Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.155
Filtrar
1.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54951

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Evaluar las diferencias de costos y prevalencia de las terapias de remplazo renal (TRR) como el trasplante, la diálisis peritoneal y la hemodiálisis en Argentina, Costa Rica y Uruguay, mediante estrategias costo-efectivas de difusión. Métodos. Costos y prevalencia de principales financiadores y prestadores por país, y análisis de costo- efectividad mediante modelo de Markov a 5 años, evaluando estrategias de asignación de recursos expresa-das por razón incremental de costo-efectividad en costo por año de vida ajustado por calidad. Resultados. Se observa dispersión entre los países en el acceso y los valores prestacionales de TRR, que afectan su prevalencia y el punto de equilibrio monetario. Desde el punto de vista de los costos, es más eficiente promover la realización de trasplantes y de diálisis peritoneal, y desalentar la indicación de hemodiálisis, aunque la disponibilidad de cada TRR por país requirió evaluaciones particulares. Conclusiones. Promover la realización de trasplantes ahorra costos, aunque los puntos de equilibrio variables requieren determinar diferentes umbrales de costo-efectividad por país. En Argentina y Uruguay, la administración de TRR mejoraría su eficiencia si se aumentan la cantidad de pacientes en diálisis peritoneal y las tasas de donación para trasplantes. En Costa Rica (donde hay tasas elevadas de trasplantes y margen presupuestario), la incorporación de técnicas dialíticas se ajusta por demanda e incidencia de pacientes con ERCT.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. Evaluate differences in the cost and prevalence of renal replacement therapies (RRTs) such as transplants, peritoneal dialysis, and hemodialysis in Argentina, Costa Rica, and Uruguay, based on cost-effective dissemination strategies. Methods. Costs and prevalence obtained from the main financers and providers in each country; analysis of cost-effectiveness using a Markov model with a five-year horizon, evaluating resource allocation strategies for their incremental cost-effectiveness ratio expressed as quality-adjusted years of life. Results. There is observed dispersion among countries in terms of access to and beneficial value of RRTs, affecting their prevalence and monetary breakeven point. From the cost standpoint, it is more efficient to promote transplants and peritoneal dialysis, and to discourage hemodialysis, although the availability of each RRT in each country required a specific evaluation. Conclusions. Promoting transplants saves costs, but the variable breakeven points make it necessary to determine different cost-effectiveness thresholds for each country. In Argentina and Uruguay, RRTs would be more cost-effective with an increase in the number of patients in peritoneal dialysis and higher donation rates for transplants. In Costa Rica (where there is a high transplant rate and large budgetary margin), the use of dialysis is aligned with demand and with the incidence of patients with terminal chronic kidney disease.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Avaliar as diferenças de custos e prevalência das terapias de substituição renal (TSR) como o transplante, a diálise peritoneal e a hemodiálise na Argentina, na Costa Rica e no Uruguai, mediante estratégias de difusão custo-efetivas. Métodos. Foram avaliados custos e prevalência dos principais financiadores e prestadores por país, e realizada análise de custo-efetividade mediante modelo de Markov para 5 anos, avaliando estratégias de alocação de recursos expressas pela razão de custo-efetividade incremental por ano de vida ajustado por qualidade. Resultados. Foi observada, entre os países, dispersão no acesso e nos valores prestacionais de TSR, afetando sua prevalência e o ponto de equilíbrio monetário. Do ponto de vista dos custos, é mais eficiente promover a realização de transplantes e de diálise peritoneal e desestimular a indicação de hemodiálise, embora a disponibilidade de cada TSR por país tenha exigido avaliações específicas. Conclusões. Promover a realização de transplantes economiza custos, embora os pontos de equilíbrio variáveis requeiram a determinação de diferentes limiares de custo-efetividade por país. Na Argentina e no Uruguai, a administração de TSR melhoraria sua eficiência se a quantidade de pacientes em diálise peritoneal e as taxas de doação para transplantes aumentassem. Na Costa Rica (onde há taxas elevadas de transplantes e margem orçamentária), a incorporação de técnicas dialíticas é ajustada por demanda e incidência de pacientes com DRCT.


Asunto(s)
Fallo Renal Crónico , Factores Epidemiológicos , Trasplante de Riñón , Diálisis , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Argentina , Costa Rica , Uruguay , Fallo Renal Crónico , Factores Epidemiológicos , Trasplante de Riñón , Diálisis , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Fallo Renal Crónico , Factores Epidemiológicos , Trasplante de Riñón , Diálisis , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Uruguay
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639304

RESUMEN

Similar interventions to stop the spread of COVID-19 led to different outcomes in Latin American countries. This study aimed to capture the multicausality of factors affecting HS-capacity that could help plan a more effective response, considering health as well as social aspects. A facilitated GMB was constructed by experts and validated with a survey from a wider population. Statistical analyses estimated the impact of the main factors to the HS-capacity and revealed the differences in its mechanisms. The results show a similar four-factor structure in all countries that includes public administration, preparedness, information, and collective self-efficacy. The factors are correlated and have mediating effects with HS-capacity; this is the base for differences among countries. HS-capacity has a strong relation with public administration in Bolivia, while in Nicaragua and Uruguay it is related through preparedness. Nicaragua lacks information as a mediation effect with HS-capacity whereas Bolivia and Uruguay have, respectively, small and large mediation effects with it. These outcomes increase the understanding of the pandemic based on country-specific context and can aid policymaking in low-and middle-income countries by including these factors in future pandemic response models.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Uruguay/epidemiología
3.
Acta Ortop Mex ; 35(1): 51-55, 2021.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480440

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In Uruguay, all replacements have been registered by law since 1980. Instability is the second cause of revision in hip replacements. OBJECTIVE: To know the incidence of instability, and its relationship with the surgical approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observational and analytical study of a historical cohort of 1,738 hip replacements conducted in 2014. Random sample stratified according to the surgical approach: posterior (AP) and anterolateral (AAL). All patients who had suffered any dislocation were identified, their incidence was estimated and bivariate and multivariate tests were performed, to identify factors related, associated with the patient, to the surgeon (surgical approach and experience), to the environment, and to the implant. RESULTS: 633 patients, minimum follow-up of three years and 16 patients with dislocation, with an incidence of 1.95% (95% CI: 1.14-3.31) in general, 1.4% (95% CI: 0.64-3.03) in AAL and 4.9% (95% CI: 2.67-8.83) in AP (p = 0.009, RR = 3.35). Factors associated with dislocation were: a) AP with an OR of 6.18 (CI 95%: 1.99-19.26); b) patient from the private health subsector with an OR of 13.74 (95% CI: 1.87-101.15); c) antecedent of hypothyroidism with an OR of 3.51 (IC 95%: 1.09-11.29); d) osteoarthritis secondary to inflammatory arthritis and dysplasia with an OR of 5.24 (CI 95%: 1.16-23.66); e) surgical center number three with an OR of 8.80 (CI 95%: 1.50-51.51). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of early dislocation was within the usual ranges. Posterior surgical approach with increased risk of instability from preoperative risk factors.


Asunto(s)
Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Cadera , Luxación de la Cadera , Prótesis de Cadera , Luxación de la Cadera/epidemiología , Luxación de la Cadera/etiología , Luxación de la Cadera/cirugía , Humanos , Incidencia , Falla de Prótesis , Reoperación , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Uruguay/epidemiología
4.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 38(3): 362-369, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479293

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since 2015, pertussis vaccine has been offered universally and free of charge to pregnant women in Uruguay. Although it is mandatory, vaccination coverage is not yet complete. AIM: To study the pertussis vaccination coverage in 2017 in pregnant women in two state hospitals and to search for barriere for uptaking the vaccine. METHODS: We conducted an observational, descriptive and transversal study, using a survey in patients undergoing immediate postpartum period. RESULTS: 884 surveys were analyzed (mean age 25.2 years; 16% teenagers, most of them in a relationship and incomplete high school). 317 women (36%) were vaccinated. Main barriere for uptaking Tdap vaccine were: teenage and being single were associated with a greater risk for the uptake. Not being aware of the vaccine mandatoriness and not being informed about its benefits were associated with 9,44 and 4 higher risks for not uptaking the vaccine (IC 95% 6.63-13.45 and IC 95% 2.43-6.41, respectively). Not believing in the benefits of pertussis vaccine during pregnancy was associated with 6.37 higher risk (OR 6.37; IC 95% 4.61-8.78). DISCUSSION: Most pregnant women in this study during 2017 did not uptake pertussis vaccine and did not have medical indication for it. The lack of information about the obligation and benefits, and also patients' beliefs about the vaccination were identified as barriere. Health professionals who treat pregnant women should recommend and inform about the benefits of pertussis vaccine for women and the infant, and create the necessary perception of risk, in order to improve the vaccination coverage.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra Difteria, Tétanos y Tos Ferina Acelular , Tos Ferina , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Vacuna contra la Tos Ferina , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas , Uruguay , Vacunación , Tos Ferina/prevención & control
5.
Montevideo; OPS; 2021-09-02. (OPS/URI/21-0001).
No convencional en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-54792

RESUMEN

Establecida en 1902 como el organismo independiente especializado en salud del sistema interamericano, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) ha desarrollado competencias y experiencia ampliamente reconocidas al brindar cooperación técnica a sus Estados Miembros para combatir las enfermedades transmisibles y no transmisibles y sus causas, fortalecer los sistemas de salud y responder a situaciones de emergencia y desastres en toda la Región de las Américas. Asimismo, en su calidad de oficina regional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la OPS participa activamente en los equipos de las Naciones Unidas en los países, colaborando con otros organismos, fondos y programas del sistema de las Naciones Unidas para contribuir al logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) a nivel de país. En este informe anual se presenta la cooperación técnica de la OPS a nivel de país en el 2020, mediante la aplicación de la estrategia de cooperación con el país, la respuesta a las necesidades y prioridades nacionales, y el desarrollo de las actividades en el marco de los mandatos regionales y mundiales de la Organización y los ODS. En consonancia con el tema general de "la salud universal y la pandemia: sistemas de salud resilientes", se pone de relieve la respuesta de la OPS a la pandemia de COVID-19, así como sus esfuerzos continuos en esferas prioritarias como las enfermedades transmisibles, las enfermedades no transmisibles, la salud mental, la salud a lo largo del curso de vida y las emergencias de salud. También se presenta un resumen financiero del ejercicio examinado.


Asunto(s)
Cooperación Técnica , Sistemas de Salud , Sistemas Nacionales de Salud , Política de Salud , Políticas, Planificación y Administración en Salud , Cobertura de los Servicios de Salud , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Salud Mental , Administración en Salud Pública , Administración Financiera , América del Sur , Uruguay
6.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578382

RESUMEN

Uruguay controlled the viral dissemination during the first nine months of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Unfortunately, towards the end of 2020, the number of daily new cases exponentially increased. Herein, we analyzed the country-wide genetic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 between November 2020 and April 2021. We identified that the most prevalent viral variant during the first epidemic wave in Uruguay (December 2020-February 2021) was a B.1.1.28 sublineage carrying Spike mutations Q675H + Q677H, now designated as P.6, followed by lineages P.2 and P.7. P.6 probably arose around November 2020, in Montevideo, Uruguay's capital department, and rapidly spread to other departments, with evidence of further local transmission clusters; it also spread sporadically to the USA and Spain. The more efficient dissemination of lineage P.6 with respect to P.2 and P.7 and the presence of mutations (Q675H and Q677H) in the proximity of the key cleavage site at the S1/S2 boundary suggest that P.6 may be more transmissible than other lineages co-circulating in Uruguay. Although P.6 was replaced by the variant of concern (VOC) P.1 as the predominant lineage in Uruguay since April 2021, the monitoring of the concurrent emergence of Q675H + Q677H in VOCs should be of worldwide interest.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/virología , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética , COVID-19/transmisión , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Mutación , Filogeografía , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Uruguay
7.
Appetite ; 167: 105651, 2021 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400222

RESUMEN

In May 2020, Uruguay was one of the few Latin American countries that had managed to control the outbreak of COVID-19 without mandatory curfews or quarantines. However, several social distancing measures created a major disruption in different aspects of the daily life of Uruguayan citizens. In this context, the objectives of the present work were i) to identify changes in eating habits perceived by Uruguayan citizens as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, and ii) to explore factors associated with different perceived changes on eating habits. A cross-sectional online study was conducted with 891 participants, recruited using an advertisement on Facebook and Instagram. Fifty-one percent of the participants indicated that their eating habits had changed since the detection of the first cases of COVID-19 in Uruguay. Large heterogeneity in the categorization of the changes existed: 45% of the participants regarded the changes as positive, 32% as negative and 23% as neither positive nor negative. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to study the influence of explanatory variables in the likelihood of belonging to groups who reported different changes in eating habits (no changes, positive, negative, or neither positive nor negative changes). Household income and reliance on instrumental and emotional support increased the likelihood of reporting positive changes in eating habits, whereas negative changes were associated with a reduction in household income due to COVID-19 and the coping strategies self-distraction and self-blaming. Insights for policy making to reinforce positive effects and minimize threats to healthy eating are discussed.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Estudios Transversales , Dieta Saludable , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Uruguay/epidemiología
8.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54606

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. Se presentan las principales características y logros de la Estrategia Nacional e Intersectorial para la Prevención del Embarazo en Adolescentes, implementada en Uruguay entre 2016 y 2020. Este proceso se desarrolló en un contexto en el que el embarazo no intencional en adolescentes continúa siendo un problema social relevante para Uruguay y la Región, por lo que se requieren políticas públicas integrales, sostenidas y basadas en evidencias científicas. En Uruguay, la fecundidad adolescente se ha mantenido en niveles elevados por más de una década. Además de la acción intersectorial del Gobierno y la sociedad civil, la estrategia aprobada contó con asesoramiento científico desde el ámbito académico y la cooperación técnica y financiera de organismos regionales e internacionales. Las acciones y medidas adoptadas se basan en una visión socio-ecológica, con sensibilidad cultural, enfoque transformador de género y perspectiva de derechos humanos. Entre las barreras más importantes están las normas sociales que valoran la maternidad como el principal proyecto de vida para las mujeres que viven en contextos de pobreza, los estereotipos de género —el embarazo como una responsabilidad exclusiva de las adolescentes, sin involucrar a los adolescentes varones—, el estigma del aborto, la insuficiente oferta de servicios de salud sexual y reproductiva, y la resistencia a visibilizar el embarazo en niñas menores de 15 años víctimas de la violencia estructural e intrafamiliar. Es necesario asegurar la continuidad de las políticas públicas, ajustadas a un enfoque de género y de derechos humanos, y que se tomen en cuenta los nuevos escenarios, como el que impone la pandemia por COVID-19.


[ABSTRACT]. This article presents the main characteristics and achievements of Uruguay’s National and Intersectoral Strategy for Prevention of Adolescent Pregnancy, implemented from 2016 to 2020. This strategy was implemented in a context in which unintentional adolescent pregnancy continues to be a major social problem for Uruguay and the Region, necessitating comprehensive, sustained, and evidence-based public policies. In Uruguay, adolescent fertility rates have remained high for over a decade. In addition to intersectoral action by government and civil society, the strategy received scientific assistance from the academic community, and technical and financial cooperation from regional and international organizations. Its actions and measures were adopted based on a socio-ecological vision, with cultural sensitivity, a gender-transformative approach, and a human rights perspective. Major barriers include social norms that value maternity as the main life project for women living in poverty, gender stereotypes (pregnancy as the exclusive responsibility of adolescent girls, without involving adolescent boys), the stigma of abortion, a lack of sexual and reproductive health services, and resistance to raising the visibility of pregnancy in girls under 15 years of age who are victims of structural and family violence. It is necessary to ensure the continuity of public policies––adjusted to a gender and human-rights approach––that take into account new scenarios such as the one imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic.


[RESUMO]. Este artigo apresenta os principais aspectos e os resultados da Estratégia Nacional e Intersetorial para Prevenção da Gravidez na Adolescência, implementada no Uruguai entre 2016 e 2020. A gravidez não intencional na adolescência persiste como uma questão social importante no Uruguai e na Região, exigindo políticas públicas com base em evidências científicas que sejam abrangentes e permanentes. A fecundidade na adolescência no Uruguai tem se mantido elevada há mais de uma década. Além da ação intersetorial do governo e da sociedade civil, a estratégia aprovada recebeu orientação científica de entidades acadêmicas, e cooperação técnica e financeira de organismos regionais e internacionais. As ações e as medidas da estratégia foram elaboradas a partir de uma visão socioecológica, com sensibilidade cultural e enfoque transformador de gênero e uma perspectiva de direitos humanos. Entre as barreiras mais importantes enfrentadas estão as normas sociais que valorizam a maternidade como principal projeto de vida para a mulher que vive em situação de pobreza, os estereótipos de gênero (a gravidez é vista como responsabilidade exclusiva da adolescente, sem envolver o parceiro adolescente), o estigma do aborto, a oferta insuficiente de serviços de saúde sexual e reprodutiva, e a resistência a dar visibilidade à gravidez de menores de 15 anos que são vítimas de violência estrutural e intrafamiliar. É necessário garantir a continuidade das políticas públicas que incorporem uma perspectiva de gênero e direitos humanos, e que sejam adaptadas aos novos cenários da pandemia de COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Embarazo en Adolescencia , Política Pública , Uruguay , Embarazo en Adolescencia , Política Pública , Embarazo en Adolescencia , Uruguay
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360305

RESUMEN

Characterising people with disabilities at the population level using the ICF approach is a challenge, as it implies that researchers are able to identify variables that can account for the components that make up the multidimensional definition of disability. The purpose of this study is to generate updated information on disability in Uruguay, as there has been no in-depth analysis of how this population lives, how they access the services and benefits that affect their quality of life, and what the significant differences are between those who make up this population. A quantitative analysis was applied to the target population, consisting of participants in the Longitudinal Survey of Social Protection (2016) who reported at least one limitation in performing ADLs and who were in the age range of 18-64 years. Significant differences were found between the different groups in terms of their reported limitations in relation to obtaining necessary services due to their health condition, dropping out of education before completing the compulsory level, low labour market insertion, feelings of loneliness, and low participation. More research needs to be done as it is clear that people with disabilities do not have access to the support they need, which leads to even greater exclusion.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Calidad de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Persona de Mediana Edad , Política Pública , Uruguay , Adulto Joven
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360522

RESUMEN

Uruguay has the highest colorectal cancer incidence rates in Latin America. Previous studies reported a stable incidence and a slight increase in mortality among males. We aimed to assess colorectal cancer incidence (2002-2017) and mortality trends (1990-2017) by age groups and sex, using data from the National Cancer Registry. Annual percent changes (APCs) were estimated using joinpoint regression models. We included 27,561 colorectal cancer cases and 25,403 deaths. We found an increasing incidence among both males and females aged 40-49, with annual increases of 3.1% (95%CI: 1.21-5.03) and 2.1% (95%CI: 0.49-3.66), respectively, and an increasein the rate in older males (70+) of 0.60% (95%CI: 0.02-1.20) per year between 2002 and 2017. Mortality remained stable among those younger than 50, whereas it decreased for older females aged 50-69 and 70+ (APC: -0.61% (-1.07-0.14) and -0.68% (-1.02-0.34), respectively), and increased for the oldest males (70+; APC: 0.74 (0.47-1.01)). In conclusion, we found rising colorectal cancer incidence accompanied by stable mortality in young adults. Sex disparities were also found among the older adults, with a more favorable pattern for females. Exposures to dietary and lifestyle risk factors, and inequalities in access to and awareness of screening programs, are probably among the main underlying causes and deserve further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales , Anciano , Neoplasias Colorrectales/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Factores de Riesgo , Uruguay/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198627

RESUMEN

In this paper, we group South American countries based on the number of infected cases and deaths due to COVID-19. The countries considered are: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela. The data used are collected from a database of Johns Hopkins University, an institution that is dedicated to sensing and monitoring the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic. A statistical analysis, based on principal components with modern and recent techniques, is conducted. Initially, utilizing the correlation matrix, standard components and varimax rotations are calculated. Then, by using disjoint components and functional components, the countries are grouped. An algorithm that allows us to keep the principal component analysis updated with a sensor in the data warehouse is designed. As reported in the conclusions, this grouping changes depending on the number of components considered, the type of principal component (standard, disjoint or functional) and the variable to be considered (infected cases or deaths). The results obtained are compared to the k-means technique. The COVID-19 cases and their deaths vary in the different countries due to diverse reasons, as reported in the conclusions.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Argentina , Brasil , Chile , Colombia , Ecuador , Humanos , Perú , Análisis de Componente Principal , SARS-CoV-2 , Uruguay , Venezuela
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 463, 2021 Jul 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218333

RESUMEN

Sustainable development is a grand challenge of the present century, with tremendous direct and indirect implications for a range of social, economic, and environmental factors. This research proposes a water-centric framework for evaluating "relative" sustainability of the status quo in a country via a new "hydro-social-economic-environmental sustainability index" (HSEESI). We test this framework across 35 countries of American continent using national-scale surveyed data for the 2005-2017 periods. HSEESI possesses four dimensions, namely economic, social development, knowledge and technology, and health sanitation and environment, and 12 related indicators for characterizing these dimensions. Based on the developed HSEESI scores, we assess the linkages between water resources and social-economic-environmental systems at the country level, using single and hybrid-artificial intelligence-gene expression programming (GEP) methods. The former method involves all the indicators, while the latter focuses only on the most effective indicators. Further, we aggregate these analyses at three spatial scales, including American continent, North American countries, and South American countries. Our analyses show that both methods lead to approximate similar results, but the latter is preferred for larger scales as it is more cost effective. Overall, results indicate that the status of water resources in North America is relatively sustainable, whereas in South America, it is relatively unsustainable. Importantly, social development, health sanitation, and environmental dimensions, in both North and South American continents, seem to have a relatively unsustainable status, indicating that water resources systems may not have enough capacity to meet the needs of those dimensions. At the country level, our analyses show that water resources systems of Uruguay, Guyana, and Venezuela may face the highest relative unsustainability, across economic, social development, and health sanitation and environment dimensions. The approach and the framework developed in this study can be applied in other regions around the world and with a more detailed representation of intra-country sustainability issues. It can inform managers and policymakers for sustainable planning and developing water resources projects across scales.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Recursos Hídricos , Inteligencia Artificial , Monitoreo del Ambiente , América del Sur , Uruguay , Venezuela , Agua
13.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1954): 20210711, 2021 07 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256002

RESUMEN

The earliest widely accepted presence of humans in America dates to approximately 17.5 cal kyr BP, at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Among other evidence, this presence is attested by stone tools and associated cut-marks and other bone surface modifications (BSM), interpreted as the result of the consumption of animals by humans. Claims of an older human presence in the continent have been made based on the proposed anthropogenic modification of faunal remains; however, these have been controversial due to the highly subjective nature of the interpretations. Here, we employ advanced deep learning algorithms to objectively increase the accuracy of BSM identification on bones. With several models that exhibit BSM classification accuracies greater than 94%, we use ensemble learning techniques to robustly classify a selected sample of BSM from the approximately 30 kyr BP site of Arroyo del Vizcaíno, Uruguay. Our results confidently show the presence of cut-marks imparted by stone tools on bones at the site. This result supports an earlier presence of humans in the American continent, expanding additional genetic and archaeological evidence of a human LGM and pre-LGM presence in the continent.


Asunto(s)
Fósiles , Hominidae , Animales , Arqueología , Huesos , Humanos , Uruguay
14.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(2): e20190801, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259792

RESUMEN

In this study, the Gasteruptiidae (Hymenoptera, Evanioidea) collected in three environments at the Department of Rocha, in Eastern Uruguay, were documented based on a survey carried out with Malaise traps between December 2014 and December 2016. During the samplings, four species of Gasteruption Latreille, 1796 were captured, being 14 females and three males of Gasteruption brachychaetun Schrottky, 1906; eight females and five males of Gasteruption brasiliense (Blanchard, 1840); one female of Gasteruption helenae Macedo, 2011 and one female of Gasteruption brandaoi Macedo, 2011. Gasteruption brachychaetun, G. helenae and G. brandaoi are recorded by the first time from Uruguay.


Asunto(s)
Himenópteros , Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Manejo de Especímenes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Uruguay
15.
Rev. urug. enferm ; 16(2): 1-14, jul. 2021.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería, BNUY, BNUY-Enf | ID: biblio-1283284

RESUMEN

La experiencia que relatamos corresponde al re-diseño y dictado de una Unidad Curricular Optativa de Licenciatura de Facultad de Enfermería, y electiva para otras Facultades del área de ciencias de la salud de la Universidad de la República, Uruguay. Con el nombre Uso adecuado de redes sociales: una responsabilidad ciudadana, se plantea conformar el perfil de egreso contribuyendo a la comprensión epistemológica de la disciplina e interacción con la sociedad en la era digital a partir del intercambio y producción de contenidos en y para los espacios donde se encuentra y comunica la sociedad. Diseñada en modalidad semipresencial y a través de redes sociales, debió ser codiseñada ante el contexto de Pandemia que caracterizó el año 2020 para dictarse en línea. El Entorno Virtual de Aprendizaje, designado por la Universidad de la República, dio soporte a los intercambios y al trabajo grupal. La asignatura se dictó en línea con un sistema de asesoramiento pedagógico por parte de los docentes a cargo durante todo el proceso. La metodología de enseñanza se basó en una dinámica de participación-acción y trabajo colaborativo. Los resultados cuantitativos indican que el 73% de los estudiantes aprobaron el curso. A su vez el alcance cualitativo muestra alto interés por la mejora de las prácticas en redes sociales como ciudadanos y futuros profesionales, alcanzado a partir de la reflexión de esta práctica al ocupar el lugar de prosumidores de contenidos en redes sociales.


The experience that we relat corresponds to the re-design and delivery of an Optional Curriculum Unit of the Bachelor of the Faculty of Nursing, and elective for other Faculties of the area of health sciences of the University of the Republic, Uruguay. With the name Proper use of social networks: a civic responsibility, it is proposed to shape the graduation profile contributing to the epistemological understanding of the discipline and interaction with society in the digital age from the exchange and production of content in and for spaces where society meets and communicates. Designed in a blended mode, with face-to-face meetings outside the academic field and online through social networks, it had to be co-designed in the context of the Pandemic that characterized the year 2020 to be dictated online. The Virtual Learning Environment, designated by the University of the Republic, gave support to exchanges and group work. The subject was taught online with a pedagogical advisory system by the teachers in charge throughout the process. Regarding the teaching methodology, it was based on a dynamic of participation-action and collaborative work. The quantitative results indicate that 73% of the students passed the course. At the same time, the qualitative scope shows a high interest in improving practices in social networks as citizens and future professionals, achieved from the reflection of this practice by occupying the place of content prosumers for social networks.


A experiência que relatamos corresponde ao redesenho e entrega de uma Unidade Curricular Opcional do Bacharelado da Faculdade de Enfermagem e eletiva para outras Faculdades da área de ciências da saúde da Universidade da República, Uruguai. Com a denominação Uso adequado das redes sociais: uma responsabilidade cívica, propõe-se moldar o perfil da graduação contribuin-do para a compreensão epistemológica da disciplina e interação com a sociedade na era digital a partir da troca e produção de conteúdos nos e para os espaços onde a sociedade se encontra e se comunica. Projetado de forma mista, com encontros presenciais fora do campo acadêmico e online por meio de redes sociais, teve que ser co-projetado no contexto da Pandemia que caracterizou o ano de 2020 para ser ditado online. O Ambiente Virtual de Aprendizagem, designado pela Universidade da República, deu suporte a intercâmbios e trabalhos de grupo. A disciplina foi ministrada online com sistema de aconselhamento pedagógico pelos professores responsáveis ao longo do processo. Quanto à metodologia de ensino, esta se baseou em uma dinâmica de participação-ação e trabalho colaborativo. Os resultados quantitativos indicam que 73% dos alunos foram aprovados no curso. Ao mesmo tempo, o escopo qualitativo mostra um alto interesse em aprimorar as práticas nas redes sociais como cidadãos e futuros profissionais, conquistado a partir da reflexão dessa prática por ocupar o lugar de prossumidores de conteúdo para as redes sociais.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Uruguay , Tecnología Educacional , Educación en Enfermería , Pandemias , Red Social , COVID-19
16.
Rev. urug. enferm ; 16(2): 1-8, jul. 2021.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería, BNUY, BNUY-Enf | ID: biblio-1282412

RESUMEN

OPS en su Serie Recursos Humanos para la Salud No 59 informa las dificultades para formar RRHH en Gerontología Geriatría (G-G) dados por aspectos educativos, escasas ofertas laborales y centros asistenciales específicos. El saber en el tema es vasto, no es así el conocimiento que se tiene frente a la problemática en la formación de RRHH identificada en la serie No 59. El objetivo como formadores de enfermeros posgraduados que dejó en "Stand by" una especialidad en G-G, estructurada en la diversidad de la problemática del adulto mayor AM cuyo currículum oculto no colmó las expectativas de la comunidad educativa. La inquietud como profesores, gestores educativos de enfermería, en un departamento que profundiza los saberes sobre le cuidado AM, está en buscar que el programa perfile a un profesional con valores, competencias para el cuidado, contextualizado al Sistema Nacional Integrado Salud (SNIS), lenguaje analítico-crítico y virtual, transdiciplinar entre otras. Que contribuyan a la calidad de vida del AM, la familia, los aspectos sociales, el hábitat. Además de conocer la opinión de los licenciados clínicos. La revisión descriptiva de investigaciones de estudiantes y docentes del departamento en el período 2015-2019 dan cuenta de enunciados textuales y conceptos útiles para este fin, que conjugado a la experiencia docente informa sobre la tendencia buscada. ¿Qué información se ha recogido en las Tesis Finales de Investigación (TFI) que puedan enriquecer una nueva propuesta de formación posbásica en G-G.? La demografía, la experticia de los profesores, la estrategia de posgrados articulados fundamenta la necesidad de un programa posbásico adaptado, que contemple al "life long learning", un aspirante en G-G que aprende métodos para aprender durante toda su vida. La proyección para el 2050 en el Uruguay es de casi 825.000 AM en una población de 3,7 millones, mientras que los menores de 15 serán más de 570.000 la epidemiología misma demandará cuidado enfermero y cambios en la seguridad social.


PAHO in its Human Resources for Health Series No. 59 reports the difficulties to train HR in educational aspects, few job offer and specific care centers in Gerontology Geriatrics (GG) Knowledge on the subject is vast, not so the knowledge that one has in front of the problem in the formation of RR identified in series No 59. The objective as postgraduate nurse educators who left a specialty in G-G in "Stand by", structured in the diversity of the problems of the elderly AM whose hidden curriculum did not exceed the expectations of the educational community. the concern as teachers, nursing educational managers, in a department that deepens knowledge about AM care, is to seek that the program profiles a professional with values, skills for care, contextualized to the SNIS, analytical-critical and virtual language, transdisciplinary among others. That they contribute to the quality of life of the MA, the family, the social aspects, the habit. In addition to knowing the opinion of clinical graduates. the descriptive review of investigations of students and teachers of the department in the period 2015-2019 reveal textual statements and useful concepts for this purpose, which together with the teaching experience reports on the trend sought. What information has been collected in the TFIs that can enrich a new proposal for post-basic training in G-G? The demographics, the expertise of the professors, the articulated postgraduate strategy support the need for an adapted post-basic program, which includes the "lifelong learning", a G-G candidate who learns methods to learn throughout his life. The projection of Uruguay (almost 825,000 AM) in a population of 3.7 million, while those under 15 will be more than 570,000 the epidemiology itself will demand nursing care and changes in social security.


A OPAS, em sua Série de Recursos Humanos em Saúde nº 59, relata as dificuldades para formar RH em aspectos educacionais, poucas ofertas de empregos e centros de atendimento específicos em Gerontologia Geriatria (GG) O conhecimento sobre o assunto é vasto, não o que se tem. diante do problema na formação do RR identificados na série nº 59. O objetivo como pós-graduandos enfermeiros educadores que saíram de uma especialidade em G-G em "Stand by", estruturados na diversidade dos problemas do idoso AM cujo currículo oculto não superava as expectativas da comunidade educacional. A preocupação como docentes, gestores do ensino de enfermagem, em um setor que aprofunda conhecimentos sobre o cuidado em AM, é buscar que o programa perfile um profissional com valores, habilidades para o cuidado, contextualizado ao SNIS, linguagem analítico-crítica e virtual , transdisciplinar entre outros. Que contribuam para a qualidade de vida do MA, da família, dos aspectos sociais, do hábito. Além de saber a opinião dos graduados em clínica. A revisão descritiva de investigações de alunos e docentes do departamento no período 2015-2019 revelam enunciados textuais e conceitos úteis para esse fim, que juntamente com a experiência docente relata a tendência buscada. Quais informações foram coletadas no TFI que podem enriquecer uma nova proposta de treinamento pós-básico em G-G? A demografia, a expertise dos professores, a estratégia articulada da pós-graduação sustentam a necessidade de um programa pós-básico adaptado, que inclui o "life long learning", um candidato do G-G que aprende métodos para aprender ao longo da vida. A projeção de no Uruguai (quase 825.000 AM) em uma população de 3,7 milhões, enquanto os menores de 15 anos serão mais de 570.000 a própria epidemiologia exigirá cuidados de enfermagem e mudanças na previdência social.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Uruguay , Educación de Postgrado en Enfermería , Geriatría , Perfil Laboral
17.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101747, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102575

RESUMEN

The resistance of Rhipicephalus microplus to acaricides is a serious control problem, so its early diagnosis by a molecular technique is important. This study aims to develop a multiplex allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the para-sodium channel gene and in the GABA-Cl gene, associated with pyrethroids (cypermethrin and flumethrin) and fipronil resistance, respectively. We used 22 tick field isolates from farms with tick control problems (sampling convenience). These farms are located in departments of northern Uruguay. Three mutations in the sodium channel gene (Domain II S4-5: C190A and G215T; domain III S6: T2134A) and one in the GABA-Cl gene (A286S/L: CG856CC/TG) were studied. Mutations G215T and T213A were not detected. In all field isolates, the resistant allele (R) for C190A mutation (knockdown resistance, kdr) was detected, mainly in heterozygous individuals (SR) (11.1% to 86.7%). The highest incidence of the kdr mutant allele occurred in the Tacuarembó tick field isolates, where on 7 out of 10 farms >30% of individuals were SR and on one farm > 30% of individuals were RR. The next highest was Artigas (half of farms had>30% SR individuals and a quarter had >30% RR individuals). The resistance to dieldrin locus (rdl) mutation (CG856CC/TG) was absent in five field isolates. The highest incidenceof the mutant allele was observed in ticks from farms in Rivera (all farms had SR in >30% of individuals and two farms had RR in >12.5 and >16.7% of individuals) followed by farms in Tacuarembó (3 of 10 farms had >30% SR and 2 with >30% RR). Less than half of the farms had rdl in homozygous individuals. No significant association was observed between phenotypic bioassays and the rdl resistance allele. Several field isolates were phenotypically susceptible to the presence of the rdl allele. Several causes are possible (bioassay sensitivity, discriminating concentration). Individuals with simultaneous kdr and rdl mutations were present in 17 field isolates, and their frequency varied between 0.06% and 60%. Genotypic analysis shows that tick resistance to both acaricides, especially pyrethroids, is a serious problem. It is important to monitor the resistance using molecular techniques to plan efficient control measures. This is the first report describing kdr and rdl detection in R. microplus in Uruguay.


Asunto(s)
Resistencia a los Insecticidas/genética , Rhipicephalus/genética , Canales de Sodio/genética , Ácido gamma-Aminobutírico/genética , Acaricidas/farmacología , Animales , Mutación , Patología Molecular/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Pirazoles/farmacología , Piretrinas/farmacología , Rhipicephalus/efectos de los fármacos , Infestaciones por Garrapatas/epidemiología , Uruguay/epidemiología
18.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 38(2): 218-223, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184713

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes (HHE) is one frequently reported neurologic adverse effect supposedly attributable to vaccination and immunization. Its long-term impact on neurodevelopment is not completely known. AIM: To characterize the post-pentavalent vaccine HHE events reported to the Uruguayan Ministry of Health (M of H) between 2014 and 2018. To perform neurodevelopment screening of those who were under 6 years of age at the time of evaluation. METHODS: Descriptive study of the reports made to the National Farmacosurveillance System of the M of H. Neurodevelopment screening was performed using the National Guidelines for Developmental Surveillance. RESULTS: 30 cases were studied. Most cases occurred after the first doses, were of short duration and during the first hours after vaccination, with spontaneous recovery. Median time between the event and this evaluation was 2 years and 2 months. Screening tests were normal in 15. Delay in the language area was detected in one case. CONCLUSIONS: HHE events had similar characteristics to those described in the literature, with no severe short-term complications. Despite the limitations of the present study, no delays nor deviations were found in the development of the children who were evaluated.


Asunto(s)
Hipotonía Muscular , Vacunación , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Inmunización , Lactante , Hipotonía Muscular/epidemiología , Hipotonía Muscular/etiología , Uruguay/epidemiología , Vacunas Combinadas
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1209, 2021 06 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167508

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hardcore smoking behaviours and test of hardening are seldom reported from low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs). We report country-wise changes in smoking behaviors between two sequential surveys and explored ecologically the relationship between MPOWER scores and smoking behaviors including hardcore smoking. METHODS: We analysed sequential Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data done at least at five years interval in 10 countries namely India, Bangladesh, China, Mexico, Philippines, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Vietnam. We estimated weighted prevalence rates of smoking behaviors namely current smoking (both daily and non-daily), prevalence of hardcore smoking (HCS) among current smokers (HCSs%) and entire surveyed population (HCSp%), quit ratios (QR), and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). We calculated absolute and relative (%) change in rates between two surveys in each country. Using aggregate data, we correlated relative change in current smoking prevalence with relative change in HCSs% and HCSp% as well as explored the relationship of MPOWER score with relative change in smoking behaviors using Spearman' rank correlation test. RESULTS: Overall daily smoking has declined in all ten countries lead by a 23% decline in Russia. In India, Bangladesh, and Philippines HCSs% decreased as the smoking rate decreased while HCSs% increased in Turkey (66%), Vietnam (33%) and Ukraine (15%). In most countries, CPD ranged from 15 to 20 sticks except in Mexico (7.8), and India (10.4) where CPD declined by 18 and 22% respectively. MPOWER scores were moderately correlated with HCSs% in both sexes (r = 0.644, p = 0.044) and HCSp% (r = 0.632, p = 0.05) and among women only HCSs% (r = 0.804, p = 0.005) was significantly correlated with MPOWER score. CONCLUSION: With declining smoking prevalence, HCS had also decreased and quit rates improved. Ecologically, a positive linear relationship between changes in smoking and HCS is a possible evidence against 'hardening'. Continued monitoring of the changes in quitting and hardcore smoking behaviours is required to plan cessation services.


Asunto(s)
Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Productos de Tabaco , Adulto , Bangladesh , China , Femenino , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , México/epidemiología , Filipinas , Prevalencia , Federación de Rusia , Fumar/epidemiología , Tabaco , Turquia , Ucrania/epidemiología , Uruguay , Vietnam
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...