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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 72, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33889238

RESUMEN

Introduction: over 1.5 million children die from vaccine-preventable diseases yearly. To avert these deaths and improve their livelihood, vaccine availability is important. The study assessed the availability of the vaccine, injection accessories and the associated factors in public health facilities in Nairobi City County and provided valuable data to contribute to improving healthcare infrastructure, stock management and vaccine distribution. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 68 randomly selected public health facilities at Nairobi City County in Kenya. Data was collected using a researcher-administered structured questionnaire and more information abstracted from the Vaccines management tools. The analysis was carried out using STATA version 14. Results: most facilities had experienced vaccines and accessories stock out at the time of the study and in the preceding twelve months. The most affected vaccines were tetanus (88%), measles-rubella (81%) and oral polio (79%). The causes of stockouts were rationing (82%), unavailability at the depot (93%), lack of transport (55%) and poor forecasting (50%). The majority (91%) of the facilities used the public transport system and only 1% had reliable government utility vehicles for delivery of vaccines and other logistics. Those near the vaccine depots preferred walking. Conclusion: the public health facilities in Nairobi City County experienced frequent stockouts of vaccines and accessories thereby exposing the residents to vaccine-preventable diseases.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Programas de Inmunización , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunas/provisión & distribución , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Kenia , Masculino , Salud Pública , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Enfermedades Prevenibles por Vacunación/prevención & control
4.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250555, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891660

RESUMEN

Vaccines are effective interventions that can reduce the high burden of diseases globally. However, public vaccine hesitancy is a pressing problem for public health authorities. With the availability of COVID-19 vaccines, little information is available on the public acceptability and attitudes towards the COVID-19 vaccines in Jordan. This study aimed to investigate the acceptability of COVID-19 vaccines and its predictors in addition to the attitudes towards these vaccines among public in Jordan. An online, cross-sectional, and self-administered questionnaire was instrumentalized to survey adult participants from Jordan on the acceptability of COVID-19 vaccines. Logistic regression analysis was used to find the predictors of COVID-19 vaccines' acceptability. A total of 3,100 participants completed the survey. The public acceptability of COVID-19 vaccines was fairly low (37.4%) in Jordan. Males (OR = 2.488, 95CI% = 1.834-3.375, p < .001) and those who took the seasonal influenza vaccine (OR = 2.036, 95CI% = 1.306-3.174, p = .002) were more likely to accept COVID-19 vaccines. Similarly, participants who believed that vaccines are generally safe (OR = 9.258, 95CI% = 6.020-14.237, p < .001) and those who were willing to pay for vaccines (OR = 19.223, 95CI% = 13.665-27.042, p < .001), once available, were more likely to accept the COVID-19 vaccines. However, those above 35 years old (OR = 0.376, 95CI% = 0.233-0.607, p < .001) and employed participants (OR = 0.542, 95CI% = 0.405-0.725, p < .001) were less likely to accept the COVID-19 vaccines. Moreover, participants who believed that there was a conspiracy behind COVID-19 (OR = 0.502, 95CI% = 0.356-0.709, p < .001) and those who do not trust any source of information on COVID-19 vaccines (OR = 0.271, 95CI% = 0.183-0.400, p < .001), were less likely to have acceptance towards them. The most trusted sources of information on COVID-19 vaccines were healthcare providers. Systematic interventions are required by public health authorities to reduce the levels of vaccines' hesitancy and improve their acceptance. We believe these results and specifically the low rate of acceptability is alarming to Jordanian health authorities and should stir further studies on the root causes and the need of awareness campaigns. These interventions should take the form of reviving the trust in national health authorities and structured awareness campaigns that offer transparent information about the safety and efficacy of the vaccines and the technology that was utilized in their production.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , /prevención & control , Vacunación/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Jordania , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Negativa a la Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
5.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250495, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905442

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although the approved COVID-19 vaccine has been shown to be safe and effective, mass vaccination in Bangladeshi people remains a challenge. As a vaccination effort, the study provided an empirical evidence on willingness to vaccinate by sociodemographic, clinical and regional differences in Bangladeshi adults. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis from a household survey of 3646 adults aged 18 years or older was conducted in 8 districts of Bangladesh, from December 12, 2020, to January 7, 2021. Multinomial regression examined the impact of socio-demographic, clinical and healthcare-releated factors on hesitancy and reluctance of vaccination for COVID-19. RESULTS: Of the 3646 respondents (2212 men [60.7%]; mean [sd] age, 37.4 [13.9] years), 74.6% reported their willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19 when a safe and effective vaccine is available without a fee, while 8.5% were reluctant to vaccinate. With a minimum fee, 46.5% of the respondents showed intent to vaccinate. Among the respondents, 16.8% reported adequate adherence to health safety regulations, and 35.5% reported high confidence in the country's healthcare system. The COVID-19 vaccine refusal was significantly high in elderly, rural, semi-urban, and slum communities, farmers, day-laborers, homemakers, low-educated group, and those who had low confidence in the country's healthcare system. Also, the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy was high in the elderly population, low-educated group, day-laborers, people with chronic diseases, and people with low confidence in the country's healthcare system. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of vaccine refusal and hesitancy was observed in rural people and slum dwellers in Bangladesh. The rural community and slum dwellers had a low literacy level, low adherence to health safety regulations and low confidence in healthcare system. The ongoing app-based registration for vaccination increased hesitancy and reluctancy in low-educated group. For rural, semi-urban, and slum people, outreach centers for vaccination can be established to ensure the vaccine's nearby availability and limit associated travel costs. In rural areas, community health workers, valued community-leaders, and non-governmental organizations can be utilized to motivate and educate people for vaccination against COVID-19. Further, emphasis should be given to the elderly and diseased people with tailored health messages and assurance from healthcare professionals. The media may play a responsible role with the vaccine education program and eliminate the social stigma about the vaccination. Finally, vaccination should be continued without a fee and thus Bangladesh's COVID vaccination program can become a model for other low and middle-income countries.


Asunto(s)
/administración & dosificación , Vacunación/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , /virología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Clase Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vacunación/economía , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Negativa a la Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 663074, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33815424

RESUMEN

Routine childhood immunizations are proven to be one of the most effective public health interventions at controlling numerous deadly diseases. Therefore, the CDC recommends routine immunizations for children and adolescent populations against vaccine-preventable diseases e.g., tetanus, pertussis, diphtheria, etc. This current review sought to examine barriers to pediatric vaccine uptake behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also explored the implications for parental vaccine hesitancy/delay during an ongoing health crisis and proposed recommendations for increasing vaccine confidence and compliance. Our review determined that the receipt for vaccinations steadily improved in the last decade for both the United States and Tennessee. However, this incremental progress has been forestalled by the COVID-19 pandemic and other barriers i.e. parental vaccine hesitancy, social determinants of health (SDoH) inequalities, etc. which further exacerbate vaccination disparities. Moreover, non-compliance to routine vaccinations could cause an outbreak of diseases, thereby, worsening the ongoing health crisis and already strained health care system. Healthcare providers are uniquely positioned to offer effective recommendations with presumptive languaging to increase vaccination rates, as well as, address parental vaccine hesitancy. Best practices that incorporate healthcare providers' quality improvement coaching, vaccination reminder recall systems, adherence to standardized safety protocols (physical distancing, hand hygiene practices, etc.), as well as, offer telehealth and outdoor/drive-through/curbside vaccination services, etc. are warranted. Additionally, a concerted effort should be made to utilize public health surveillance systems to collect, analyze, and interpret data, thereby, ensuring the dissemination of timely, accurate health information for effective health policy decision-making e.g., vaccine distribution, etc.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Preescolar , Humanos , Lactante , Pandemias , Padres , Salud Pública/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Tennessee , Estados Unidos , Enfermedades Prevenibles por Vacunación/inmunología , Vacunas/inmunología
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811158

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Vaccine hesitancy is a complex public health issue referring to concerns about safety, efficacy, or need for vaccination. Using pneumococcal vaccination, which is recommend in anti-CD20-treated multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, as a model, we assessed vaccination behavior in patients with MS to prepare for the upcoming SARS-CoV-2 vaccination challenge. METHODS: By a medical chart review, we retrospectively identified patients with MS treated with ocrelizumab at the University Hospital Bern in 2018-2020. Pneumococcal vaccination was discussed with the patients during clinical visits and highlighted in the after-visit summary addressed to the general practitioner before ocrelizumab initiation as part of our clinical standard of care. RESULTS: Pneumococcal vaccination was performed in 71/121 (58.7%) of patients, and 50/121 (41.3%) patients were not vaccinated. Patients who did not get a pneumococcal vaccination were younger (no vaccination vs vaccination; mean [95% CI] 40.1 [36.1-44.1] vs 45.4 [41.9-48.8], p = 0.028) and had more frequently a relapsing remitting disease course (no vaccination vs vaccination, n [%]; 43/50 [86.0%] vs 49/71 [69.0%], p = 0.031). Furthermore, patients who did not get vaccination had more frequently a history of comorbid psychiatric disorder (no vaccination vs vaccination, n (%); 12/50 [24.0] vs 7/71 [9.8], p = 0.035). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that in our single-center cohort, 41.3% of patients with MS do not get the recommended pneumococcal vaccination. Future research should focus on vaccine hesitancy in the vulnerable cohort of patients with MS to improve the safety of MS immunotherapies.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Esclerosis Múltiple , Vacunación , Adulto , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Esclerosis Múltiple/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Vacunación/psicología , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
10.
Acta Med Indones ; 53(1): 1-4, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818400

RESUMEN

It has been a year since the Indonesian government announced its first COVID-19 identified in Jakarta. Since then, there have been more than 900,000 cases in Indonesia with case fatality rate (CFR) of 2.9%. The number of new cases per day is now ranging from 9,000 cases to almost 13,000 cases. Not only in Indonesia, but the number of new cases along with the mortality rate in other countries, such as Malaysia, Japan, United States, and Europe region also increased dramatically. COVID-19 vaccines are being investigated and the world hopes that vaccines will be the answer to tackle this pandemic. Is it really so? Immunization is an effort to induce immunity in individuals to prevent a disease or the complication related to the diseases that may be catastrophic. Immunization can be divided into passive, which is by giving certain type of antibody and active, which means that either we get the disease, or we get the antigen injected into our body.Having prior vaccination or past COVID-19 does not mean that someone is totally immune to COVID-19 as a recent study suggested that the antibody related to COVID-19 past infection is significantly decreasing after 3 months post-infection. Compliance to implementation of health protocol remained the most crucial strategy during this pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Fragilidad , Ajuste de Riesgo , Vacunación , Anciano , /prevención & control , /efectos adversos , Femenino , Anciano Frágil/estadística & datos numéricos , Fragilidad/diagnóstico , Fragilidad/epidemiología , Evaluación Geriátrica , Humanos , Indonesia/epidemiología , Masculino , Ajuste de Riesgo/métodos , Ajuste de Riesgo/organización & administración , Factores de Riesgo , Seroconversión , Vacunación/métodos , Vacunación/normas , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
11.
NASN Sch Nurse ; 36(3): 132-136, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825584

RESUMEN

School nurses are advocates, caregivers, and teachers. It is the responsibility of school nurses to understand current prevention and treatment options. In understanding how and why coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccines work, school nurses are in a trusted position to explain and advocate vaccination to students and their caregivers. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccine is a product of the latest scientific and medical technology. A better understanding of how and why this vaccination is effective may prevent vaccination hesitancy and provide reassurance to those choosing to accept vaccination. In December 2020, the National Association of School Nurses publicized its support for vaccination against COVID-19. As the COVID-19 pandemic lingers school nurses will step toward the front line to aid in the abatement of poor public health outcomes that may be severely affecting their schools, students, and caregivers.


Asunto(s)
/uso terapéutico , Educación en Salud/organización & administración , Servicios de Enfermería Escolar/organización & administración , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Seguridad del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 134, 2021.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912304

RESUMEN

Introduction: no one can deny that vaccination against several serious diseases in the world, and particularly in Morocco, has given very satisfactory protective results. The extension of the COVID-19 pandemic in our country has led to a significant decline in childhood immunization, which could have severe repercussions increasing the risk of future outbreaks. Hence, the measures of the Ministry of Health to correct the situation. The purpose of this study was to highlight the extent of vaccine release during COVID-19 pandemic and to make recommendations to restore vaccination programmes. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional study of the effect of containment measures during this pandemic on the monitoring of children´s vaccinations. We conducted a national survey of pediatricians using an electronic questionnaire administered via Google Forms. We collected, analyzed and interpreted the results. Results: one hundred and three Moroccan pediatricians answered the questionnaire. More than 2-thirds (78.6%) of pediatricians practiced in the private sector and delivered vaccines in the immunization schedule. The majority of pediatricians (95%) were asked about parental vaccine concerns. We noted that 82.5% of parents were reluctant to go to the local health department and 5.8% refused to take vaccination during COVID-19 pandemic. About 22% of pediatricians completely stopped immunization services and 72.8% delayed immunizations from 3 to 4 weeks. Vaccination stoppage involved older children in two thirds of cases. Conclusion: it is essential to maintain public confidence in vaccination. Ongoing and timely assessment of vaccine coverage as well as clear recommendations and broad public awareness are essential to respond to vaccine changes during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Esquemas de Inmunización , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunas/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Programas de Inmunización , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Marruecos , Padres , Pediatras/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Cobertura de Vacunación
15.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 82(2): 1-4, 2021 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646036

RESUMEN

The UK government recently decided to extend the interval between the first dose of the Pfizer BioNTech and AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccines from 3 weeks to 12 weeks to maximise the number of people receiving the initial dose, despite the trials only providing vaccine efficacy data based on a schedule of 21 days between doses. This editorial discusses whether there is evidence to support this policy change.


Asunto(s)
Inmunogenicidad Vacunal , Cobertura de Vacunación , Vacunación , /epidemiología , /prevención & control , /inmunología , Esquema de Medicación , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/métodos , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/normas , Regulación Gubernamental , Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Formulación de Políticas , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Vacunación/métodos , Vacunación/normas , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Cobertura de Vacunación/métodos , Cobertura de Vacunación/normas
17.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(3): 699-707, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673921

RESUMEN

The success of vaccination programs is contingent upon irrefutable scientific safety data combined with high rates of public acceptance and population coverage. Vaccine hesitancy, characterized by lack of confidence in vaccination and/or complacency about vaccination that may lead to delay or refusal of vaccination despite the availability of services, threatens to undermine the success of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination programs. The rapid pace of vaccine development, misinformation in popular and social media, the polarized sociopolitical environment, and the inherent complexities of large-scale vaccination efforts may undermine vaccination confidence and increase complacency about COVID-19 vaccination. Although the experience of recent lethal surges of COVID-19 infections has underscored the value of COVID-19 vaccines, ensuring population uptake of COVID-19 vaccination will require application of multilevel, evidence-based strategies to influence behavior change and address vaccine hesitancy. Recent survey research evaluating public attitudes in the United States toward the COVID-19 vaccine reveals substantial vaccine hesitancy. Building upon efforts at the policy and community level to ensure population access to COVID-19 vaccination, a strong health care system response is critical to address vaccine hesitancy. Drawing on the evidence base in social, behavioral, communication, and implementation science, we review, summarize, and encourage use of interpersonal, individual-level, and organizational interventions within clinical organizations to address this critical gap and improve population adoption of COVID-19 vaccination.


Asunto(s)
/farmacología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , /epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias
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