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1.
Nursing ; 51(3): 24-29, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674532

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: There are an estimated 4.8 million victims of sex trafficking (ST) globally, and 21% of these victims are children or adolescents. Victims of ST are at risk for mental health problems, and it is crucial for healthcare professionals to identify them and provide care.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Trata de Personas/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/enfermería , Adolescente , Niño , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo/enfermería , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2034208, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538822

RESUMEN

Importance: Preventing firearm violence requires understanding its antecedents. Yet no comprehensive longitudinal study has examined how involvement with firearms during adolescence-use, access, and victimization (defined as threatened with a weapon or gunshot injury)-is associated with the perpetration of firearm violence in adulthood. Objective: To examine the association between firearm involvement during adolescence and subsequent firearm perpetration and ownership in adulthood among youth involved in the juvenile justice system. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed interview responses of 1829 randomly selected participants as part of the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a longitudinal study of health needs and outcomes of youth sampled from a temporary juvenile detention center in a large US city. Youth aged 10 to 18 years were interviewed in detention from November 1995 through June 1998. Participants were reinterviewed up to 13 times over 16 years through February 2015, for a total of 17 776 interviews. The sample was stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, age, and legal status (juvenile or adult court). Data were analyzed from April 2017, when data preparation began, through November 2020. Exposures: Firearm involvement during adolescence: use (ie, threaten, shoot), access (ownership, ease of access, firearm in household, membership in gang that carries firearms), and victimization (gunshot injury, threatened with a weapon). Main Outcomes and Measures: Firearm involvement during adulthood: perpetration of firearm violence (ie, threatening with or using a firearm) and firearm ownership. Results: Among the 1829 participants, 1388 had a 16-year follow-up interview: 860 males, 528 females; 809 were African American, 203 were non-Hispanic White; 374 were Hispanic; and 2 were other race/ethnicity; median (interquartile range) age of 32 (30-32) years. Eighty-five percent of males and 63.2% of females were involved with firearms as adolescents. Compared with females, males had significantly higher odds of every type of involvement except having a firearm in the home. In adulthood, 41.3% of males and 10.5% of females perpetrated firearm violence. Adolescents who had been threatened with a weapon or injured by firearms had 3.1 (95% CI, 2.0-4.9) and 2.4 (95% CI, 1.2-4.9) times the odds of perpetrating violence during adulthood. Similar associations were found for firearm ownership. Conclusions and Relevance: Involvement with firearms during adolescence-including victimization-is a significant risk factor for firearm perpetration and ownership during adulthood.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Armas de Fuego/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia con Armas/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afroamericanos , Niño , Derecho Penal , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Femenino , Violencia con Armas/prevención & control , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Propiedad , Factores de Riesgo , Heridas por Arma de Fuego/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
3.
Am J Public Health ; 111(3): 485-493, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476240

RESUMEN

Objectives. To report trends in sexual violence (SV) emergency department (ED) visits in the United States.Methods. We analyzed monthly changes in SV rates (per 100 000 ED visits) from January 2017 to December 2019 using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Syndromic Surveillance Program data. We stratified the data by sex and age groups.Results. There were 196 948 SV-related ED visits from January 2017 to December 2019. Females had higher rates of SV-related ED visits than males. Across the entire time period, females aged 50 to 59 years showed the highest increase (57.33%) in SV-related ED visits, when stratified by sex and age group. In all strata examined, SV-related ED visits displayed positive trends from January 2017 to December 2019; 10 out of the 24 observed positive trends were statistically significant increases. We also observed seasonal trends with spikes in SV-related ED visits during warmer months and declines during colder months, particularly in ages 0 to 9 years and 10 to 19 years.Conclusions. We identified several significant increases in SV-related ED visits from January 2017 to December 2019. Syndromic surveillance offers near-real-time surveillance of ED visits and can aid in the prevention of SV.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/tendencias , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Delitos Sexuales/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud , Examen Físico/tendencias , Violación/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos
4.
Am J Public Health ; 111(2): 318-326, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351656

RESUMEN

Objectives. To estimate US nonlethal violent victimization rates for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) males and females aged 16 years and older and to compare disparities among LGB and straight males and females, controlling for other correlates of victimization.Methods. We used data from the 2017 and 2018 National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to provide nationally representative rates of various forms of violent victimization for self-identified LGB and straight persons. Multivariable models assessed the risk for violence associated with LGB status.Results. Total violence rates were 2 to 9 times higher among LGB persons compared with heterosexuals. For some forms of violence (e.g., rape and sexual assault, violence with serious injuries, and multiple offender violence) there were notably high disparities between bisexuals and heterosexuals. With adjustment for covariates, LGB orientation was associated with odds ratios nearly 2 to 4 times those of heterosexuals.Conclusions. This is one of the first known uses of NCVS data to estimate LGB victimization, revealing substantially higher rates of violence directed at LGB individuals.Public Health Implications. Sexual orientation and gender identity questions in federal surveys such as the NCVS enable monitoring of violent victimization rates and should continue. Collecting these data can help researchers understand victimization risk and guide appropriate resources toward victim services, especially important given the high violent crime levels experienced by LGB individuals.


Asunto(s)
Acoso Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244490, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382760

RESUMEN

Forty-four percent of Black transgender women are living with HIV, and many face challenges with HIV care engagement. An HIV cure has much to offer this population, however little HIV cure-related research has included them. We conducted 19 face-to-face in-depth interviews with 10 Black transgender women living with HIV. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed using content analysis. Our interview guide contained three categories: 1) perceptions of HIV cure-related research and participation, 2) perceptions of HIV treatment and treatment interruptions, and 3) considerations for transgender women and HIV cure-related research. Salient themes included skepticism about HIV cure strategies and limited benefits compared with an undetectable viral load. Willingness to interrupt HIV treatment for research was low and linked to being able to go back on the same HIV treatment without consequence when the study ended. Concerns about being a test subject and perceptions of risks versus benefits of various strategies also affected willingness to take part in HIV cure-related research. Centering the dignity and autonomy of research participants as well as building upon and supporting existing social networks were identified as important facilitators for engaging Black transgender women in HIV cure-related research. Specific to Black transgender women, other concerns included the desire for gender-affirming research staff, community-building among transgender women, and safety issues associated with risk of transphobic violence when traveling to study visits. Participants stressed the importance of HIV cure-related researchers providing accessible and complete information and expressing genuine care and concern for transgender communities.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/psicología , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/psicología , Infecciones por VIH/terapia , Participación del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Personas Transgénero/psicología , Adulto , Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Antirreumáticos/uso terapéutico , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , VIH/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Humanos , Masculino , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/psicología , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Participación del Paciente/psicología , Selección de Paciente , Investigación Cualitativa , Investigadores , Autoinforme/estadística & datos numéricos , Procedimientos de Reasignación de Sexo/psicología , Estigma Social , Personas Transgénero/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos , Carga Viral
6.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e179, 2020 Nov 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153509

RESUMEN

AIMS: Compared to their heterosexual peers, youth who identify as lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB) tend to suffer higher rates of peer victimisation from bullying. However, studies of LGB adolescents' participation as bullies are scarce. We aimed to examine the possible association of sexual minority identity and the heightened risk of not only being bullied but bullying others as well. We also explored the effect of one's sexual identity on their involvement in bullying through the mediation of coping strategies and mood states. METHODS: A total of 12 218 students were recruited from 18 secondary schools in China. The demographic information, positive and negative coping strategies, mood state (anxiety, depression and hypomania) and information related to bullying and being bullied were collected. Multinomial regression was used to assess the heightened risk of sexual minority groups in comparison to their heterosexual adolescents' counterparts. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the mediating role of coping strategy and mood state between one's sex, sexual identity and bullying experience. RESULTS: Two trends could be observed: (1) LGB groups reported heightened risks of being bullied and bullying others at school than heterosexual peers. However, being a sexual-undeveloped girl seemed to have a protective effect on bullying-related problems. (2) Birth-assigned males were more likely to be bullied as well as bullying others at school when compared to birth-assigned females. SEM analysis revealed that being a sexual minority was directly associated with a higher frequency of being bullied (B = 0.16, 95% CI [0.10, 0.22], p < 0.001) but not bullying others (B = 0.02, 95% CI [-0.02, 0.06], p = 0.398) when compared to the heterosexual group. Negative coping, hypomania, anxiety and depression were associated with a higher frequency of being bullied, while positive coping was associated with a lower frequency of being bullied. Moreover, negative coping, hypomania and depression were associated with a higher frequency of bullying others, while positive coping was associated with a reduced likelihood of bullying others. In addition, being bullied and bullying others were significantly correlated in the SEM model. CONCLUSIONS: This novel research investigated the dynamic nature of the interaction between victim and bullying of LGB school adolescents in China, with a specific exploration of the psychological mechanism behind the pattern of being bullied and bullying others. School-level interventions aimed at teaching positive coping strategies to lower psychological distress are recommended to support sexual minority students.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Acoso Escolar/psicología , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/psicología , Bisexualidad/etnología , Bisexualidad/psicología , Acoso Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , China/epidemiología , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Homosexualidad Femenina/etnología , Homosexualidad Femenina/psicología , Homosexualidad Masculina/etnología , Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Paritario , Prevalencia , Instituciones Académicas
7.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(11): 909-922, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107234

RESUMEN

Through this meta-analysis, we sought to examine the prevalence of, risks for, and factors associated with bullying involvement (victimization, perpetration, perpetration-victimization) among students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Additionally, we attempted to examine sources of variance in the prevalence and effect sizes of bullying in students with ASD across studies. Systematic database and literature review identified 34 relevant studies (31 for Western countries, three for Eastern countries). Pooled prevalence estimates for victimization, perpetration, and perpetration-victimization in general were 67%, 29%, and 14%, respectively. The risk of victimization in students with ASD was significantly higher than that in typically developing students and students with other disabilities. Further, deficits in social interaction and communication, externalizing symptoms, internalizing symptoms, and integrated inclusive school settings were related to higher victimization, and externalizing symptoms were related to higher perpetration. Finally, moderation analyses revealed significant variations in the pooled prevalences thereof depending on culture, age, school settings, and methodological quality and in the pooled effect sizes according to publication year and methodological quality. Our results highlight needs for bullying intervention for students with ASD, especially those who are younger, are in an inclusive school setting, and have higher social difficulties and externalizing/internalizing symptoms; for intensive research of bullying experiences among students with ASD in Eastern countries; and for efforts to improve the methodological quality of such research.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Acoso Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Comparación Transcultural , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/etnología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Acoso Escolar/psicología , Niño , Preescolar , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1563, 2020 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066741

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: There is a paucity of research on patterns of cyber-victimization in minority groups, including immigrants. This study aimed to identify individual, interpersonal and contextual characteristics associated with cyber-victimization among immigrants and non-immigrants. METHODS: We drew on nationally representative data from adolescents and adults in the Canadian General Social Survey on victimization (2014). We used multivariable logistic regression to identify potential factors associated with cyber-victimization in the last 12 months, stratified by immigrant status and sex. RESULTS: Among 27,425 survey respondents, the weighted prevalence of cyber-victimization in the last 12 months was 2.1% among immigrants and 2.3% among non-immigrants. Cyber-victimization rates differed significantly by sex among immigrants (2.8% for males vs. 1.4% for females), but not among non-immigrants (2.1% for males vs. 2.4% for females). While most other factors associated with cyber-victimization were similar for immigrants and non-immigrants, there were pronounced associations of past child maltreatment (adjusted prevalence odds ratio [aPOR] 4.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.76, 8.52) and residence in an unwelcoming neighbourhood (aPOR 5.08, 95% CI 2.44, 10.55) with cyber-victimization among immigrants that were diminished or absent among non-immigrants. Additionally, sex-stratified analyses among immigrants showed cyber-victimization to be strongly associated with having a mental health condition (aPOR 3.50, 95% CI 1.36, 8.97) among immigrant males only, and with perceived discrimination (aPOR 4.08, 95% CI 1.65, 10.08), as well as being under 24 years old (aPOR 3.24, 95% CI 1.09, 9.60) among immigrant females. CONCLUSIONS: Immigration status and sex were differentially associated with cyber-victimization. Findings support the salience of a social-ecological perspective and gender-stratified analyses to better elucidate complex pathways linking cyber-victimization to potential gender-based health inequities among immigrants.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Ciberacoso/estadística & datos numéricos , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
9.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 2): 269-272, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970646

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Bullying is an aggressive, intentional act carried out by a group or an individual repeatedly and over time against a victim who cannot easily defend himself or herself. However, with the advent of electronic communication via the internet and mobile phones has led to appearence of a new form of violence, i.e. cyberbullying. Cyberbullying is define as "willful and repeated harm inflicted through computer, cell phones and other electronic device". The aim of this paper is to point to the growing problem of cyberbullying. METHODS: Review the research and theoretical literature. RESULTS: Bullying through the Internet tends to occur at a later age, around 14 years, when children spend more time on their mobile phones and social networking sites. Estimates indicate that between 15% and 35% of young people have been victims of cyberbullying and between 10% and 20% of individuals admit to having cyberbullied others. Perpetrators of cyberbullying have a degree of anonymity not possible in traditional bullying, and the potential exposure and embarrassment of the victim is on a larger scale. It is possible to victimize a peer within their own home or elsewhere at any time of day or night, and should they remove themselves from the site, the messages often accumulate. Victims of bullying often have mental health problems, including depressive symptomatology, self-harm and suicidal behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: This presents new challenges for individuals, families, schools, professionals, researchers, and policy makers.


Asunto(s)
Ciberacoso/estadística & datos numéricos , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Internet , Ideación Suicida
10.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 200-209, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-192056

RESUMEN

En los últimos años ha aumentado el interés por el estudio de la ciberviolencia en la pareja, sin embargo es necesario examinar la metodología de investigación que sustenta las evidencias obtenidas hasta el momento. Este artículo presenta una revisión sistemática de la literatura científica que analiza 30 instrumentos de medida de ciberviolencia en la pareja de adolescentes y jóvenes adultos utilizados a lo largo de estos años. Los principales resultados muestran una elevada pluralidad metodológica, conceptual y terminológica, observándose un reducido número de instrumentos con suficientes garantías psicométricas. Predominan los trabajos de procedencia estadounidense y, entre los instrumentos aplicados en muestras españolas, destaca una infrarrepresentación de indicadores de ciberviolencia de tipo sexual, lo que limita la comprensión de esta problemática. Esta investigación aporta información sobre el estado actual en el estudio de la ciberviolencia en la pareja y pone de relieve deficiencias metodológicas en la construcción del conocimiento en este campo de estudio. Este trabajo permite una mejor comprensión de la disparidad de resultados señalada por investigaciones previas, especialmente referidas a prevalencia, frecuencia y diferencias de género en este tipo de comportamientos violentos, además de sentar las bases para abordar el fenómeno desde el rigor científico


The interest for the study of the cyber dating abuse has increased in the last years; however, it is necessary to examine the research methodology that supports the evidence obtained so far. This paper presents a systematic review of the scientific literature that analyzes 30 measuring instruments of cyber dating abuse in adolescent and young adults used along these years. The main results show a methodological, conceptual and terminological plurality, observing a small number of instruments with sufficient psychometric guarantees. The instruments come mostly from the United States, and of the instruments applied to Spanish samples, few include indicators of sexual cyber dating abuse, which limits the understanding of this problem. This research provides information on the current status of the study of cyber dating abuse and highlights methodological shortcomings in the construction of knowledge in this field of study. This study allows a better understanding of the disparity of results indicated by previous research, especially referring to prevalence, frequency and gender differences in this type of violent behavior, as well as laying the foundations for addressing the phenomenon from scientific rigor


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Relaciones Interpersonales , Psicometría/métodos , Red Social , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Psicometría/estadística & datos numéricos , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Internet
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235044, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822366

RESUMEN

Rape is the most demoralizing type of crime violating human rights worldwide. Research has primarily focused on children and women's experiences of rape, even though victims include men and little documentation available concerning their experiences of reporting these incidents. The study aimed to investigate men's experiences when reporting rape to the police. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to collect and analyze qualitative data from a purposive sample of eleven men who were rape victims. The findings of the study revealed three superordinate and twenty-two subordinate themes. First, motivation for reporting rape to the police included self-protection from re-victimization, being killed, and prevalent prison cultural practice, seeking justice and answers for rape, moral duty, family support, and encouraging reports of the crime. Second, perceived barriers for reporting rape included fear of stigmatization and ridicule, unknown perpetrators, internalized homophobia, men's preconceived prejudices, perceived justice system delays, fear of being killed, and protecting their reputation. Third, negative experiences when reporting rape included a long waiting period at the reception before opening a case file and the delayed responses of police investigating the rape scene. Also, there was discouragement from the police, disparaging behavior of police, victim-blaming, lack of communication with the victim about case progress and experiences of police homosexual intolerance. The findings show that most men were motivated to report rape to the police despite the perceived barriers and negative experiences they had with the police. Thus, this provides baseline evidence for strategies to be developed to encourage the reporting of rape. Each police station must provide dedicated personnel for professional and sensitive handling of all rape victims, including men. Furthermore, future studies should be conducted to evaluate rape victims' satisfaction with the services provided by the police.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Risa , Policia/psicología , Violación/psicología , Adulto , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Familia/psicología , Miedo , Humanos , Masculino , Prisiones , Justicia Social , Apoyo Social , Sudáfrica , Estereotipo , Adulto Joven
12.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e152, 2020 Aug 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772993

RESUMEN

AIMS: The factors associated with suicidal ideation among adolescents have been extensively characterised, but the mechanisms underlying the complexities of the relationship between experiences of childhood trauma and suicidal ideation have been less studied. This study examined the direct effect of childhood trauma on suicidal ideation on the one hand and whether school bullying victimisation and Internet addiction mediate the association between childhood trauma and suicidal ideation on the other hand. METHODS: This school-based mental health survey was carried out in Qinghai Province in Northwest China in December 2019. We employed standardised questionnaires to collect sociodemographic and target mental health outcomes. Hierarchical multiple logistic regression and structural equation modelling were performed for the data analyses. RESULTS: This study included 5864 university students. The prevalence of lifetime suicidal ideation and Internet addiction were 34.7% and 21.4%, respectively. Overall, 16.4% and 11.4% of participants reported experiences of childhood trauma and school bullying victimisation, respectively. There were direct effects of childhood trauma, school bullying victimisation and Internet addiction on suicidal ideation. The total effect of childhood trauma on suicidal ideation was 0.201 (p < 0.001). School bullying victimisation and Internet addiction mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and suicidal ideation. Internet addiction played a mediating role between school bullying and suicidal ideation. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood trauma had both direct and indirect effects on suicidal ideation; these effects were mediated by school bullying victimisation and Internet addiction in Chinese university students. Elucidating these relationships will therefore be useful in developing and implementing more targeted interventions and strategies to improve the mental well-being of Chinese university students.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Adictiva/psicología , Acoso Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Depresión/psicología , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/psicología , Ideación Suicida , Adolescente , Conducta Adictiva/epidemiología , Niño , China/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237406, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813689

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Bullying is an emerging risk factor for poor mental health outcomes adversely affecting children and adolescents. However, it has rarely caught the attention of the health and education sector due to lack of evidence in many countries including Nepal. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with bullying behavior among adolescent students in Nepal. METHODS: We used nationally representative data from the Nepal Global School-Based Student Health Survey that involved two-stage cluster sampling design with the use of a standard set of self-administered questionnaires. Complex sample analysis was done to determine the prevalence and correlates of bullying among 6529 students of 68 schools studying in grade 7 to 11 using descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of bullying among Nepalese school adolescents was 51% (55.67% in male and 46.17% in female). Bullied adolescents more commonly reported mental health problems with higher risk of loneliness (aOR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.64), anxiety (aOR 2.04, 95% CI: 1.65, 2.52), suicide attempt (aOR 2.08, 95% CI: 1.54, 2.81), school absenteeism due to fear (aOR 1.72, 95% CI: 1.34, 2.21) and school truancy (aOR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.87). A significant association was seen between bullying victimization and negative health behaviors like involvement in physical fights (aOR 3.64, 95% CI: 2.94, 4.51) and tobacco use (aOR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.15, 3.65). CONCLUSION: School bullying is significantly associated with mental health factors like loneliness, anxiety, suicide attempt, school absenteeism and risky behavioral factors like smokeless tobacco use and involvement in physical fight. The insights provided by these findings have important implications for planning anti-bullying strategies in school settings in the Nepalese context.


Asunto(s)
Acoso Escolar/psicología , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Nepal , Asunción de Riesgos
14.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e159, 2020 Aug 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792037

RESUMEN

AIMS: This study assessed the relationships between different perpetrator-victim roles in intimate partner violence (IPV), emotion regulation (ER) and mental health problems among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. METHODS: From April to June 2019, 1233 participants were approached via gay-friendly non-governmental organisations in 15 cities across mainland China. RESULTS: Of the total, 578 eligible participants completed an anonymous online survey. All participants provided informed consent and information about their violent perpetrator-victim role and mental health status. The results revealed a high prevalence of IPV in this study sample, with 32.7% of participants reporting IPV victimisation and 32.5% of participants reporting IPV perpetration during their lifetime. A total of 81 (14.0%) participants were suicidal, 309 (53.5%) participants reported poor general mental health and 208 (36.0%) had significant depressive symptoms. Adjusted logistic regression models revealed that both physical victimisation (adjusted odds ratio [ORa] = 3.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-9.32) and sexual victimisation (ORa = 2.90, 95% CI = 1.39-6.05) had positive associations with suicidality, and unidirectional and bidirectional psychological perpetration were associated with poor general mental health and significant depressive symptoms. Although high cognitive reappraisal showed a negative association with poor general mental health (ORa = 0.89,95% CI = 0.86-0.92), the correlation with victims of IPV was weaker than it was with non-victims. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that different perpetrator-victim roles in different IPV situations should be considered comprehensively in research, prevention and intervention. ER is not enough to buffer the effects of IPV on the mental health of MSM victims.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Regulación Emocional , Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Homosexualidad Masculina/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
15.
Public Health Rep ; 135(5): 555-559, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762635

RESUMEN

Young adults are at high risk for sexual harassment and sexual assault. Although attention has been given to prevention on college campuses, the need for prevention may be at least as high for young adults who do not attend college as for young adults who do. In October 2019, we administered a nationally representative survey of 893 adults to measure sexual harassment and sexual assault victimization during a recall period defined as "during college years" for respondents who had enrolled in college at any time or "ages 18-24" for respondents not in college. Reported rates of sexual harassment (32.7%) and sexual assault (24.6%) during early adulthood were similar for respondents who reported having ever enrolled in college and for respondents who reported never attending college. Women were more likely than men to report both sexual harassment (37.4% vs 22.4%) and sexual assault (36.0% vs 16.0%) during early adulthood. Compared with respondents aged ≥30, respondents aged 18-29 were 105% more likely to report sexual harassment and 65% more likely to report sexual assault. Moreover, sexual harassment experiences predicted sexual assault victimization (adjusted odds ratio = 18.1). This study highlights the importance of attending to sexual harassment and sexual assault risks for young adults through research, policy, and criminal justice structures beyond institutions of higher education. Evidence that sexual harassment is strongly associated with sexual assault victimization of young adults highlights the importance of naming and stemming early behavioral transgressions across the US population.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Medición de Riesgo/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Acoso Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859073

RESUMEN

Although bullying and cyberbullying have been widely studied in diverse geographical areas, the number of studies in isolated regions, located in rainforests such as the Peruvian Amazonia, is low. Most research has been conducted in wealthy, Western countries, although disadvantaged areas are usually the most affected by various problems. Thus, the aims of this study were to validate bullying and cyberbullying measurement instruments among adolescents in the Peruvian Amazonia, to determine the prevalence rates of bullying and cyberbullying among this population, and to examine how bullying and cyberbullying relate to self-esteem, empathy, and social skills. The sample included 607 students from the region of Loreto (Peruvian Amazonia) who completed self-report questionnaires. Both questionnaires used in the sample were found to have good psychometric properties. Results showed that bullying and cyberbullying are prevalent among teenagers in the Amazonia. Low self-esteem and high affective empathy predicted bullying victimization. Being a bully was related to high assertiveness. Being a bully-victim was related to low self-esteem and low assertiveness. Cybervictims showed higher cognitive empathy. Cyberbullies showed higher affective empathy in comparison to uninvolved adolescents. Having low self-esteem and higher affective empathy were related to being a cyberbully/victim. This study provides a validated questionnaire that can be used for research and practice in the Amazonia. Based on the current results, tailored anti-bullying and anti-cyberbullying interventions with components focused on self-esteem, empathy, and social skills should be implemented in Peruvian secondary schools.


Asunto(s)
Acoso Escolar , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Ciberacoso/psicología , Empatía , Áreas de Pobreza , Autoimagen , Habilidades Sociales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Adolescente , Niño , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Ciberacoso/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Perú , Prevalencia , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Adulto Joven
17.
Am J Public Health ; 110(9): e1-e14, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673114

RESUMEN

Background: Transgender individuals experience unique vulnerabilities to intimate partner violence (IPV) and may experience a disproportionate IPV burden compared with cisgender (nontransgender) individuals.Objectives: To systematically review the quantitative literature on prevalence and correlates of IPV in transgender populations.Search Methods: Authors searched research databases (PubMed, CINAHL), gray literature (Google), journal tables of contents, and conference abstracts, and consulted experts in the field. Authors were contacted with data requests in cases in which transgender participants were enrolled in a study, but no disaggregated statistics were provided for this population.Selection Criteria: We included all quantitative literature published before July 2019 on prevalence and correlates of IPV victimization, perpetration, or service utilization in transgender populations. There were no restrictions by sample size, year, or location.Data Collection and Analysis: Two independent reviewers conducted screening. One reviewer conducted extraction by using a structured database, and a second reviewer checked for mistakes or omissions. We used random-effects meta-analyses to calculate relative risks (RRs) comparing the prevalence of IPV in transgender individuals and cisgender individuals in studies in which both transgender and cisgender individuals were enrolled. We also used meta-analysis to compare IPV prevalence in assigned-female-sex-at-birth and assigned-male-sex-at-birth transgender individuals and to compare physical IPV prevalence between nonbinary and binary transgender individuals in studies that enrolled both groups.Main Results: We identified 85 articles from 74 unique data sets (ntotal = 49 966 transgender participants). Across studies reporting it, the median lifetime prevalence of physical IPV was 37.5%, lifetime sexual IPV was 25.0%, past-year physical IPV was 16.7%, and past-year sexual IPV was 10.8% among transgender individuals. Compared with cisgender individuals, transgender individuals were 1.7 times more likely to experience any IPV (RR = 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36, 2.03), 2.2 times more likely to experience physical IPV (RR = 2.19; 95% CI = 1.66, 2.88), and 2.5 times more likely to experience sexual IPV (RR = 2.46; 95% CI = 1.64, 3.69). Disparities persisted when comparing to cisgender women specifically. There was no significant difference in any IPV, physical IPV, or sexual IPV prevalence between assigned-female-sex-at-birth and assigned-male-sex-at-birth individuals, nor in physical IPV prevalence between binary- and nonbinary-identified transgender individuals. IPV victimization was associated with sexual risk, substance use, and mental health burden in transgender populations.Authors' Conclusions: Transgender individuals experience a dramatically higher prevalence of IPV victimization compared with cisgender individuals, regardless of sex assigned at birth. IPV prevalence estimates are comparably high for assigned-male-sex-at-birth and assigned-female-sex-at-birth transgender individuals, and for binary and nonbinary transgender individuals, though more research is needed.Public Health Implications: Evidence-based interventions are urgently needed to prevent and address IPV in this high-risk population with unique needs. Lack of legal protections against discrimination in employment, housing, and social services likely foster vulnerability to IPV. Transgender individuals should be explicitly included in US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations promoting IPV screening in primary care settings. Interventions at the policy level as well as the interpersonal and individual level are urgently needed to address epidemic levels of IPV in this marginalized, high-risk population.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Personas Transgénero/estadística & datos numéricos , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología
18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 937, 2020 Jul 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611321

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to investigate the associations between physical partner violence victimization (IPV) and/or sexual violence victimization and various health risk behaviours and mental health in university students in 25 countries. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study design, 18,335 university students with a median age of 20 years from 25 countries in Africa, the Americas and Asia, replied to self-reported measures of interpersonal violence, health compromising behaviours, mental health measures and protective factors. RESULTS: In adjusted logistic regression analysis, physical IPV and/or sexual violence victimization was associated, among men and/or among women, with sexual risk behaviours (multiple sexual partners, alcohol use in the context of sex, diagnosed with HIV and pregnancy), violence related behaviour (in a physical fight and carrying a weapon), poor mental health (depression, loneliness, post-traumatic stress disorder, sleeping problem and short sleep), addictive behaviour (binge drinking, tobacco and drug use), and other health risk behaviour (skipping breakfast and frequent salt intake). CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence that physical IPV and/or sexual violence victimization among female and/or male university students was associated with 4 of 5 sexual risk behaviours, 2 violence related behaviours, 5 of 5 poor mental health indicators, 3 of 3 addictive behaviours and 2 of 7 other health risk behaviours.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Conductas de Riesgo para la Salud , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Adulto , África/epidemiología , Asia/epidemiología , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Embarazo , Factores de Riesgo , Autoinforme , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , América del Sur/epidemiología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Universidades , Indias Occidentales/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635567

RESUMEN

This transversal study over a random representative sample of 1687 Mexican students attending public and private secondary schools (54% girls, 12-17 years old, M = 13.65. DT = 1.14) aimed to analyze psychosocial differences between victims and non-victims of bullying from the bioecological model. It included individual variables (ontosystem), familiar, community, and scholar factors (microsystem), and gender (macrosystem) to perform a multivariate discriminant analysis and a logistic regression analysis. The discriminant analysis found that psychological distress, offensive communication with mother and father, and a positive attitude toward social norms transgression characterized the high victimization cluster. For the non-victims, the discriminant variables were community implication, positive attitude toward institutional authority, and open communication with the mother. These variables allowed for correctly predicting membership in 76% of the cases. Logistic regression analysis found that psychological distress, offensive communication with the father, and being a boy increased the probability of high victimization, while a positive attitude toward authority, open communication with the mother, and being a girl decrease this probability. These results highlight the importance of open and offensive communication between adolescents and their parents on psychological distress, attitude toward authority, community implication, and bullying victimization.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Acoso Escolar/psicología , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Americanos Mexicanos/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adolescente , Acoso Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Identidad de Género , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Distrés Psicológico , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
20.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(2-3): 132-140, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537772

RESUMEN

Exhibitionism and frotteurism are often considered just nuisance crimes but may cause serious distress to the victims. Previous studies of victim experience have focused on specific groups, such as healthcare professionals or university students. To estimate the prevalence of victimisation by exhibitionism and frotteurism among young general population adults in Korea and to describe the impact of such experiences, trained researchers randomly recruited young adults for face to face interviews at transport hubs and on university campuses. In addition, we posted the questionnaire as a Google survey to a limited number of local websites. Data were analysed descriptively. Of 900 people directly approached, 747 (83%) agreed participation, as did 423 online. These two samples were similar demographically, so combined for analyses. Two hundred and thirty-five (20%) reported experiencing exhibitionism and 130 (11%) frotteurism. Exposure victims were older (means 23.2:21.1 years) and more likely to be women than frotteur victims. All but two exposure and nine frotteur perpetrators were said to be men. Reporting to police was rare (17 exposure, 2 frotteur); most exposure victims (73%) but under half of frotteur victims told family or friends. All but 15% of each group had bad feelings about the experience, varying by experience type. Ten percent of exposure and 20% of frotteur victims described distress lasting months; more reported enduring behaviour changes, like avoiding subways. Although our sample is unlikely to be wholly representative of the general population, our research examines a broader range of people than previous studies. Most victims of these "nuisance crimes" were distressed by them, and, hitherto less well recognised, at least a fifth of such victims may have long-term distress. Further research could establish the extent to which support outside the family or friends' group or treatment would be indicated.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Exhibicionismo/epidemiología , Trastornos Parafílicos/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Acoso Escolar , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Exhibicionismo/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos Parafílicos/psicología , Policia , Prevalencia , República de Corea/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades , Adulto Joven
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