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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111623, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396143

RESUMEN

Monitoring the consumption of pharmaceuticals and licit drugs is important for assessing the needs of public health owing to the impact on individuals as well as society. The present work applied wastewater-based epidemiology to profile the spatial patterns of metformin, nicotine, and caffeine use and their correlations. Influent wastewater samples were collected from 27 wastewater treatment plants in 22 typical Chinese cities that covered all geographic regions of the country. The consumption of metformin ranged from 0.02 g/d/1000 inh to 8.92 g/d/1000 inh, whereas caffeine and nicotine consumption ranged from 4.33 g/d/1000 inh to 394 g/d/1000 inh and 0.17 g/d/1000 inh to 1.88 g/d/1000 inh, respectively. There were significant regional differences in the consumption of caffeine, with the highest consumption in East China and the lowest consumption in Northeast China. The consumption and concentration of caffeine were related to the gross domestic product and per capita disposable income of urban residents, respectively. There was a correlation between the concentrations of caffeine and cotinine (a nicotine metabolite), thereby indicating that individuals that use one of these substances are likely to use the other substance. A significant relationship was found between the concentration of metformin and cotinine, thereby implying that the use of tobacco may be correlated with type 2 diabetes. Co-analysis of these substances in wastewater may provide a more accurate picture of substance use situations within different communities and provide more information on human health, human behavior, and the economy. This report describes the newest study related to the consumption of metformin among the general population in China.


Asunto(s)
Cafeína/análisis , Metformina/análisis , Nicotina/análisis , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Aguas Residuales/química , Monitoreo Epidemiológico Basado en Aguas Residuales , Cafeína/química , China/epidemiología , Ciudades , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Humanos , Nicotina/química , Análisis Espacial , Tabaco , Aguas Residuales/análisis
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466388

RESUMEN

Background: Tobacco growing has been considered a mainstay of Mozambique's economy, but there is a dearth of analysis of the tobacco policy landscape in the country. Methods: Review of government and non-government documents and academic papers addressing Mozambique's tobacco-growing history, the changes in the political economy of tobacco, and health policies addressing tobacco use and prevention of noncommunicable diseases. Results: Despite its tobacco growing and exporting history, the contribution of tobacco to the economy has been in steady decline in the past two decades, including in the areas dedicated to growing. At the same time there has been an increase in multinational control of the tobacco economy. In parallel, Mozambique's commitment to addressing the growing burden of noncommunicable disease and accession to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control indicate a potential for internal government tensions to balance immediate economic interests with long term health goals. Conclusions: With the decline in tobacco share of the overall economy, Mozambique may be well-positioned to explore alternative, sustainable livelihoods for farmers that grow tobacco, but it must overcome inter-sectoral barriers and advocate for a whole of government approach to address the health and economic impact of tobacco.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud , Industria del Tabaco/economía , Productos de Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Agricultura , Humanos , Mozambique , Tabaco/crecimiento & desarrollo , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología
3.
Am J Public Health ; 111(2): e2, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439702
4.
Addict Behav ; 113: 106692, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099250

RESUMEN

Despite a growing body of research examining correlates and consequences of COVID-19, few findings have been published among military veterans. This limitation is particularly concerning as preliminary data indicate that veterans may experience a higher rate of mortality compared to their civilian counterparts. One factor that may contribute to increased rates of death among veterans with COVID-19 is tobacco use. Indeed, findings from a recent meta-analysis highlight the association between lifetime smoking status and COVID-19 progression to more severe or critical conditions including death. Notably, prevalence rates of tobacco use are higher among veterans than civilians. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to examine demographic and medical variables that may contribute to likelihood of death among veterans testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, we examined the unique influence of lifetime tobacco use on veteran mortality when added to the complete model. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted on 440 veterans (80.5% African American/Black) who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (7.3% deceased) at a large, southeastern Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital between March 11, 2020 and April 23, 2020, with data analysis occurring from May 26, 2020 to June 5, 2020. Older age, male gender, immunodeficiency, endocrine, and pulmonary diseases were positively related to the relative risk of death among SARS-CoV-2 positive veterans, with lifetime tobacco use predicting veteran mortality above and beyond these variables. Findings highlight the importance of assessing for lifetime tobacco use among SARS-CoV-2 positive patients and the relative importance of lifetime tobacco use as a risk factor for increased mortality.


Asunto(s)
/mortalidad , Enfermedades del Sistema Endocrino/epidemiología , Síndromes de Inmunodeficiencia/epidemiología , Enfermedades Pulmonares/epidemiología , Fumar/epidemiología , Veteranos/estadística & datos numéricos , Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Hospitales de Veteranos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
5.
N Z Med J ; 133(1527): 51-70, 2020 12 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332328

RESUMEN

AIM: To update data previously published on the health profile of the refugees resettling in New Zealand, and to draw attention to the change in health profile over time, with a decline of infectious disease/deficiencies, and a rise of non-communicable diseases, a worldwide phenomenon. METHOD: Comparative data was extracted from (1) written annual reports prepared by medical officers at the Mangere Refugee Resettlement Centre (1978-1991), (2) a Microsoft ACCESS patient management system between 1995 and 1999 and (3) a MEDTECH patient management system between 2010 and 2014. RESULTS: Over the period 1979-2014, the rate of infectious diseases has declined markedly in resettling refugees, and the rate of non-communicable diseases has increased. For example, the incidence of tuberculosis has decreased from 4% to 0.2%, gut parasites from more than 40% to, in some intakes, 15% and iron deficiency from 22% to 10%, while the diabetes rate has gone from 0.1% to 2.7%. CONCLUSION: While management of unfamiliar infectious diseases and deficiencies (especially vitamin D) still remains an important part of the management of refugee health, their management usually involves limited time and expense, and their burden is much less than before. However, refugees now resettling in New Zealand and the rest of the world often present with familiar non-communicable diseases that require long-term management.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Salud , Estilo de Vida/etnología , Atención Primaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , África del Sur del Sahara/etnología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Asia Sudoriental/etnología , Bután/etnología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , Colombia/etnología , Conducta Anticonceptiva/etnología , Conducta Anticonceptiva/tendencias , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/etnología , Prescripciones de Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/etnología , Infecciones por Helicobacter/etnología , Helicobacter pylori , Humanos , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipertensión/etnología , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Parasitosis Intestinales/etnología , Irak/etnología , Masculino , Salud Mental/etnología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nueva Zelanda/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/etnología , Uso de Tabaco/etnología , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/etnología , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/etnología , Adulto Joven
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(51): e22559, 2020 Dec 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371055

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Smoking is major risk factor for initial and subsequent lung cancer especially in active smokers. Treatment of subsequent lung cancer depends on whether it is synchronous or metachronous. We report a rare case of triple metachronous lung cancer and review of literature of patients with triple metachronous cancers. This will be the second case reported of triple metachronous lung cancer. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 60-year-old male, active smoker with diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and peripheral arterial disease presented with cough and hemoptysis. Initial computed tomography (CT) scan showed right upper lobe spiculated mass. DIAGNOSIS: He underwent transthoracic needle biopsy for right upper lobe mass, showing primary lung adenocarcinoma (ADC)-Stage-IIIA. He continued to smoke and 9-years later had new left upper lobe spiculated nodule, which on surgical resection showed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)-Stage-IA1. Despite counselling on smoking cessation, he was unable to quit. Six months later, he presented with shortness of breath and CT chest showing right hilar adenopathy in right upper and lower lobes. He underwent transbronchial biopsies of lesion which showed small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). INTERVENTIONS: His initial lung ADC-Stage-IIIA, was treated with chemotherapy, weekly thoracic radiation and additional chemotherapy cycles. Nine years later, his left upper lobe mass showing SCC-Stage-IA1 was deemed curative after apical resection and he was kept on surveillance. Six months later, after diagnosis of SCLC in right upper and lower lobe, patient was not a candidate for systemic chemotherapy due to poor performance status and opted for hospice care. OUTCOMES: His initial lung ADC-Stage-IIIA showed complete radiological response with chemotherapy and radiation. Subsequent SCC-Stage-IA1 was deemed curative after resection. Due to his poor performance status, he was not a candidate for chemotherapy for SCLC and patient opted for hospice care. LESSONS: Smoking is a major risk factor for developing lung cancer and with continued smoking, patients are at higher risk for developing subsequent primary lung cancers. We recommend, patients with lung cancer must quit smoking, and those who do not, should remain on long-term surveillance.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/patología , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patología , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patología , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células Pequeñas/patología , Uso de Tabaco/patología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(50): 1881-1888, 2020 Dec 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332300

RESUMEN

Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States; nearly all tobacco product use begins during youth and young adulthood (1,2). CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2019 and 2020 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (NYTS) to determine changes in the current (past 30-day) use of seven tobacco products among U.S. middle (grades 6-8) and high (grades 9-12) school students. In 2020, current use of any tobacco product was reported by 16.2% (4.47 million) of all students, including 23.6% (3.65 million) of high school and 6.7% (800,000) of middle school students. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were the most commonly used tobacco product among high school (19.6%; 3.02 million) and middle school (4.7%; 550,000) students. From 2019 to 2020, decreases in current use of any tobacco product, any combustible tobacco product, multiple tobacco products, e-cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco occurred among high school and middle school students; these declines resulted in an estimated 1.73 million fewer current youth tobacco product users in 2020 than in 2019 (6.20 million) (3). From 2019 to 2020, no significant change occurred in the use of cigarettes, hookahs, pipe tobacco, or heated tobacco products. The comprehensive and sustained implementation of evidence-based tobacco control strategies at the national, state, and local levels, combined with tobacco product regulation by FDA, is warranted to help sustain this progress and to prevent and reduce all forms of tobacco product use among U.S. youths (1,2).


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes/psicología , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
8.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e039787, 2020 12 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334831

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Children, pregnant women and the elderly at a global level are all being dangerously exposed to tobacco use in the household (HH). However, there is no understanding of the familial and socio-cultural factors that provide barriers to ensuring tobacco-free homes in Bangladesh either in urban or rural areas (U&RAs). This study therefore investigates those barriers to help enable a move towards tobacco-free homes in Bangladesh. DESIGN: Comparative cross-sectional study. SETTINGS: Data were collected from both urban and rural settings in Bangladesh. PARTICIPANTS: A probability proportional sampling procedure was used to select 808 participants in U&RAs out of a total of 3715 tobacco users. Semi-structured interviews through the use of a questionnaire were conducted with the participants followed by a multivariate logistic regression analysis of the data in order to explore the familial and socio-cultural factors associated with tobacco use at home. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco use at home was 25.7% in urban areas and 47.6% in rural areas. In urban areas: marital status (adjusted OR (AOR)=3.23, 95% CI 1.37 to 6.61), education (AOR=2.14, 95% CI 1.15 to 3.99), the smoking habits of elderly family members (AOR=1.81, 95% CI 0.91 to 2.89), offering tobacco as a traditional form of leisure activity at home (AOR=1.85, 95% CI 0.94 to 2.95) and lack of religious practices (AOR=2.39, 95% CI 1.27 to 4.54) were identified as significant socio-cultural predictors associated with tobacco use at home. In rural areas: age (AOR=5.11, 95% CI 2.03 to 12.83), extended family (AOR=3.08, 95% CI 1.28 to 7.38), lack of religious practices (AOR=4.23, 95% CI 2.32 to 7.72), using children to buy or carry tobacco (AOR=3.33, 95% CI 1.11 to 9.99), lack of family guidance (AOR=4.27, 95% CI 2.45 to 7.42) and offering tobacco as a traditional form of leisure activity at home (AOR=3.81, 95% CI 2.23 to 6.47) were identified as significant determinants for tobacco use at home. CONCLUSION: This study concludes that socio-cultural traditions and familial norms in Bangladesh provide significant barriers for enabling tobacco-free homes. The identification of these barriers can aid policymakers and programme planners in Bangladesh in devising appropriate measures to mitigate the deadly consequences of tobacco use in the home. The consequences also include the dangers involved in family members being exposed to secondhand smoke.


Asunto(s)
Productos de Tabaco , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco , Tabaco , Anciano , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Características Culturales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Embarazo , Población Rural , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/prevención & control
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322399

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The WHO has included burnout as an occupational phenomenon in the ICD-11. According to the WHO, burnout is a syndrome conceptualized as resulting from chronic workplace stress that has not been successfully managed. The study aimed to evaluate the influence of feelings of guilt and burnout on health in Polish anesthesiologists. Alcohol and tobacco intake, psychosomatic disorders, and depression were assessed. METHODS: The study had a non-randomized cross-sectional character. The sample consisted of 372 Polish anesthesiologists. Burnout was measured by the Spanish burnout inventory. RESULTS: Post hoc analysis for burnout consequences: depression (F(5,366) = 17.51, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.193), psychosomatic disorders (F(5,366) = 13.11, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.152), and tobacco intake (F(5,366) = 6.23, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.078), showed significant differences between burnout with and without the highest levels of feelings of guilt. All the instruments applied were reliable. CONCLUSIONS: Depression, psychosomatic disorders, and alcohol and tobacco intake are suspected to be consequences of the highest guilt levels related to burnout, i.e., Profile 2 according to the burnout model of Gil-Monte. Participation in prevention programs is recommended for these cases.


Asunto(s)
Anestesiólogos , Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Culpa , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Polonia/epidemiología , Trastornos Psicofisiológicos/epidemiología , Uso de Tabaco
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374951

RESUMEN

Introduction: Educational campaigns have the potential to inform at risk populations about key issues relevant to lung health and to facilitate active engagement promoting healthy behaviors and risk prevention. We developed a community-based educational campaign called the Lung Health Ambassador Program (LHAP) with a goal of engaging youth and empowering them to be advocates for pulmonary health in their community. Objective: To evaluate the process outcomes and feasibility of the inaugural LHAP (2018-2019 academic year), with a specific aim to impact tobacco policy in the state of Maryland. Methods: Outcomes regarding feasibility included assessment of number of schools reached, number of students and healthcare professionals participating, and types of projects developed by participating students to impact modifiable risk factors for lung health. The courses for the LHAP were five 1 h sessions implemented at days and times identified by the community. The topics of the LHAP focused on lung anatomy, pulmonary diseases affecting school aged youth, tobacco use and prevalence, and air pollution (both indoor and outdoor). The fifth class discussed ways in which the students could impact lung health (e.g., policy and advocacy) and mitigate pulmonary disparities. Main Results: The LHAP was implemented at two elementary/middle schools, one high school, and two recreation centers within an urban metropolitan region. A total of 268 youths participated in the LHAP (age ranging from 11 to 18), whereby 72 (26.9%) were Hispanic/Latino and 110 (41.0%) were African American. Of the participating students, 240 wrote letters to local politicians to advocate for policies that would raise the legal age of acquiring tobacco products to 21. As for healthcare professionals, 18 academic faculty members participated in implementing the LHAP: 8 physicians and faculty staff and 10 nurses. Conclusions: The LHAP is a community-based program that provides education and training in advocacy with a goal of teaching about and, ultimately, reducing respiratory health disparities. The results from the first year demonstrate that the program is feasible, with success demonstrated in completing educational modules and engaging students. Next steps will include strategies to ensure sustainability and scalability to increase the reach of this program.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud , Promoción de la Salud , Enfermedades Pulmonares/prevención & control , Estudiantes , Uso de Tabaco/prevención & control , Adolescente , Niño , Participación de la Comunidad , Humanos , Pulmón , Enfermedades Pulmonares/epidemiología , Maryland/epidemiología , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Instituciones Académicas , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322686

RESUMEN

Substantial gaps remain in the evidence base for prenatal tobacco use interventions among Indigenous women. Using a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT), the Healthy Pregnancies Project evaluated a community-level intervention for Alaska Native (AN) women in rural western Alaska. Sixteen villages were randomly assigned to usual care (control, n = 8 villages) or usual care plus a community-level intervention delivered by local AN "Native Sisters" (n = 8 villages). Outcomes were tobacco use rate at delivery and at 2 and 6 months postpartum, with biochemical confirmation obtained at 6 months. The program had high reach, enrolling 73% of all eligible women screened. Of the 352 participants, 67% used tobacco at baseline. No significant differences emerged between study groups on follow-up in tobacco use rates. More intervention than control participants made a quit attempt at 2 months postpartum (70% vs. 51%, respectively, p = 0.012). Participants in both study groups reported the program helped to raise awareness of healthy pregnancies in the study villages. This trial supports the reach of a community-level intervention, but not its efficacy for reducing tobacco use during pregnancy or postpartum. Efforts to sustain early quit attempts appear warranted. The community involvement, and reported impact on raising awareness of the importance of healthy pregnancies, supports the value of the research program in this community.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Salud , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Uso de Tabaco , Alaska/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Atención Prenatal , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología
12.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(1): 10252-0, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338100

RESUMEN

Fetuses exposed to alcohol and/or tobacco are at risk for perinatal adversities. However, little is currently known about the association of the separate or concomitant use of alcohol and tobacco with infant motor and cognitive development. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate the association between maternal consumption of alcohol and/or tobacco during pregnancy and the motor and cognitive development of children starting from the second year of life. The study included 1006 children of a cohort started during the prenatal period (22-25 weeks of pregnancy), evaluated at birth and reevaluated during the second year of life in 2011/2013. The children were divided into four groups according to the alcohol and/or tobacco consumption reported by their mothers at childbirth: no consumption (NC), separate alcohol consumption (AC), separate tobacco consumption (TC), and concomitant use of both (ACTC). The Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition screening tool was used for the assessment of motor and cognitive development. Adjusted Poisson regression models were used to determine the association between groups and delayed development. The results indicated that only the ACTC group showed a higher risk of motor delay, specifically regarding fine motor skills, compared to the NC group (RR=2.81; 95%CI: 1.65; 4.77). Separate alcohol or tobacco consumption was not associated with delayed gross motor or cognitive development. However, the concomitant use of the two substances increased the risk of delayed acquisition of fine motor skills.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Desarrollo Infantil , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Uso de Tabaco , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Embarazo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/epidemiología
13.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 62, 2020 Oct 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054709

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tobacco consumption causes almost 638,000 premature deaths per year in India. This study sought to examine the prevalence and determinants of tobacco use among men in India. METHODS: We analyzed data from the fourth round of the National Family Health Survey in India. These nationally representative cross-sectional sample data were collected from January 20, 2015, to December 4, 2016. A total of 112,122 men aged 15-54 years were included in this study. Primary outcomes were tobacco use categorized into smoking, smokeless, any tobacco, and both smoked and smokeless tobacco use. Complex survey design and sampling weights were applied in both the descriptive analyses and logistic regression models. We present the findings using odds ratios. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco use among men in India for the studied period was 45.5% (95% CI 44.9-46.1), smoking was 24.6% (95% CI 24.1-25.1), smokeless tobacco use was 29.1% (95% CI 28.6-29.6), and both smoked and smokeless tobacco use was 8.4% (95% CI 8.1-8.7). The prevalence of tobacco use among men was higher among the elderly, separated/divorced/widowed individuals, those with lower education and wealth status, alcohol consumers, manual workers, and residents of the northeast region. Multivariate analysis showed that age, lower education, occupation, region, alcohol consumption, separated/divorced/widowed status, and economic status were substantially associated with tobacco use among Indian men. CONCLUSIONS: Innovative and cost-effective strategies targeting high-risk groups are crucial to curbing the tobacco epidemic in India. Anti-smoking campaigns should also focus on mitigating alcohol abuse. Reducing tobacco marketing and implementing formal education about the dangers of tobacco use, progressive taxing, packaging, and labeling of tobacco products and price strategies should be harmonized in legal provisions.


Asunto(s)
Factores Socioeconómicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
14.
Indian J Dent Res ; 31(4): 531-536, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107452

RESUMEN

Aims and Objectives: The present study was aimed to estimate and compare tobacco exposure in smokers and chewers. The levels of cotinine, one of the constituents of tobacco were considered as indicative of tobacco exposure. Serum Cotinine levels in individuals with the habit of smoking and tobacco chewing were estimated and compared. Base line values of cotinine levels in normal subjects were established. Materials and Methods: The study groups comprised about 30 individuals with the habit of smoking (Group A); these 30 individuals with the habit of tobacco chewing (Group B), and 20 individuals who were never exposed to any form of tobacco as control group (Group C). Serum cotinine levels were estimated using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in both test and control groups and the difference in the levels were compared. Results: : In individuals with the habit of smoking, cotinine levels ranged between 11 ng/ml and 215 ng/ml with a mean concentration of 87.56. In tobacco chewers, the levels ranged between 11 ng/ml and 128 ng/ml with a mean concentration of 73.66. In control group, the levels ranged between 0.34 ng/ml to 2.5 ng/ml with a mean concentration of 0.93. Cotinine levels between smokers and tobacco chewers were compared and there was no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Difference in serum cotinine levels between smokers and tobacco chewers is not significant. The fact that cotinine level is influenced by age of the individual, frequency and duration of the habit seems to be irrelevant from the results obtained from this study. Prospective studies considering all the factors and variables, with a preferable larger sample size can probably eradicate the chaos on the reliability of cotinine as a predictive biomarker for the amount of tobacco exposure.


Asunto(s)
Cotinina , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco , Cotinina/análisis , Hábitos , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Fumar , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/análisis , Uso de Tabaco
15.
Indian J Dent Res ; 31(4): 625-628, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107467

RESUMEN

Introduction: Assumption on part of healthcare workers that individuals suffering from oral cancer are usually aware of the reasons why they got the disease can lead to creation of a knowledge deficit group and may increase chances of relapse and complications in future. Methodology: An interview-based questionnaire study was conducted on 218 patients with oral cancer admitted for treatment at a Regional Cancer Centre (RCC) in north India. Questions were designed to assess their knowledge and awareness regarding etiology, treatment, and prevention of oral cancer. Results: The majority of the study participants were from lower and lower middle socioeconomic class. Most of them were not aware about early signs of oral cancer. Some of them were still continuing with the habit of tobacco consumption. Conclusion: There is an urgent need to improve the knowledge level of oral cancer patients for its primary and secondary prevention.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Neoplasias de la Boca , Humanos , India , Neoplasias de la Boca/etiología , Neoplasias de la Boca/prevención & control , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Uso de Tabaco
16.
Pediatrics ; 146(5)2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020248

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Noncigarette tobacco use is increasing. In this study, we reexamined (1) parental knowledge or suspicion of their children's tobacco use and (2) associations of household tobacco-free rules with youth initiation. METHODS: Participants were youth (aged 12-17) in waves 1 to 4 (2013-2018) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study. A pseudo cross-sectional time-series analysis (N = 23 170) was used to examine parent or guardian knowledge or suspicion of their child's tobacco use according to youth-reported use categories: cigarette only, electronic cigarette only, smokeless tobacco only, noncigarette combustible only, and poly use. A longitudinal analysis among wave 1 never users (n = 8994) was used to examine rules barring tobacco inside the home and whether parents talked with youth about not using tobacco as predictors of youth tobacco initiation after 1 to 3 years. Survey-weighted multivariable models were adjusted for tobacco use risk factors. RESULTS: In all waves, parents or guardians much less often knew or suspected that their children used tobacco if youth only reported use of electronic cigarettes, noncigarette combustible products, or smokeless tobacco compared with cigarettes. Youth tobacco initiation was lower when youth and parents agreed that rules prohibited all tobacco use throughout the home (1-year adjusted odds ratio: 0.74; 95% confidence interval: 0.59-0.94) but not when parents talked with youth about tobacco (adjusted odds ratio: 1.08; 95% confidence interval: 0.94-1.23). CONCLUSIONS: Many parents are unaware of their children's noncigarette tobacco use. Setting expectations for tobacco-free environments appears more effective at preventing youth tobacco initiation than parents advising children not to use tobacco.


Asunto(s)
Composición Familiar , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Padres , Política para Fumadores , Uso de Tabaco , Adolescente , Niño , Intervalos de Confianza , Estudios Transversales , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Fumar/epidemiología , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Uso de Tabaco/prevención & control , Tabaco sin Humo/estadística & datos numéricos
17.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-47860

RESUMEN

Crescimento, que foi ainda mais significativo entre mulheres e pessoas com escolaridade mais baixa, está associado a quadros de depressão e insônia


Asunto(s)
Productos de Tabaco , Pandemias , Uso de Tabaco
18.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-47866

RESUMEN

Pequenos agricultores e a ação da indústria também estão na pauta


Asunto(s)
Tabaquismo , Pandemias , Uso de Tabaco
19.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1364, 2020 Sep 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891134

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The co-morbidity of cardiometabolic diseases in patients with Tuberculosis adds a significant burden in current health systems in developing countries including Nepal. The main objective of this study was to explore cardiometabolic risk factors among patients with Tuberculosis. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among patients with tuberculosis in 12 tuberculosis treatment centers from eight districts of Nepal between May and July 2017. Interviews with participants were conducted using a structured questionnaire and were supplemented by anthropometric measurements and on-site blood glucose tests. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: Among 221 study participants, 138 (62.4%) had new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis, 24 (10.9%) had new smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis and 34 (15.4%) had new extra- pulmonary tuberculosis. Overall, 43.1% of the patients with tuberculosis had at least one cardiometabolic risk factor. The prevalence of at least one cardiometabolic risk factor was more in male than female (47.8% versus 33.8%). Prevalence of tobacco (18.9% versus 4.8%), and alcohol (12.6% versus 6.5%) use was proportionately higher in male compared to female. The prevalence of hypertension (17% vs. 21%) and obesity (11.9% vs. 12.9%) was lower in male compared to females. Female (AOR = 0.47; CI: 0.23-0.94), those from Gandaki Province (AOR = 0.32; CI: 0.13-0.79) and literate (AOR = 0.49; CI: 0.25-0.96) had reduced risk of cardiometabolic disease risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the role of gender and socio-demographic characteristics associated with the risk of cardiometabolic diseases in patients with Tuberculosis. The findings from this study can guide medical practitioners and policy makers to consider clinical suspicion, diagnosis and treatment. National treatment guideline can benefit by integrating the management of non-communicable diseases in Tuberculosis treatment centers.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/epidemiología , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Femenino , Instituciones de Salud , Humanos , Hipertensión/etiología , Hipertensión/terapia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nepal/epidemiología , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Obesidad/etiología , Obesidad/terapia , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Uso de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/terapia
20.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 55(12): 1549-1562, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895729

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: It is plausible that offspring born to mothers using tobacco during pregnancy may have increased risk of mood disorders (depression and bipolar disorders); however, mixed results have been reported. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the magnitude and consistency of associations reported between prenatal tobacco use and mood disorders in offspring. METHODS: We systematically searched EMBASE, SCOPUS, PubMed and Psych-INFO for studies on mood disorders and prenatal tobacco use. Methodological quality of studies was assessed with the revised Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We estimated pooled relative risk (RR) with inverse variance weighted random-effects meta-analysis. We performed leave-one-out analyses, and stratified analyses by a subgroup (depression and bipolar disorder). Potential publication bias was assessed by inspection of the funnel plot and Egger's test for regression asymmetry. This study protocol was prospectively registered in PROSPERO (CRD42017060037). RESULTS: Eight cohort and two case-control studies were included in the final meta-analysis. We found an increased pooled relative risk of mood disorders in offspring exposed to maternal prenatal tobacco use RRs 1.43 (95% CI 1.27-1.60) compared to no prenatal tobacco use. Similarly, the pooled relative risks of bipolar and depressive disorders in offspring were 1.44, (95% CI 1.15-1.80) and 1.44, (95% CI 1.21-1.71), respectively. Moreover, the pooled estimated risk of mood disorders was not significantly attenuated in the studies that reported sibling comparison results [RR = 1.21 (95% CI 1.04-1.41)]. CONCLUSION: Taken together, there was strong evidence for a small (RR < 2) association between prenatal tobacco use and mood disorders in offspring.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Humor , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Uso de Tabaco , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Trastornos del Humor/epidemiología , Trastornos del Humor/etiología , Madres , Embarazo , Riesgo , Uso de Tabaco/efectos adversos
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