, Cd, and As may originate from anthropogenic activities, while Cr may originate from parent materials. The exceeding rates of Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, and As were 6.7%, 6.7%, 66.7%, 80.0%, and 26.7% among the vegetable and crop species, respectively. Particularly, vegetables like tomatoes, bell peppers, white radishes, and asparagus, revealed low accumulation characteristics. In addition, the hazard index (HI) for vegetables and crops of four zones was greater than 1, revealing a higher risk to the health of local children near the mine and smelter. However, the solanaceous fruit has a low-risk index (HI), indicating that it is a potentially safe vegetable type.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Niño , China , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Urbanización , Verduras
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 241, 2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791871

RESUMEN

Stormwater runoff is a major concern in urban areas which is mostly the result of vast urbanization. To reduce urban stormwater runoff and improve water quality, low impact development (LID) is used in urban areas. Therefore, it is vital to find the optimal combination of LID controls to achieve maximum reduction in both stormwater runoff and pollutants with optimal cost. In this study, a simulation-optimization model was developed by linking the EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) to the Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) using MATLAB. The coupled model could carry out multi-objective optimization (MOO) and find potential solutions to the optimization objectives using the SWMM simulation model outputs. The SWMM model was developed using data from the BUNUS catchment in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The total suspended solids (TSS) and total nitrogen (TN) were selected as pollutants to be used in the simulation model. Vegetated swale and rain garden were selected as LID controls for the study area. The LID controls were assigned to the model using the catchment characteristics. The target objectives were to minimize peak stormwater runoff, TSS, and TN with the minimum number of LID controls applications. The LID combination scenarios were also tested in SWMM to identify the best LID types and combination to achieve maximum reduction in both peak runoff and pollutants. This study found that the peak runoff, TSS, and TN were reduced by 13%, 38%, and 24%, respectively. The optimal number of LID controls that could be used at the BUNUS catchment area was also found to be 25.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Lluvia , Malasia , Control de Calidad , Urbanización , Movimientos del Agua
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(1): e20201257, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852717

RESUMEN

This study assessed the relationship between the recharge of the unconfined sedimentary Adamantina Aquifer and its discharge into the Batalha River in a small basin of 125 km2 that drains the municipalities of Bauru, Agudos and Piratininga (SP, Brazil). According to the Eckhardt Flow Separation Filters and Soil Moisture Accounting Procedure methods, the recharge was 312.6 mm/yr and 232.0 mm/yr, respectively; and 286.2 mm/yr to the modified-Thornthwaite method for the 2000-2018 period. Recharge values prone to converge as more extended periods are analyzed (ideally 18 years) because the sensitivities to a specific parameter tend to be mitigated over time. With the integration of the methods, we established how changes in land-use impact the aquifer recharge and, thus, the discharges and the behavior of the river's recession curve. Areas used to cultivate sugar cane (193 mm/yr), eucalyptus (150 mm/yr), or to urbanization (72 mm/yr) exert control over aquifer recharge even more than topography or type of soil. The combined and integrated use of three simple techniques allows them to be used for land-use planning and assessment of water availability in small hydrographic basins when hydrological data are scarce.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Brasil , Ciudades , Hidrología , Urbanización
6.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112478, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823451

RESUMEN

The spatiotemporal dislocation of urbanization and ecological construction may lead to differences in the spatiotemporal pattern and matching of the ecosystem service supply and demand, which are significantly important in altering the ecosystem service supply and demand equilibrium. This study quantified and mapped the supply and demand of carbon sequestration services in the Xiangjiang River Basin (XRB) from 1990 to 2015 using the InVEST and population distribution models and identified the spatial distribution characteristics and changes in the supply and demand relationship on the sub-basin scale using the spatial autocorrelation method and Z-scores. The results show that the expansion of land urbanization greater than 50% was concentrated in the midstream and downstream, while the ecological construction was mainly distributed in the upstream. On the whole-basin scale, the supply of carbon sequestration services slightly decreased by 21.62%, while the demand sharply increased by 376.86%. The carbon sequestration services supply-demand ratio (CSDR) reduced from 0.16 (1990) to -0.03 (2015). This meant that the status of the supply and demand in the XRB had changed from oversupply to overdemand, and this tide turned in 2005 (-0.01). Furthermore, the spatial distribution pattern of the sub-basins' CSDR in the upstream was the High-High cluster, while it was the Low-Low cluster in the downstream. These results revealed the high spatial distribution consistency between the CSDR and urbanization and ecological construction. The slight increase in the carbon sinks caused by the ecological construction in the upstream could not offset the rapidly increased carbon emissions from the downstream for urbanization. Meanwhile, the lack of ecological concern during the urbanization process had led to a persistent reduction in the carbon sinks in the downstream, which also exacerbated the disequilibrium of the ecosystem service supply and demand in the XRB. Consequently, this study suggests that the scale and speed of the urbanization of land should be reasonably controlled and that the ecological construction in rapid urbanization regions should be strengthened to meet the demand for ecosystem services.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Urbanización , Carbono , Secuestro de Carbono , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ríos
7.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112453, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827026

RESUMEN

The working-age population is an essential driver of economic growth that facilitates industrial growth, trade, and urbanization, but its impression on environmental quality is under-researched. This study proposes a novel framework to estimate the impact of demographic structure, industrial growth, and urbanization on two indicators of the environment (CO2 & Ecological footprints) in seven South Asian countries (SAARC) over 1985-2016 employing "Stochastic Impact by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT)" framework. The results showed the variables have "cross-sectional dependence" and panel heterogeneity. Similarly, the Pedroni, Kao & Westerlund tests indicated the cointegration relationship between the models' chosen variables. The long-run empirical estimates imply that the linear term of industrial growth is negative. The quadratic term is positive, thus supporting the U-shaped Kuznets phenomenon in the SAARC countries. Similarly, the working-age population (demographic structure), urbanization, and trade are detrimental environmental quality indicators. The causal linkages developed between the variables duly verified the causality between demographic structure, urbanization, and industrial growth with environmental degradation based on ecological footprints and CO2 emissions. These results for SAARC countries offer important policies for theorists, academicians, and practitioners.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Desarrollo Económico , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Estudios Transversales , Demografía , India , Urbanización
8.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112436, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831634

RESUMEN

Using a panel data set of 248 Chinese cities at the prefecture level and above from 2004 to 2013, this study employs the data envelopment analysis (DEA) method based on a non-angular and non-radial directional distance function (DDF) combined with the overall technology, to measure the haze-governance performance. Furthermore, we construct a composite index based on the nighttime light (NTL) data to reflect the urbanization level, and use a spatial Durbin model (SDM) to investigate the effect and its mechanism of urbanization on the haze-governance performance. The results show a significant U-shaped curve relationship between urbanization and haze-governance performance for the samples of both the whole country and sub-regions. When urbanization exceeds a certain critical level, urbanization is conducive to the improvement of haze-governance performance. The proportion of cities exceeding the critical level in eastern China is higher than in central and western China. The mechanism analysis reveals that urbanization exerts a U-shaped influence on haze-governance performance via the effects of industrial structure, technological innovation, and human capital accumulation. In addition, as for the whole country, urbanization in neighboring regions also has a U-shaped spatial spillover effect on local haze-governance performance; however, the corresponding critical value is relatively small. In eastern China and in central and western China, urbanization in neighboring regions exhibits one-way positive and negative effects on local haze-governance performance, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Urbanización , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , China , Ciudades , Desarrollo Económico , Humanos
9.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112440, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831637

RESUMEN

The construction industry has aided rapid urbanization in China, significantly contributing to CO2 emissions. However, few studies have investigated the impacts of urbanization on CO2 emissions from the construction industry and the regional heterogeneity or considered the construction-related factors for urban construction scale to represent urbanization. To compensate for these limitations, this study aimed to explore the impacts of urbanization on CO2 emissions from the construction industry. Herein, the urban construction scale was used to represent urbanization, along with population size, economic growth, and technology level. An augmented Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology model was used to estimate the cross-province panel data from three regions in China during 2008-2017. The heterogeneity due to regional differences in urbanization levels was addressed by classifying China into three regions- urbanized, urbanizing, and under-urbanized. The findings suggest that population size, economic growth, construction of residential buildings, and technology level were the primary factors impacting CO2 emissions, and the impact presented a declining trend from the urbanized to the urbanizing and under-urbanized regions. Specifically, an inverted U-shaped relationship existed between CO2 emissions and urban economic growth, and the urbanized region indicated a higher inflection point than other regions. The urbanization ratio was negatively correlated with CO2 emissions, while the energy intensity, per capita floor space of urban residential buildings, and per capita length of drainpipes were positively correlated with the CO2 emissions in all three regions. Further, the technology level was conducive to CO2 emissions reduction, however, it requires further improvement. The per capita area of paved roads exerted significantly negative effects in the urbanized region and insignificant in the urbanizing and under-urbanized regions. Overall, these results can help formulate policies to mitigate the construction industry's carbon emissions.


Asunto(s)
Industria de la Construcción , Urbanización , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , China , Desarrollo Económico
10.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 23(5): 28, 2021 04 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797626

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: For the most part of human existence, individuals have been living a rural lifestyle in a rural setting. However, such sleep-conducive conditions have largely been transformed dramatically by urbanization within a relatively short span of time in recent history, and the resulting evolved mechanisms-environment mismatch is theorized to bring about an increased risk for insomnia symptoms. This brief review of the recent literature is designed to evaluate the veracity of this proposition. RECENT FINDINGS: The majority of recent findings have suggested that most proposed evolutionarily mismatched urban factors are indeed related to the presence of insomnia symptoms. However, there is a general paucity of longitudinal evidence (and for some other factors, a lack of enough evidence of any kind). Although there is a preponderance of recent findings indicating a link between evolutionarily mismatched urban phenomena and insomnia symptoms, more longitudinal data are needed before any causative conclusion can be drawn.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , Urbanización
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673128

RESUMEN

With the rapid development of urbanization and industrialization in China, environmental issues have become an urgent problem, especially issues related to air, water, and solid-waste pollution. These pollutants pose threats to the health of the population and to that of communities and have a vicious influence on the healthcare system. Additionally, pollution also exhibits spill-over effects, which means that pollution in the local region could affect the healthcare services in a neighboring region. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the relationship between pollution and healthcare. A spatial autocorrelation analysis was conducted and spatial panel econometric models were constructed to explore the characteristics of pollution and healthcare services in China and the relationship between them using data on all 31 provinces over 12 consecutive years (2006-2017). The results showed that the utilization of healthcare services and environmental pollution were not randomly distributed; unsurprisingly, air pollution and solid-waste pollution were mainly found in parts of northern China, while water pollution was highest in southern and coastal China. In addition, environmental pollution exhibited spill-over effects on healthcare services. For example, a 1% increase in solid waste in one specific geographical unit was estimated to increase the inpatient visits per capita in adjacent counties by 0.559%. Specifically, pollution showed different degrees of influence on healthcare services, which means that the impact of environmental pollution on the number of outpatient visits is greater than on the number of inpatient visits. Our results provide the government with evidence for effectively formulating and promulgating policies, especially policies aimed at tackling spill-over effects among different regions.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , China , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Contaminación Ambiental , Urbanización
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 242, 2021 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673819

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that the risk of infectious disease spread is greatest in locations where a population has massive and convenient access to the epicenter of an outbreak. However, the spatiotemporal variations and risk determinants of COVID-19 in typical labor export regions of China remain unclear. Understanding the geographical distribution of the disease and the socio-economic factors affecting its transmission is critical for disease prevention and control. METHODS: A total of 2152 COVID-19 cases were reported from January 21 to February 24, 2020 across the 34 cities in Henan and Anhui. A Bayesian spatiotemporal hierarchy model was used to detect the spatiotemporal variations of the risk posed by COVID-19, and the GeoDetector q statistic was used to evaluate the determinant power of the potential influence factors. RESULTS: The risk posed by COVID-19 showed geographical spatiotemporal heterogeneity. Temporally, there was an outbreak period and control period. Spatially, there were high-risk regions and low-risk regions. The high-risk regions were mainly in the southwest areas adjacent to Hubei and cities that served as economic and traffic hubs, while the low-risk regions were mainly in western Henan and eastern Anhui, far away from the epicenter. The accessibility, local economic conditions, and medical infrastructure of Wuhan in Hubei province all played an important role in the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of COVID-19 transmission. The results indicated that the q statistics of the per capita GDP and the proportion of primary industry GDP were 0.47 and 0.47, respectively. The q statistic of the population flow from Wuhan was 0.33. In particular, the results showed that the q statistics for the interaction effects between population density and urbanization, population flow from Wuhan, per capita GDP, and the number of doctors were all greater than 0.8. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 showed significant spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the labor export regions of China. The high-risk regions were mainly located in areas adjacent to the epicenter as well as in big cities that served as traffic hubs. Population access to the epicenter, as well as local economic and medical conditions, played an important role in the interactive effects of the disease transmission.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Medición de Riesgo , /epidemiología , /transmisión , China/epidemiología , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Medición de Riesgo/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Factores Socioeconómicos , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Migrantes , Urbanización
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 184, 2021 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712976

RESUMEN

Inherent statistics of the surface temperature pattern were used to categorize urban heat islands (UHIs) for a tropical mega city and its satellite towns. Application of flexible threshold values for UHI zoning made this procedure independent of seasonal or locational influences. UHI zones for the years 1999, 2009, and 2019 were mapped from Landsat thermal bands by applying the mono-window algorithm. The parameters affecting the UHI intensity were rigorously investigated. Dynamics of land use land cover patterns provided in-depth insight into the spatiotemporal variability of UHI. The abrupt rises in localized surface temperature for every decade were recognized and thoroughly explained with the fall in fractional vegetation cover index and increase in normalized difference impervious surface index. The temporal nature of urban agglomeration and fragmentation of vegetation cover was quantified through landscape metric algorithms. The vegetation pattern and associated surface temperature fall were further used to evaluate the weakening of UHI intensity around major recreational zones. Substantial cooling by 0.938 °C was noted on daytime, from urban built-up at a 50-m distance to the green parks. Differential rates of urbanization and associated magnification of UHIs were looked into separately for central urban and satellite town areas. The characteristics of built-up density and proximity to green areas were employed to strategize mitigatory measures for the constantly growing UHI problem. Urgent needs for sustainable policies and green landscaping were highlighted through multi-criterion analysis.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Calor , Ciudades , Islas , Urbanización
14.
J Affect Disord ; 287: 89-95, 2021 05 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774320

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate an urgent need to take action against mental health issues during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the association between larger-scale environmental factors such as living conditions and mental health problems during the pandemic is currently unknown. METHODS: A nationwide, cross-sectional internet survey was conducted in Japan between August and September 2020 to examine the association between urbanization level and neighborhood deprivation as living conditions and COVID-19 case numbers by prefecture. Prevalence ratios (PRs) for severe psychological distress, suicidal ideation, and new-onset suicidal ideation during the pandemic were adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Among 24,819 responses analyzed, the prevalence of mental health problems was 9.2% for severe psychological distress and 3.6% for new-onset suicidal ideation. PRs for severe psychological distress were significantly associated with higher urbanization level (highest PR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.08-1.56). PRs for new-onset suicidal ideation were significantly associated with higher urbanization level (highest PR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.37-2.45) and greater neighborhood deprivation (highest PR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.06-1.72). Severe psychological distress and new-onset suicidal ideation were significantly more prevalent when there was higher urbanization plus lower neighborhood deprivation (PR = 1.34 [1.15-1.56], and 1.57 [1.22-2.03], respectively). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that it is not the number of COVID-19 cases by residence area but higher urbanization level and greater neighborhood deprivation (lower neighborhood-level socioeconomic status) that are associated with severe psychological distress and new-onset suicidal ideation during the pandemic. These findings differ in part from evidence obtained before the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Distrés Psicológico , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Pandemias , Factores de Riesgo , Ideación Suicida , Urbanización
16.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(3): 993-1004, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754566

RESUMEN

We built a comprehensive evaluation index system of urbanization in Chengdu-Chongqing (Cheng-Yu) urban agglomeration from four subsystems, including the economic, social, ecological, and urban and rural coordination. The comprehensive evaluation index system of eco-environment was constructed by combining ecological environment carrying capacity and ecological flexibi-lity. The coupling coordination degree model was applied to quantify the coupling coordination degree between urbanization and eco-environment in the prefecture-level cities of Cheng-Yu urban agglo-meration from 2005 to 2018. With GIS spatial analysis, phenomenon analysis and Tapio model, we analyzed the interaction type, evolution path and path of decoupling between urbanization and eco-environment in the prefecture-level cities of Cheng-Yu urban agglomeration. The results showed that the urbanization quality of Cheng-Yu urban agglomeration showed a trend of fluctuation and rise during the study period. Both Chengdu and Chongqing as high value areas showed "double-core" radia-ting to the surrounding areas. The eco-environment quality showed a slowly rising trend. The spatial pattern was a " U " shape with a north opening, high perimeter and low center. The degree of coupling coordination between the urbanization system and the eco-environment system was rising, with a spatial pattern of low in the middle and high in the east and west. The overall level of coupling coordination was relatively high. The type of coupling coordination degree was gradually evolving from near-disorder and reluctant coordination to moderate coordination. The evolution paths of urbanization and eco-environmental interaction were divided into two categories: stable and changing. The stable type included 20 cities in 5 subcategories, with Chengdu, Deyang, Mianyang, etc. being always well-coordination. The change type included 16 cities in 9 subcategories. The coordination degree of Chongqing main urban area, Tongliang and most other cities was improved, showing "rising" development. Hechuan, Zigong and a few other cities showed "sinking" development. The growth rates of both ecological environment and urbanization were positive. The decoupling state of urbanization and ecological environment was mainly characterized by weak decoupling and expansion connection.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Urbanización , China , Ciudades , Análisis Espacial
17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(3): 1119-1128, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754580

RESUMEN

Sound is an important way of communication among organisms. The monitoring and analy-sis of biological sound is an emerging method to describe and evaluate biodiversity. This method does not invade or damage the natural environment. By recording ecological information through sound, it can effectively reflect the relevant characteristics of biodiversity. The sound-based exploration of biodiversity change has broadened the interdisciplinary approach and has been increasingly applied to ecological research. Here, we expounded on the main theoretical foundations and research methods of using acoustic monitoring to assess biodiversity. We introduced related research fields from two aspects, namely the biodiversity of vocal animals and the temporal and spatial diversity of soundscape. We presented examples of the application of acoustic monitoring to assess the impact of land-use change, climate change and urbanization on biodiversity. Finally, we proposed the future direction of development, and hope that the potential of sound surveys could be further explored to provide an effective reference for biodiversity monitoring and assessment.


Asunto(s)
Acústica , Biodiversidad , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Urbanización
18.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(1): e20181159, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681949

RESUMEN

The analysis of landscape pattern change is an effective way to understand urbanization. Research area is the core area of urbanization, which is between Zhengzhou city and Kaifeng city in China. Geographic information system (GIS) and landscape metrics method are used to quantify the gradient landscape pattern changes in the study area. The results show an obvious gradient change of landscape pattern from 2005 to 2015. The landscape pattern in the eastern and western of the study area experienced larger changes than the middle area. The western end mainly changed in terms of the patch number, patch shape and anthropogenic influence, but the patch types in the east changed more rapidly than those in the west. Landscape pattern change is influenced by policy and location, and human influence is the main driving force. Unlike previous study areas, in which urbanization expanded from the center of a city to its surroundings, our study area spread from two ends (Zhengzhou and Kaifeng cities) to the center of the study area. This study could be used as a typical case for the gradient analysis of landscape pattern changes during urbanization.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Urbanización , China , Ciudades , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 774: 145729, 2021 Jun 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611011

RESUMEN

We examined site patterns in bee species for diversity and functional diversity in urban, suburban and rural areas. We sampled bees from all three habitat types and compiled a database of functional traits for each species. While species diversity decreased with urbanization, as expected, components of functional diversity showed differences between urban and suburban habitats. Functional dispersion (FDis) increased significantly in suburban areas as compared to urban sites, while functional divergence (FDiv) and functional redundancy (Fred) were higher in urban areas. Functional richness (FRic) and evenness (FEven) were not affected by urbanization. Moreover, assemblages in highly urbanized environments have a substantially different functional composition. Solitary species, cleptoparasites, soil nesters, bees with trophic specialization, and those with a short flight period turned out to be more sensitive to urbanization changes. This study highlights the importance of examining functional diversity in assessing human-induced biodiversity loss and its impacts on ecosystem functioning in urbanized areas. These results have significant implications for improving our understanding of the mechanisms of suburban community ecology and conserving bees in urban habitats.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Urbanización , Animales , Abejas , Biodiversidad , Ecología
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24729, 2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607817

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is on the rise in Latin America. The aims of this study were to examine epidemiologic trends of IBD in Colombia by demographics, region, urbanicity, and to describe the IBD phenotype in a large well-characterized Colombian cohort.We used a national database of 33 million adults encompassing 97.6% of the Colombian population in order to obtain epidemiologic trends of IBD using International Classification of Diseases 10codes for adults with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD). We calculated the incidence and prevalence of UC and CD from 2010-2017 and examined epidemiologic trends by urbanicity, demographics, and region. We then examined the IBD phenotype (using Montreal Classification), prevalence of IBD-related surgeries, and types of IBD-medications prescribed to adult patients attending a regional IBD clinic in Medellin, Colombia between 2001 and 2017.The incidence of UC increased from 5.59/100,000 in 2010 to 6.3/100,000 in 2017 (relative risk [RR] 1.12, confidence interval (CI) (1.09-1.18), P < .0001). While CD incidence did not increase, the prevalence increased within this period. The Andes region had the highest incidence of IBD (5.56/100,000 in 2017). IBD was seen less in rural regions in Colombia (RR=.95, CI (0.92-0.97), p < .01). An increased risk of IBD was present in women, even after adjusting for age and diagnosis year (RR 1.06 (1.02-1.08), P = .0003). The highest IBD risk occurred in patients 40 to 59 years of age. In the clinic cohort, there were 649 IBD patients: 73.7% UC and 24.5% CD. Mean age of diagnosis in CD was 41.0 years and 39.9 years in UC. UC patients developed mostly pancolitis (43%). CD patients developed mostly ileocolonic disease and greater than a third of patients had an inflammatory, non-fistulizing phenotype (37.7%). A total of 16.7% of CD patients had perianal disease. CD patients received more biologics than UC patients (odds ratio: 3.20, 95% CI 2.19-4.69 P < .001).Using both a national representative sample and a regional clinic cohort, we find that UC is more common in Colombia and is on the rise in urban regions; especially occurring in an older age cohort when compared to Western countries. Future studies are warranted to understand evolving environmental factors explaining this rise.


Asunto(s)
Colitis Ulcerosa/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Crohn/epidemiología , Demografía/tendencias , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/epidemiología , Urbanización/tendencias , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Colitis Ulcerosa/complicaciones , Colitis Ulcerosa/diagnóstico , Colitis Ulcerosa/terapia , Colombia/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Crohn/complicaciones , Enfermedad de Crohn/diagnóstico , Enfermedad de Crohn/terapia , Manejo de Datos , Bases de Datos Factuales , Ambiente , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/terapia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fenotipo , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
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