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2.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(2): 71-74, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043321

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-13 (PCV-13) has reduced the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease. OBJECTIVES: To characterize true positive blood cultures of children who presented to our hospital following implementation of the PCV-13 vaccine. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on positive blood cultures of children presenting with fever from 2010-2017. Subjects were divided into two age groups: a younger group 3-36 months and an older group 3-18 years. Patients were classified as either having or not having a focus of infection at the time of their bacteremia. Pneumococcal isolates were typed at Israel's Streptococcal Reference Laboratory. RESULTS: The samples included 94 true positive blood cultures. Focal infection with concomitant bacteremia was more common than bacteremia without a focus both overall: 67/94 (71%) vs. 27/94 (28.7%), P <0.001 as well as in the two groups: 32/48 (66%) vs. 16/48 (33%), P = 0.02 in the younger group and 35/46 (76%) vs. 11/46 (24%), P = 0.001 in the older group. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common pathogen overall, 27/94 (29%), and in the younger group, 21/48 (44%), but rare in the older group, 6/46 (13%). In the latter, Brucella species predominated, 12/46 (26%), along with Staphylococcus aureus 12/46 (26%). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are consistent with other studies reporting decreased pneumococcal bacteremia, bacteremia primarily accompanying focal infection, and changing etiological agents among PCV-13-vaccinated children. Brucella species was prominent in older children with osteoarticular infections. Ongoing surveillance is warranted to better understand the implications of PCV-13.


Asunto(s)
Bacteriemia , Infecciones Neumocócicas , Vacunas Neumococicas/administración & dosificación , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Vacunación , Adolescente , Bacteriemia/epidemiología , Bacteriemia/microbiología , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Factores Inmunológicos/administración & dosificación , Incidencia , Lactante , Israel/epidemiología , Masculino , Infecciones Neumocócicas/sangre , Infecciones Neumocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Neumocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Neumocócicas/prevención & control , Estudios Retrospectivos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efectos de los fármacos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/aislamiento & purificación , Vacunación/métodos , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunas Conjugadas/administración & dosificación
4.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 21-36, 2020 Jan 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914565

RESUMEN

Influenza virus infection is a respiratory infectious disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that seasonal influenza epidemics have caused an annual 3 to 5 million severe cases, and 290 000 to 650 000 deaths globally. Seasonal influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza virus infection and complications from infection. Currently, China has licensed trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) and quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4). In 2018, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention issued the "Technical Guidelines for Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in China (2018-2019)" ( "Guide 2018" for short). To strengthen the technical guidance for prevention and control of influenza and operational research on influenza vaccination in China, the National Immunization Advisory Committee (NIAC) Influenza Vaccination Technical Working Group (TWG), updated the 2018 technical guidelines and compiled the "Technical guidelines for seasonal influenza vaccination in China (2019-2020)" . The main updates in this version include the following: First, new research evidences especially studies of China, including disease burden, effectiveness, Vaccine-avoidable disease burden, vaccine safety monitoring, and cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit. Second, policies and measures for influenza prevention and control issued by National Health Commission (PRC) in the past year. Thirdly, new type seasonal influenza vaccine licensed and issued in 2019-2020 in China. Fourth, northern hemisphere influenza vaccination composition for the 2019-2020 season which included trivalent and quadrivalent influenza vaccine. The recommendations described in this report include the following: Points of Vaccination clinics (PoVs) should provide influenza vaccination to all persons aged 6 months and above who are willing to be vaccinated and do not have contraindications. No preferential recommendation is made for one influenza vaccine product over another for persons for whom more than one licensed, recommended, and appropriate product is available. To decrease the risk of severe infections and complications due to influenza virus infection among high risk groups, the recommendations prioritize seasonal influenza vaccination for children aged 6-59 months, adults ≥60 years of age, persons with specific chronic diseases, healthcare workers, the family members and caregivers of infants <6 months of age, and pregnant women or women who plan to become pregnant during the influenza season. Children aged 6 months through 8 years require 2 doses of influenza vaccine administered a minimum of 4 weeks apart during their first season of vaccination for optimal protection. If they were vaccinated in 2018-2019 influenza season or a prior season, 1 dose is recommended. People more than 8 years old require 1 dose of influenza vaccine. It is recommended that people receive their influenza vaccination by the end of October. Influenza vaccination should be offered as soon as the vaccination is available. For the people unable to be vaccinated before the end of October, influenza vaccination will continue to be offered for the whole season. Influenza vaccine is also recommended for use in pregnant women during any trimester. These guidelines are intended for use by staff members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at all levels who work on influenza control and prevention, PoVs staff members, healthcare workers from the departments of pediatrics, internal medicine, and infectious diseases, and staff members of maternity and child care institutions at all levels. These guidelines will be updated periodically as new evidence becomes available.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la Influenza/administración & dosificación , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Vacunación/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , China , Femenino , Humanos , Esquemas de Inmunización , Lactante , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Estaciones del Año , Adulto Joven
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 581, 2020 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996683

RESUMEN

Cancer cells are poorly immunogenic and have a wide range of mutations, which makes them unsuitable for use in vaccination treatment. Here, we show that elimination of CD47, a ligand for the myeloid cell inhibitory receptor SIRPα, from tumor cells by genetic deletion or antibody blocking, significantly improves the effectiveness of the immune response to tumour cells. In both solid and hematopoietic mouse tumor models, vaccination with tumor cells or tumor antigen-expressing cells, that lack CD47 or were pre-coated with anti-CD47 antibodies, achieved an antitumor immune response. The efficacy of this approach was synergistically enhanced when used in combination with anti-PD-1 antibodies. The induction of antitumor responses depends on SIRPα+CD11c+ DCs, which exhibit rapid expansion following introduction of CD47-deficient tumor cells. Our results indicate that CD47-deficient whole tumor cells can induce antitumor responses.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antineoplásicos/efectos de los fármacos , Antineoplásicos/inmunología , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Antígeno CD47/genética , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias/inmunología , Vacunación , Animales , Anticuerpos Bloqueadores/farmacología , Anticuerpos Antineoplásicos/inmunología , Antígenos de Diferenciación/inmunología , Antígenos de Neoplasias , Antígeno CD11c , Antígeno CD47/inmunología , Femenino , Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas , Inmunoterapia/métodos , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Mutación , Células Mieloides/inmunología
10.
Nature ; 577(7788): 31-32, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894152
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784763

RESUMEN

Dengue, the most common arbovirus, represents an increasingly significant cause of morbidity worldwide, including in travelers. After decades of research, the first dengue vaccine was licensed in 2015: CYD-TDV, a tetravalent live attenuated vaccine with a yellow fever vaccine backbone. Recent analyses have shown that vaccine performance is dependent on serostatus. In those who have had a previous dengue infection, i.e., who are seropositive, the efficacy is high and the vaccine is safe. However, in seronegative vaccinees, approximately 3 years after vaccination the vaccine increases the risk of developing severe dengue when the individual experiences a natural dengue infection.The World Health Organization recommends that this vaccine be administered only to seropositive individuals. Current efforts are underway to develop rapid diagnostic tests to facilitate prevaccination screening. Two second-generation dengue vaccine candidates, both also live attenuated recombinant vaccines in late-stage development, may not present the same limitations because of differences in the backbone used, but results of phase 3 trials need to be available before firm conclusions can be drawn.Dengue is increasingly frequent in travelers, but the only licensed dengue vaccine to date can be used only in seropositive individuals. However, the vast majority of travelers are seronegative. Furthermore, the primary series of three doses given 6 months apart renders this vaccine difficult in the travel medicine context.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra el Dengue , Dengue , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Alemania , Humanos , Vacunación , Vacunas Atenuadas
12.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784764

RESUMEN

With about 10 million active disease cases and 1.5 million deaths in 2018, tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most threatening infectious diseases. Yet, the World Health Organization (WHO) aims to reduce morbidity and mortality by 90 and 95%, respectively, between 2015 and 2035. Although diagnostics, therapeutics, and a vaccine are available, it is beyond doubt that better intervention measures are needed to accomplish this ambitious goal. The vaccine bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) partially protects infants against TB, but it is virtually ineffective against pulmonary TB in adolescents and adults. The efficacy of this vaccine, however, has not yet been fully exploited. In addition, new vaccine candidates are currently being assessed in clinical trials.Because a quarter of all people are latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), new vaccines must be applied not only prior to infection (pre-exposure vaccination) but also after infection (postexposure vaccination). Prevention of infection, prevention of disease, and prevention of recurrence are currently assessed as clinical endpoints. Because protection against TB is primarily mediated by T lymphocytes, TB vaccine development focuses on protective T cell responses. Protein adjuvant formulations, viral vectors, and killed and live bacterial vaccines are currently being assessed in clinical trials. Moreover, therapeutic vaccination is clinically tested, notably in adjunct to canonical drug therapy to multiresistant TB. It is likely that a single vaccine cannot accomplish the various indications and that different vaccination strategies are required.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Adolescente , Alemania , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Vacunación
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792552

RESUMEN

Immunization represents one of the most cost-effective means to improve the health and well-being of populations and contribute to sustainable development. Since the inception of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1974, considerable gains have been made in improving access to vaccination in all countries. However, the full potential of vaccination is yet to be tapped.Health system weaknesses have prevented universal access to vaccination and are a limitation for sustainable use of the increasing array of new vaccines. Fortunately, solutions exist and opportunities are available to strengthen immunization systems and to implement strategies to achieve the vision of universal access to vaccines. National immunization programmes are responsible for the management of immunization at the country level and cover a range of functions from establishing evidence-based policies to financing and procurement of vaccines, vaccine management and logistics, delivery of vaccination services and collection, as well as analysis and use of immunization data. Well-functioning immunization programmes that deliver high-quality services using tailored strategies to meet the needs of different population groups can reap the health benefits of high and equitable coverage with vaccines.


Asunto(s)
Vacunación , Vacunas , Alemania , Inmunización , Programas de Inmunización
14.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776598

RESUMEN

Vaccinations are amongst the most important and powerful preventive measures modern medicine has to offer. By their nature, vaccines represent a very complex class of biological medicines. Licensure of novel vaccines is a process conducted on the basis of a comprehensive set of well-defined legal and procedural requirements. The key aim of the regulatory evaluation of vaccines is to confirm their pharmaceutical quality, safety, and efficacy in order to conclude on the positive benefit/risk ratio that is an absolute prerequisite for granting a license.In Europe there exist four types of licensing procedures for human vaccines (national, MRP, DCP, and centralized) depending on whether the vaccine is intended to be marketed nationally, in several, or all EU countries. Modern innovative vaccines are mostly licensed via the centralized EU procedure, which also offers a certain degree of procedural flexibility for specific vaccines under defined conditions. However, the basic regulatory requirements are the same for all types of licensing procedures. In order for a license to be granted, a vaccine has to fulfill all relevant regulatory requirements as regards pharmaceutical quality, including each manufacturing and control step as well as preclinical and clinical characterization. Most importantly, clinical trials in humans conducted prelicensure to determine vaccine safety and efficacy play a key role during the licensing procedure and for decision making.The WHO prequalification procedure was implemented to enable worldwide access to medicines of approved quality. Its prime aim is to establish and ensure appropriate universally recognized regulatory standards for vaccines to be used throughout the entire world.


Asunto(s)
Concesión de Licencias , Vacunación , Vacunas , Europa (Continente) , Alemania , Humanos , Organización Mundial de la Salud
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802153

RESUMEN

Immunization has made an enormous contribution to global health. Global vaccination coverage has dramatically improved and mortality rates among children due to vaccine-preventable diseases have been significantly reduced since the creation of the Expanded Programme of Immunization in 1974, the formation of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, in 2000, and the development of the Global Vaccine Action Plan in 2012. However, challenges remain and persisting inequities in vaccine uptake contribute to the continued occurrence and outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Inequalities in immunization coverage by geography, urban-rural, and socio-economic status jeopardize the achievement of global immunization goals and call for renewed immunization strategies. These should take into account emerging opportunities for building better immunization systems and services, as well as the development of new vaccine products and delivery technologies. Such strategies need to achieve equity in vaccination coverage across and within countries. This will require the participation of communities, a better understanding of vaccine acceptance and hesitancy, the expansion of vaccination across the life course, approaches to improve immunization in middle-income countries, enhanced use of data and possible financial and non-financial incentives. Vaccines also have an important role to play in comprehensive disease control, including the fight against antimicrobial resistance. Lessons learned from disease eradication and elimination efforts of polio, measles and maternal and neonatal tetanus are instrumental in further enhancing global immunization strategies in line with the revised goals and targets of the new Immunization Agenda 2030, which is currently being developed.


Asunto(s)
Programas de Inmunización , Inmunización , Niño , Alemania , Salud Global , Humanos , Sarampión , Vacunación
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802154

RESUMEN

Vaccination saves millions of lives, and the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region celebrated record high coverage in 2018. Still, national or sub-national coverage is insufficient to stop the spread of vaccine-preventable diseases. Health authorities are increasingly aware of the need to prioritize the "demand" side of vaccination. Achieving high and equitable vaccination uptake in all population groups is not a quick-fix; it requires long-term investment in multifaceted interventions, informed by research with the target groups. The WHO focuses on both individual and context determinants of vaccination behaviours. Individual determinants include risk perceptions, (dis)trust and perceived constraints; insights from psychology help us understand these. Context determinants include social norms, socioeconomic status and education level, and the way health systems are designed, operate and are financed. The WHO recommends using a proven theoretical model to understand vaccination behaviours and has adapted the "COM­B model" for their Tailoring Immunization Programmes (TIP) approach. This adapted model is described in the article. Informed by insights into the factors affecting vaccination behaviours, interventions and policies can be planned to increase vaccination uptake. Some evidence exists on proven methods to do this. At the individual level, some interventions have been seen to increase vaccination uptake, and experimental studies have assessed how certain messages or actions affect vaccination perceptions. At the context level, there is more documentation for effective strategies, including those that focus on making vaccination the easy, convenient and default behaviour and that focus on the interaction between caregivers and health workers.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas , Cuidadores , Alemania , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Vacunación
17.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802155

RESUMEN

Vaccinations are an integral part of pre-travel care. Gaps in routine vaccination should be closed. In particular, measles and influenza are important in the context of travel medicine. Vaccinations against yellow fever and meningococcal disease may be required for international travel. This article provides information on these and other travel vaccinations against hepatitis A, typhoid fever, rabies, Japanese encephalitis and cholera.Yellow fever endemic areas are located in Africa and in South America; there is no yellow fever in Asia. The meningococcal vaccine (A, C, W, Y) is required for pilgrims to Saudi Arabia. Additionally, it is recommended for travellers visiting the African "meningitis belt" during the dry season. A polio booster is required for countries with endemic wild-type polio virus (WPV) or circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV).Hepatitis A is a common vaccine-preventable infection in travellers. The hepatitis A vaccination should therefore be recommended to all travellers going to endemic areas. South Asia is the most important region where travel-associated typhoid fever is acquired and where at the same time antimicrobial resistance is emerging. Two different vaccines against typhoid fever are available in Germany. The vaccine efficacy is 50-70% for both vaccines. Contacts with potentially rabid animals are a common travel-related problem. At the same time, vaccines for state of the art postexposure care are not provided in many countries. According to recent WHO recommendations, two vaccinations are sufficient for pre-travel priming against rabies. Japanese encephalitis is rare in travellers. Vaccination should be offered in case of travel to rural and peri-urban areas. Cholera is extremely rare in travellers going to endemic areas. Cholera vaccination is therefore usually not indicated in the context of travel medicine.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Relacionada con los Viajes , Viaje , Vacunación , Animales , Alemania , Fiebre Amarilla
18.
Exp Parasitol ; 208: 107800, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726054

RESUMEN

The aims of this study were an establishment of the domestic rabbit as an intermediate host for cystic echinococcosis (CE) and to evaluate the potency of the crude germinal layer and the protoscoleces antigens to protect against the CE. Firstly; Two groups of white Newzeland rabbits were infected orally either by 5000 active oncospheres or viable protoscoleces separately. After 20 weeks, the slaughtered rabbits showed the presence of hydatid cysts at different internal organs. Molecular detection of the resulted cysts was conducted. Secondly; 27 rabbits were divided into nine groups (n = 3). Groups 1 and 2 were immunized with the crude germinal layer antigen while the groups 3 and 4 were immunized with the crude protoscoleces antigen. Groups 5 and 6 received the adjuvant mineral oil. Groups 7 and 8 were used as positive control. The last 9 group was kept as a negative control. The obtained results showed a significant high protection percentage of 83.4% and high antibody titer was recorded in groups that received the crude germinal layer antigen comparing with the groups that immunized with the crude protoscoleces antigen as their protection percentage was 66.7% with lower IgG response. In conclusion, the domestic rabbits could be used as a laboratory model for CE. Developing of the germinal layer antigen is more immunogenic than the protoscoleces one and could be used as a promising vaccine. Attention should be directed towards the existing rabbit in the environment adjacent to infected dogs as it could be a part of Echinococcus life cycle.


Asunto(s)
Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Equinococosis/prevención & control , Echinococcus/inmunología , Conejos , Vacunación , Vacunas , Análisis de Varianza , Animales , Antígenos Helmínticos/inmunología , ADN de Helmintos/aislamiento & purificación , Perros , Echinococcus/genética , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Inmunoglobulina G/biosíntesis , Riñón/parasitología , Hígado/parasitología , Pulmón/parasitología , Masculino , Epiplón/parasitología , Potencia de la Vacuna
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