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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e210699, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1253172

RESUMEN

Aim: To evaluate orthodontists' knowledge and clinical practices regarding the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods: Cross-sectional study performed with 655 Brazilian orthodontists based on a previously calculated sample size. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to orthodontists to collect information on knowledge and clinical conduct regarding the care of patients with HIV/AIDS. The study evaluated the awareness of possible risk factors for contamination, oral manifestations of HIV, need for more information on the care of HIV-positive patients, whether orthodontic treatment is indicated in HIV-positive patients, and whether they had knowingly performed orthodontic treatment in HIV-positive patients. Simple regression models were adjusted, and crude Odds Ratios estimated the associations with 95% confidence intervals. The variables with P < 0.20 in the crude analysis were tested in multiple logistic regression models, and those with P ≤ 0.05 were maintained in the final model. Magnitudes were estimated by adjusted Odds Ratios values, with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Orthodontists who were aware of the oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS, those having work experience of more than 20 years, and those who believed that orthodontic treatment could be indicated for these patients were 3.30 (1.79-6.10), 2.74 (1.36-5.52) and 1.92 (1.13-3.24) times more likely to perform orthodontic treatment in HIV-positive patients, respectively. Most orthodontists (92.9%) reported they needed to obtain more information about orthodontic care in patients with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: Although orthodontists reported feeling able and qualified to provide dental care to patients with HIV/AIDS, gaps in their knowledge need to be addressed with further training


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Ortodoncia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , VIH , Síndromes de Inmunodeficiencia
2.
Rev Med Liege ; 76(9): 677-682, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477339

RESUMEN

Current guidelines increasingly consider some dual antiretroviral therapies as bona fide alternatives to triple therapy as these regimens are proven to be safe and efficacious. These drug sparing regimens have many advantages such as a reduction of drug burden and subsequent toxicity, preservation of future treatment options, cost reduction and avoidance of drug-drug interactions. In the past, some dual therapies were associated with a higher risk of selecting resistance mutations. Nevertheless, current and future dual regimens based on powerful drugs with a high genetic barrier are non-inferior to triple therapies and could become the future gold standard for HIV treatment.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , VIH , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos
3.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 31(3): 653-662, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483623

RESUMEN

Background: Tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are among the major health problems in Ethiopia. This study assessed the proportion of tuberculosis lymphadenitis (TBLN), HIV infection and their co-infection among TBLN presumptive individuals at the selected hospitals in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: Institution based cross sectional study was carried out. Data on demographic and clinical variables were collected with standardized questionnaire. Microbiological culture was done on specimen obtained by fine needle aspirates. The HIV status was determined by rapid anti-HIV antibody test. Data was entered and scrutinized using SPSS version 20 statistical packages. A stepwise logistic regression model was used. The result was considered as statistically significant at P<0. 05. Results: A total of 381 lymphadenitis patients were included in the study. The overall prevalence of TBLN and HIV were at 250(65.6%) and 9(2.4%), respectively and their co-infection was at 6(2.4%). Based on the cytological examination, 301(79.0%) of them were diagnosed as TBLN. The age group, (P=0.01) and residency, (P=0.01) were found significantly associated with TBLN. Similarly, unsafe sex was also statistically significant for HIV infection (P=0.007). Conclusion: Tuberculosis lymphadenitis is the leading cause of TB and lymphadenitis in the region. However, TBLN-HIV coinfection was promisingly low. High rate of discrepancy was noticed between cytological and culture results. Hence, the TBLN diagnostic criteria shall pursue revision.


Asunto(s)
Coinfección , Infecciones por VIH , Linfadenitis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis Ganglionar , Coinfección/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , VIH , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Linfadenitis/epidemiología , Linfadenitis/etiología , Tuberculosis Ganglionar/epidemiología
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(5): e1222-e1227, 2021 09 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492689

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an unprecedented global challenge that substantially risks reversing the progress in ending human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). At the same time, it may offer the opportunity for a new era of HIV management. This viewpoint presents the impact of COVID-19 on HIV care, including the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) "three 90s" targets. It outlines how to enhance a patient-centered care approach, now known as the "fourth 90," by integrating face-to-face patient-physician and telemedicine encounters. It suggests a framework for prevention and treatment of multimorbidity and frailty, to achieve a good health-related quality of life, and to preserve intrinsic capacity in all people living with HIV.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones por VIH , VIH , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Calidad de Vida , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-09-07.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54802

RESUMEN

Se estima que unos 10 millones de personas contrajeron tuberculosis (TB) en el 2019 y que a unos 3 millones de ellas no se les diagnosticó ni se les notificó la enfermedad. Con el propósito de poner fin a la epidemia mundial de la tuberculosis para el 2030, sigue siendo necesario ampliar la capacidad para analizar un gran número de muestras. En el 2020, la OMS encargó una revisión sistemática de los datos publicados e inéditos sobre tres clases de pruebas de amplificación de ácidos nucleicos que no había examinado hasta el momento. Del 7 al 18 de diciembre del 2020, la OMS reunió a un grupo de elaboración de directrices para abordar los resultados de la revisión sistemática y formular recomendaciones sobre esas tres clases de tecnologías. La presente comunicación rápida tiene por objeto informar a los programas nacionales contra la TB y a otros interesados directos acerca de los resultados y las consideraciones principales sobre el uso de algunos análisis moleculares como pruebas diagnósticas para detección de la TB y la TB farmacorresistente, después de evaluar la nueva evidencia. Las recomendaciones detalladas se presentarán en la actualización del 2021 de las directrices unificadas de la OMS sobre la tuberculosis, en su módulo 3.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Nucleicos , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos , VIH , Enfermedades Transmisibles
7.
J Gen Virol ; 102(8)2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424156

RESUMEN

Viruses may exploit the cardiovascular system to facilitate transmission or within-host dissemination, and the symptoms of many viral diseases stem at least in part from a loss of vascular integrity. The microvascular architecture is comprised of an endothelial cell barrier ensheathed by perivascular cells (pericytes). Pericytes are antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and play crucial roles in angiogenesis and the maintenance of microvascular integrity through complex reciprocal contact-mediated and paracrine crosstalk with endothelial cells. We here review the emerging ways that viruses interact with pericytes and pay consideration to how these interactions influence microvascular function and viral pathogenesis. Major outcomes of virus-pericyte interactions include vascular leakage or haemorrhage, organ tropism facilitated by barrier disruption, including viral penetration of the blood-brain barrier and placenta, as well as inflammatory, neurological, cognitive and developmental sequelae. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms may include direct infection of pericytes, pericyte modulation by secreted viral gene products and/or the dysregulation of paracrine signalling from or to pericytes. Viruses we cover include the herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, Human betaherpesvirus 5), the retrovirus human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, HAND), the flaviviruses dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), and the coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19). We touch on promising pericyte-focussed therapies for treating the diseases caused by these important human pathogens, many of which are emerging viruses or are causing new or long-standing global pandemics.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Celulares , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Pericitos/virología , Virosis/metabolismo , Virosis/virología , Animales , Comunicación Celular , Virus del Dengue/fisiología , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Células Endoteliales/virología , Endotelio/metabolismo , Endotelio/virología , VIH/fisiología , Humanos , Comunicación Paracrina , SARS-CoV-2/fisiología , Virosis/diagnóstico , Virosis/terapia , Fenómenos Fisiológicos de los Virus
8.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(7): 1786-1771, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410243

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the translation and validation of human immunodeficiency virus stigma scale in Urdu language. Methods: The evaluation study was conducted in Lahore, Kasur, Gujranwala and Faisalabad from January 2019 to June 2019. Forward-backward translation method was used to translate the human immunodeficiency virus stigma scale from English to Urdu. Additionally, inter-correlation among variables was assessed by using correlation to determine the psychometric properties. Exploratory factor analysis of the scale was done followed by confirmatory factor analysis for establishing a good model fit. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.95. There was high correlation among the sub-components of the scale, ranging from 0.38 to 0.80 (p<0.001). Confirmatory factor analysis depicted good model fit. Conclusion: The Urdu version of the human immunodeficiency virus stigma scale was found to be a valid and reliable tool to measure personal stigma, disclosure concern, concerns about public attitude and negative self-image.


Asunto(s)
Lenguaje , Traducciones , VIH , Humanos , Pakistán , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(9): 755-758, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387182

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There are significant drug-drug interactions between human immunodeficiency virus antiretroviral therapy and intranasal steroids, leading to high serum concentrations of iatrogenic steroids and subsequently Cushing's syndrome. METHOD: All articles in the literature on cases of intranasal steroid and antiretroviral therapy interactions were reviewed. Full-length manuscripts were analysed and the relevant data were extracted. RESULTS: A literature search and further cross-referencing yielded a total of seven reports on drug-drug interactions of intranasal corticosteroids and human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors, published between 1999 and 2019. CONCLUSION: The use of potent steroids metabolised via CYP3A4, such as fluticasone and budesonide, are not recommended for patients taking ritonavir or cobicistat. Mometasone should be used cautiously with ritonavir because of pharmacokinetic similarities to fluticasone. There was a delayed onset of symptoms in many cases, most likely due to the relatively lower systemic bioavailability of intranasal fluticasone.


Asunto(s)
Corticoesteroides/efectos adversos , Síndrome de Cushing/inducido químicamente , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/efectos adversos , VIH , Administración Intranasal , Corticoesteroides/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Cobicistat/administración & dosificación , Cobicistat/efectos adversos , Interacciones Farmacológicas , Fluticasona/administración & dosificación , Fluticasona/efectos adversos , Inhibidores de la Proteasa del VIH/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Masculino , Ritonavir/administración & dosificación , Ritonavir/efectos adversos
10.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e932467, 2021 Aug 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379615

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND Neurosyphilis is a bacterial infection of the brain and the spinal cord, caused by Treponema pallidum. Its nonspecific clinical presentation includes cognitive impairment and motor and/or sensory function compromise. Neurosyphilis infections in patients with HIV have increased over the past few years and many cases of neurosyphilis manifest in patients with HIV who have low CD4 T-cell counts and high viral loads (VL). However, there is extremely limited acknowledgement in the literature about neurosyphilis presentations in patients with HIV who have normal CD4 counts. CASE REPORT We present a neurosyphilis and HIV coinfection in a patient with a normal CD4 count and an undetectable VL. A 69-year-old woman with a medical history of HIV was on a prescribed antiretroviral treatment regimen. She presented in the Emergency Room in an unresponsive state, although this had been preceded by a period of rapidly progressive cognitive decline. Her brain computed tomography scan without contrast was unremarkable. Laboratory test results were within normal limits, except for a positive result for the microhemagglutination assay for Treponema pallidum antibodies and rapid plasma regain (RPR) test, which was highly suggestive of neurosyphilis as a presumed diagnosis. She showed remarkable clinical improvement after the initiation of conventional treatment for neurosyphilis, which is a 14-day regimen of intravenous penicillin G. CONCLUSIONS Given the broad neurological manifestations of neurosyphilis and its increasing incidence in patients with HIV, it is important to consider neurosyphilis in the differential diagnosis after ruling out other causes of encephalopathy, especially in patients with an undetectable VL and a normal CD4 count.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Neurosífilis , Anciano , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Femenino , VIH , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Humanos , Neurosífilis/complicaciones , Neurosífilis/diagnóstico , Neurosífilis/tratamiento farmacológico , Penicilinas , Carga Viral
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 731, 2021 Aug 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340689

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection require lifelong effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). The goal of ART in HIV-infected persons is sustained viral suppression. There is limited information on virological non-suppression or failure and its associated factors in children in resource limited countries, particularly Ghana. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 250 children aged 8 months to 15 years who had been on ART for at least 6 months attending the Paediatric HIV clinic at Korle Bu Teaching hospital in Ghana was performed. Socio-demographic, clinical, laboratory and ART Adherence related data were collected using questionnaires as well as medical records review. Blood samples were obtained for viral load and CD4+ count determination. Viral load levels > 1000 copies/ml on ART was considered virological non-suppression. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with virological non-suppression. RESULTS: The mean (±SD) age of the study participants was 11.4 ± 2.4 years and the proportion of males was 53.2%. Of the 250 study participants, 96 (38.4%) had virological non-suppression. After adjustment for significant variables, the factors associated with non-suppressed viral load were female gender (AOR 2.51 [95% CI 1.04-6.07], p = 0.041), having a previous history of treatment of tuberculosis (AOR 4.95 [95% CI 1.58-15.5], p = 0.006), severe CD4 immune suppression status at study recruitment (AOR 24.93 [95% CI 4.92-126.31], p < 0.001) and being on a nevirapine (NVP) based regimen (AOR 7.93 [95% CI 1.58-1.15], p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: The prevelance of virological non-suppression was high. Virological non-suppression was associated with a previous history of TB treatment, female gender, severe CD4 immune suppression status at study recruitment and being on a NVP based regimen. Early initiation of ART and phasing out NVP-based regimen might improve viral load suppression in children. In addition, children with a history of TB may need focused measures to maximize virological suppression.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Adolescente , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Ghana , VIH/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Humanos , Lactante , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Nevirapina/uso terapéutico , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Insuficiencia del Tratamiento , Tuberculosis/complicaciones , Carga Viral
12.
Am Fam Physician ; 104(1): 58-62, 2021 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264604

RESUMEN

In the United States, approximately 5,000 women living with HIV infection give birth each year. HIV can be transmitted from a mother to her child at any time during pregnancy, labor and delivery, and breastfeeding. Because of effective preventive measures, the transmission rate from pregnant women to their children has declined significantly. Strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission include maternal and infant antiretroviral therapy and formula-feeding instead of breastfeeding. All infants born to mothers with HIV infection should receive antiretroviral postexposure prophylaxis as soon as possible, ideally within six hours after delivery. The type of prophylaxis depends on whether the mother has achieved virologic suppression, defined by an HIV RNA load of less than 50 copies per mL, and if the infant is at high risk of vertical transmission of HIV. Risk factors for vertical transmission include maternal seroconversion during pregnancy or breastfeeding, high maternal plasma viral RNA load during pregnancy, and advanced maternal HIV disease.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , VIH , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Madres , Embarazo , Factores de Riesgo
14.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 367, 2021 Jul 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256861

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We present an unusual case of a patient who developed four melanomas within a few months of diagnosis with human immunodeficiency virus and commencement of highly active antiretroviral therapy therapy. The patient had no previous history of melanoma, and previous skin checks were normal. CASE PRESENTATION: A 50-year-old Caucasian male drainlayer with Fitzpatrick type 2 skin presented for a routine skin examination. He had been diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus 4 months earlier and commenced on highly active antiretroviral therapy therapy. He was found to have three melanomas (melanoma in situ stage) on excision biopsies, and when he presented for wider excisions of these sites a few weeks later, another new melanoma in situ was found. He had no other medical history of note, and no symptoms to report. He is being followed up 3-monthly. CONCLUSIONS: This case of a human immunodeficiency virus-positive person presenting with four cutaneous melanomas-occurring in both synchronous and metachronous fashion within a 4-month period-is being presented both for its uniqueness and also to highlight the increased need for close skin surveillance in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients.


Asunto(s)
Seropositividad para VIH , Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutáneas , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa , VIH , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/complicaciones , Melanoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias Cutáneas/tratamiento farmacológico
15.
Acta Gastroenterol Belg ; 84(2): 343-345, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217186

RESUMEN

Giant condyloma acuminatum, also known as Buschke-Löwenstein tumor, is a rare variant of verrucous carcinoma presenting in the ano-genital region. While its metastatic potential is limited, aggressive local growth is common, with invasion and destruction of the surrounding tissues often causing important therapeutic challenges. Also, data to inform the optimal management approach are scarce and mostly limited to anectodical reports. We present the case of a human immunodeficiency virus-associated locally advanced Buschke Löwenstein tumor that was successfully treated with extensive surgery.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Ano , Tumor de Buschke-Lowenstein , Condiloma Acuminado , Seropositividad para VIH , VIH , Humanos
16.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e00762021, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231771

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis and brucellosis cause immunosuppression that worsens the clinical condition of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). We investigated the serological profile and risk factors of PLWHA. METHODS: Serum samples (n=238) were researched for Brucella spp. antibodies using Rose Bengal and tube agglutination tests and Leptospira spp. antibodies using the microscopic agglutination test. RESULTS: All samples were negative for Brucella spp. For leptospirosis, four samples (1.69%) were positive, and Andamana was the prevalent serovar. CONCLUSIONS: Low or no detection of these zoonoses does not reduce their importance in PLWHA. Vigilant, educational, and preventive measures should be adopted.


Asunto(s)
Brucelosis , Infecciones por VIH , Leptospira , Leptospirosis , Pruebas de Aglutinación , Animales , Anticuerpos Antibacterianos , Brasil/epidemiología , Brucelosis/complicaciones , Brucelosis/epidemiología , VIH , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Hospitales , Humanos , Leptospirosis/complicaciones , Leptospirosis/epidemiología , Derivación y Consulta , Factores de Riesgo
17.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 341, 2021 Jul 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243803

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Since its debut recognition in 1981, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome has affected over 77 million people and has resulted in premature cessation of 35.4 million lives worldwide. Commonly, human immunodeficiency virus is transmitted by sexual contact across mucosal surfaces, by sharing of injecting equipment, through contaminated blood transfusions, and by maternal-infant exposure. Nevertheless, accidental transmission incidences involving family members are rare but possible. CASE PRESENTATION: A 78-year-old woman of African descent from Mtwara Region south of Tanzania was referred to us for further evaluation and treatment. She is 30 years postmenopausal and has a 35-year history of hypertension. Her last attendance to our institute was 11 months prior the index visit and she tested negative for human immunodeficiency virus. She came with complaints of weight loss, recurrent fevers, and cough. Her hematological tests revealed leukopenia with lymphocytosis, together with a normocytic normochromic anemia. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for human immunodeficiency virus was positive, and she had a CD4 count of 177 cells/µL. We went back to history taking to identify the potential source of infection. We were informed that for the past 6 months, the 78-year-old lady has been living with her unwell 24-year-old granddaughter who has been divorced. The granddaughter had a history of recurrent fevers, significant weight loss, and a suppurative skin condition. As a way to show love and care, the old lady was puncturing the suppurative lesions with bare hands; then she would suck them to clear away the discharge. We requested to see the young lady, and she tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus. Both were started on tenofovir/lamivudine/dolutegravir combination plus cotrimoxazole 960 mg. The family was in total disarray following these findings. The patient was discharged through infectious diseases department and died of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia 12 weeks later. CONCLUSIONS: Certain sociocultural norms that are believed to express love, care, and togetherness in developing rural communities, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa, have a potential of spreading human immunodeficiency virus, thus warranting prompt transformation.


Asunto(s)
Abuelos , Infecciones por VIH , Adulto , Anciano , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Femenino , VIH , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Tanzanía , Adulto Joven
18.
Transfusion ; 61(8): 2392-2400, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224581

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Undisclosed antiretroviral drug (ARV) use among blood donors who tested HIV antibody positive, but RNA negative, was previously described by our group. Undisclosed ARV use represents a risk to blood transfusion safety. We assessed the prevalence of and associations with undisclosed ARV use among HIV-positive donors who donated during 2017. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: South African National Blood Service (SANBS) blood donors are screened by self-administered questionnaire, semi-structured interview, and individual donation nucleic acid amplification testing for HIV. Stored samples from HIV-positive donations were tested for ARV and characterized as recent/longstanding using lag avidity testing. RESULTS: Of the 1462 HIV-positive donations in 2017, 1250 had plasma availability for testing of which 122 (9.8%) tested positive for ARV. Undisclosed ARV use did not differ by gender (p = .205) or ethnicity (p = .505) but did differ by age category (p < .0001), donor (p < .0001), clinic type (p = .012), home province (p = .01), and recency (p < .0001). Multivariable logistic regression found older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.98-7.04 for donors >40 compared with those <21), first-time donation (aOR 5.24; 95% CI 2.48-11.11), and donation in a high HIV-prevalence province (aOR 9.10; 95% CI 2.70-30.72) compared with Northern Rural provinces to be independently associated with undisclosed ARV use. DISCUSSION: Almost 1 in 10 HIV-positive blood donors neglected to disclose their HIV status and ARV use. Demographic characteristics of donors with undisclosed ARV use differed from those noted in other study. Underlying motivations for nondisclosure among blood donors remain unclear and may differ from those in other populations with significant undisclosed ARV use.


Asunto(s)
Donantes de Sangre , Seguridad de la Sangre , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Selección de Donante , Femenino , VIH/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Prueba de VIH , Humanos , Masculino , Técnicas de Amplificación de Ácido Nucleico , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
19.
Rev. Rede cuid. saúde ; 15(1): [47-56], 15/07/2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282399

RESUMEN

Este estudo teve por objeto o processo de diagnóstico da soro positividade para o HIV e por objetivos: descrever processo de revelação do diagnóstico positivo para HIV e discutir a vivência do preconceito e suas consequências para vida cotidiana. Método: Entrevistas com 49 pessoas que vivem com HIV (PVHIV). Técnica de análise de conteúdo lexical, com auxílio do software Iramuteq 0.7 alpha 2. Resultados: As condições de vida de pessoas que vivem com HIV são permeadas pelo estigma, preconceito e discriminação. A revelação do diagnóstico para a sociedade não é uma tarefa fácil e nem sempre ocorre. Após impacto inicial do diagnóstico, a vida segue com mudanças cotidianas, os sentimentos de desespero e medo são aplacados com o tempo, entretanto o preconceito persiste. Conclusão: Os resultados mostram complexo cenário de se (con) viver com o vírus e /ou com a síndrome. A descoberta do diagnóstico, aceitação, decisão sobre revelação, reunir meios de enfrentamento do preconceito e prosseguir vivendo, exige que PVHIV tenham suporte e se reprogramem para enfrentar desafios diários.


This study had as its object the process of diagnosing serum positive for HIV and its objectives: to describe the process of disclosing the positive diagnosis for HIV and to discuss the experience of prejudice and its consequences for everyday life. Method: Interviews with 49 people living with HIV (PLHIV). Lexical content analysis technique, with the aid of the Iramuteq 0.7 alpha 2 software. Results: The living conditions of people living with HIV are permeated by stigma, prejudice and discrimination. Disclosing the diagnosis to society is not an easy task and does not always occur. After the initial impact of the diagnosis, life continues with daily changes, the feelings of despair and fear are appeased over time, however prejudice persists. Conclusion: The results show a complex scenario of (con) living with the virus and / or the syndrome. The discovery of diagnosis, acceptance, decision on disclosure, gathering means to face prejudice and continue living, requires that PLHIV have support and reprogram themselves to face daily challenges.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Prejuicio , VIH , Diagnóstico
20.
Int J Cancer ; 149(8): 1536-1543, 2021 10 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124779

RESUMEN

Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are underestimated causes of cancer in West Africa where chronic viral hepatitis and HIV are endemic. While the association with HIV infection has already been characterized, limited information is available on the association between chronic viral hepatitis and NHL in sub-Saharan Africa. A case-control study was conducted in referral hospitals of Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire) and Dakar (Senegal). Cases of NHL were matched with controls on age, gender and participating site. The diagnosis of NHL relied on local pathological examination completed with immunohistochemistry. HIV, HBV and HCV serology tests were systematically performed. A conditional logistic regression model estimated the associations by the Odds Ratio (OR) with their 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 117 NHL cases (Abidjan n = 97, Dakar n = 20) and their 234 matched controls were enrolled. Cases were predominantly men (68.4%) and had a median age of 50 years (IQR 37-57). While Diffuse Large B-cell lymphoma were the most reported morphological type (n = 35) among mature B-cell NHL, the proportion mature T-cell NHL (30%) was high. The prevalence figures of HBV, HCV and HIV infection were 12.8%, 7.7% and 14.5%, respectively among cases of NHL. In multivariate analysis, HBV, HCV and HIV were independently associated with NHL with OR of 2.23 (CI 1.05-4.75), 4.82 (CI 1.52-15.29) and 3.32 (CI 1.54-7.16), respectively. Chronic viral hepatitis B and C were significantly associated with NHL in West Africa. Timely preventive measures against HBV infection and access to curative anti-HCV treatment might prevent a significant number of NHL.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , VIH/aislamiento & purificación , Virus de la Hepatitis B/aislamiento & purificación , Hepatitis B Crónica/complicaciones , Linfoma no Hodgkin/epidemiología , Adulto , África Occidental/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Hepatitis B Crónica/virología , Humanos , Linfoma no Hodgkin/virología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico
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