Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 964
Filtrar
2.
Br J Nurs ; 30(2): 116-121, 2021 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529104

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating impact on the UK, as well as many other countries around the world, affecting all aspects of society. Nurses and other health and care professionals are a group particularly exposed to the virus through their work. Evidence suggests that vaccines form the most promising strategy for fighting this pandemic. Should vaccination against be mandatory for nurses and other health professionals? This article explores this question using an ethical framework.


Asunto(s)
/administración & dosificación , Programas Obligatorios/ética , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/legislación & jurisprudencia , Vacunación/ética , Vacunación/legislación & jurisprudencia , /prevención & control , Humanos , Reino Unido/epidemiología
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(3): 75-82, 2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476312

RESUMEN

State and local school vaccination requirements serve to protect students against vaccine-preventable diseases (1). This report summarizes data collected by state and local immunization programs* on vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten (kindergartners) in 48 states, exemptions for kindergartners in 49 states, and provisional enrollment and grace period status for kindergartners in 28 states for the 2019-20 school year, which was more than halfway completed when most schools moved to virtual learning in the spring because of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Nationally, vaccination coverage† was 94.9% for the state-required number of doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); 95.2% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR); and 94.8% for the state-required number of varicella vaccine doses. Although 2.5% of kindergartners had an exemption from at least one vaccine,§ another 2.3% were not up to date for MMR and did not have a vaccine exemption. Schools and immunization programs can work together to ensure that undervaccinated students are caught up on vaccinations in preparation for returning to in-person learning. This follow-up is especially important in the current school year, in which undervaccination is likely higher because of disruptions in vaccination during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic (2-4).


Asunto(s)
Vacuna contra la Varicela/administración & dosificación , Vacuna contra Difteria, Tétanos y Tos Ferina/administración & dosificación , Vacuna contra el Sarampión-Parotiditis-Rubéola/administración & dosificación , Cobertura de Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Esquemas de Inmunización , Estados Unidos , Vacunación/legislación & jurisprudencia
6.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(3): 206-208, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440433

RESUMEN

As the pandemic continues, there is increasing hope vaccinations are becoming available. As a solution for a nationwide immunization against the virus, a compulsory vaccination is repeatedly discussed. However, some opponents of vaccination are threatened by the idea of a possible mandatory vaccination. It is therefore necessary to discuss whether such a compulsory vaccination is theoretically legally enforceable. This article discusses the current legal situation in Germany. The introduction of a potential compulsory vaccination against the SARS-CoV-2 virus represents an encroachment on the fundamental right of physical integrity. According to §â€Š20 (6) IfSG, a protective vaccination for threatened parts of the population is permissible by statutory order, if a transmissible disease with clinically severe courses occurs and its epidemic spread can be expected.


Asunto(s)
/administración & dosificación , /inmunología , Vacunación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Alemania , Humanos
7.
Healthc Policy ; 16(2): 14-20, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337310

RESUMEN

Ontario families are required to provide up-to-date vaccination records as children begin schooling. Exemptions are allowed on both medical and nonmedical (religious or philosophical) grounds. In a recent report, Toronto Public Health (2019) called for an end to nonmedical exemptions - a proposal some allege infringes the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms right to freedom of religion and conscience. This paper explores whether and to what extent vaccine refusal is protected under the Charter and argues that the elimination of nonmedical exemptions can be justified under Section 1 of the Charter. The issue of mandatory vaccination may take on special urgency in the coming months and years, if and when a vaccine is found for COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Programas Obligatorios/legislación & jurisprudencia , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Filosofías Religiosas/psicología , Negativa a la Vacunación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Negativa a la Vacunación/psicología , /epidemiología , Política de Salud , Promoción de la Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Ontario/epidemiología , Vacunación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Vacunación/psicología
8.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 59(6): 812-820, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218394

RESUMEN

The pandemic situation triggered by the spread of COVID-19 has caused great harm worldwide. More than six million people have been infected, and more than 360,000 of them have died. This is the worst catastrophe suffered by mankind in recent history. In the face of this severe disaster, people all over the world are frightened of the prospect of facing an outbreak or an annual recurrence. However, the development of a vaccine will help control the impact of COVID-19. Women in particular have been more seriously affected by the pandemic. Since the pressure and physical load they suffer are often greater than what men endure, women are more threatened by COVID-19. Though women have a poorer quality of life and work and face worse economic conditions, they also tend to have better physiological immunity than men, which can ease the effect of COVID-19. The early development of a vaccine against COVID-19 is an important issue that must take into consideration women's better immune response to the virus along with the technique of hormone regulation. Relevant research has been conducted on female-specific vaccines in the past, and women's issues were considered during those clinical trials to ensure that complications and antibody responses were positive and effective in women. National policies should also propose good strategies for women to be vaccinated. This could improve consciousness, give women a better vaccination experience, enhance their willingness to vaccinate, and protect them from COVID-19 infection.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Factores Sexuales , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Femenino , Política de Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Embarazo , Vacunación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Vacunas Virales/inmunología
11.
Tex Med ; 116(9): 47, 2020 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023282

RESUMEN

Regardless of whether education takes place virtually or in-person, Texas school vaccination rules remain in effect for the 2020-21 school year, according to the Texas Department of State Health Services. All Texas public schools (and most private schools) and colleges require students to have certain shots before they can attend classes at the beginning of a school year.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/legislación & jurisprudencia , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Instituciones Académicas , Vacunación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Prevenibles por Vacunación/prevención & control , Vacunas , Niño , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Humanos , Visita a Consultorio Médico/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Texas
12.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 379-383, 2020 Sep 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955218

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer is the fourth neoplasm in women with respect to incidence. In Poland, both cervical cancer incidence and corresponding mortality are gradually decreasing. Despite these improvements, the epidemiological situation significantly deviates from European standards. Poland has one of Europe's lowest five-year survival rates at 54.1% for patients diagnosed in 2000-2002, compared to the European mean value of 62.1%. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to present health policy programmes related to HPV vaccinations run by local self-government units in 2009-2016. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The research is based on analysis of already existing data developed by provincial governors and annual information reviews on health-policy programmes implemented by local self-government units presented to the Ministry of Health. All the programmes that included HPV vaccinations have been subjected to analysis. RESULTS: In 2009-2016, local government units implemented a total of 1,204 health policy programmes that covered HPV vaccinations. Under these programmes, 2.05% of girls aged 10-14 were vaccinated. Percentage-wise, these were communes that contributed the most financially to the HPV vaccination programmes, whereas the counties the least. CONCLUSIONS: Local self-government's programmes covering HPV vaccinations conform with the trends outlined in strategic documents on fighting neoplastic diseases. It is possible that the availability of HPV vaccination was limited for girls living in rural communes. Differences in the number of programmes, number of vaccinated girls and the financial outlays allocated for the implementation of HPV vaccination programmes in particular provinces, may be determined by the epidemiological situation in a given region, measured by the incidence rate of cervical cancer.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud , Gobierno Local , Papillomaviridae/inmunología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/terapia , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/administración & dosificación , Vacunación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Polonia
14.
Tex Med ; 116(5): 47, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645186

RESUMEN

In 2003, the Texas Legislature allowed parents to opt their children out of getting mandatory public school vaccines. Since then, exemptions have jumped more than 3,000%, to 72,743 statewide, according to the Texas Department of State Health Services. That number of exemptions threatens "herd" or "community" immunity for vaccine-preventable diseases.


Asunto(s)
Programas de Inmunización/legislación & jurisprudencia , Programas de Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Instituciones Académicas , Negativa a la Vacunación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Negativa a la Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Enfermedades Prevenibles por Vacunación/prevención & control , Vacunas , Niño , Humanos , Texas/epidemiología
16.
Med Leg J ; 88(2): 90-97, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490743

RESUMEN

We consider various types of litigation that may follow the Covid-19 pandemic, including: claims against National Health Service (NHS) Trusts by patients who have contracted the coronavirus (or by their bereaved families), claims by NHS staff against their employer for a failure to provide any or adequate personal protective equipment or testing, commercial claims arising from the procurement of medical supplies, the potential liabilities to those who suffer adverse reactions to any vaccine and the guidance issued by the regulators in relation to subsequent disciplinary action.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Responsabilidad Legal , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Contratos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/legislación & jurisprudencia , Disciplina Laboral/legislación & jurisprudencia , Empleo/legislación & jurisprudencia , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Mala Praxis/legislación & jurisprudencia , Exposición Profesional/legislación & jurisprudencia , Pandemias , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Vacunación/legislación & jurisprudencia
17.
Am J Public Health ; 110(7): 1084-1091, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437268

RESUMEN

Objectives. To understand how the elimination of nonmedical vaccine exemptions through California Senate Bill 277 (SB277) may have resulted in increased spatial clustering of medical exemptions.Methods. We used spatial scan statistics and negative binomial regression models to examine spatial clustering in medical vaccine exemptions in California kindergartens from 2015 to 2018.Results. Spatial clustering of medical exemptions across schools emerged following SB277. Clusters were located in similar geographic areas to previous clusters of nonmedical vaccine exemptions, suggesting a spatial association between high nonmedical exemption prevalence and increasing rates of medical exemptions. Regression results confirmed this positive association at the local level. The sociodemographic characteristics of the neighborhoods in which schools were located explained some, but not all, of the positive spatial associations between exemptions before and after SB277.Conclusions. Elimination of nonmedical vaccine exemptions via SB277 may have prompted some parents to instead seek medical exemptions to required school vaccines. The spatial association of these 2 types of exemptions has implications for maintaining pockets of low vaccine compliance and increased disease transmission.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones Académicas/legislación & jurisprudencia , Análisis Espacial , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , California , Preescolar , Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Instituciones Académicas/clasificación , Factores Socioeconómicos , Vacunación/legislación & jurisprudencia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233334, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437376

RESUMEN

To update the landscape analysis of vaccine injuries no-fault compensation programmes, we conducted a scoping review and a survey of World Health Organization Member States. We describe the characteristics of existing no-fault compensation systems during 2018 based on six common programme elements. No-fault compensation systems for vaccine injuries have been developed in a few high-income countries for more than 50 years. Twenty-five jurisdictions were identified with no-fault compensation programmes, of which two were recently implemented in a low- and a lower-middle-income country. The no-fault compensation programmes in most jurisdictions are implemented at the central or federal government level and are government funded. Eligibility criteria for vaccine injury compensation vary considerably across the evaluated programmes. Notably, most programmes cover injuries arising from vaccines that are registered in the country and are recommended by authorities for routine use in children, pregnant women, adults (e.g. influenza vaccines) and for special indications. A claim process is initiated once the injured party or their legal representative files for compensation with a special administrative body in most programmes. All no-fault compensation programmes reviewed require standard of proof showing a causal association between vaccination and injury. Once a final decision has been reached, claimants are compensated with either: lump-sums; amounts calculated based on medical care costs and expenses, loss of earnings or earning capacity; or monetary compensation calculated based on pain and suffering, emotional distress, permanent impairment or loss of function; or combination of those. In most jurisdictions, vaccine injury claimants have the right to seek damages either through civil litigation or from a compensation scheme but not both simultaneously. Data from this report provide an empirical basis on which global guidance for implementing such schemes could be developed.


Asunto(s)
Seguro de Responsabilidad Civil , Vacunas/efectos adversos , Adulto , Niño , Compensación y Reparación , Femenino , Salud Global , Política de Salud/economía , Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Responsabilidad Legal/economía , Masculino , Mala Praxis/economía , Mala Praxis/legislación & jurisprudencia , Programas Nacionales de Salud/economía , Programas Nacionales de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Embarazo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vacunación/efectos adversos , Vacunación/economía , Vacunación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Vacunas/economía , Organización Mundial de la Salud
19.
Z Rheumatol ; 79(5): 459-465, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399618

RESUMEN

On 1 March 2020, the amendments to the German Protection Against Infection Act that were introduced by the act to protect against measles and strengthen vaccination prevention (Measles Protection Act) entered into force. The reason for the changes is that the number of individuals with measles has significantly increased in recent years. To protect public health, the Measles Protection Act has implemented regulations requiring that persons in certain institutions must either have adequate protection against measles or have immunity to measles. In this article the current legal situation with regard to health care facilities is presented.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud , Vacuna Antisarampión/administración & dosificación , Sarampión , Rubéola (Sarampión Alemán) , Vacunación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Alemania , Humanos , Sarampión/prevención & control
20.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (48): 227-243, mar. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | IBECS | ID: ibc-192089

RESUMEN

O objetivo deste artigo é analisar os aspectos jurídicos e bioéticos da vacinação obrigatória de crianças brasileiras. Primeiro, apresentamos a vacinação como um dever decorrente do direito fundamental à saúde de crianças. Depois, realiza-se uma discussão bioética sobre o citado dever jurídico, abordando os principais problemas bioéticos envolvendo a vacinação, com destaque para os eventos adversos pós-vacinação. Concluímos que a Bioética não se propõe a estabelecer normas coercitivas, mas que ela contribui para a solução dos conflitos morais identificados em cada caso concreto ao oferecer parâmetros. Já o direito brasileiro busca assegurar o direito à saúde em sua dimensão coletiva ao estabelecer a obrigatoriedade da imunização para as crianças


El objetivo de este artículo es analizar los aspectos jurídicos y bioéticos de la vacunación de niños brasileños. En primer lugar, presentamos la vacunación como un deber derivado del derecho fundamental a la salud de los niños. Después, se realiza una discusión bioética sobre el citado deber jurídico, abordando los principales problemas bioéticos involucrando la vacunación, destacando los eventos adversos post-vacunación. Concluimos que la Bioética no se propone a establecer normas coercitivas, sino que contribuye a la solución de los conflictos morales identificados en cada caso concreto al ofrecer parámetros. El derecho brasileño busca asegurar el derecho a la salud en su dimensión colectiva al establecer la obligatoriedad de la inmunización para los niños


The objective of this article is to analyze the legal and bioethical aspects of mandatory vaccination of Brazilian children. First, we present vaccination as a duty arising from fundamental right to health of children. Afterwards, it makes a bioethical discussion about the legal duty of children's vaccination, addressing the main bioethical problems involving vaccination, especially the postvaccination adverse events. We conclude that Bioethics does not propose to establish coercive norms, but that it contributes to the solution of the moral conflicts identified in each concrete case by offering parameters. Brazilian law seeks to ensure the right to health in its collective dimension when establishing the mandatory immunization for children


L'objectiu d'aquest article és analitzar els aspectes jurídics i bioètics de la vacunació de nens brasilers. En primer lloc, presentem la vacunació com un deure derivat del dret fonamental a la salut dels nens. Després, es realitza una discussió bioètica sobre el citat deure jurídic, abordant els principals problemes bioètics involucrant la vacunació, destacant els esdeveniments adversos post-vacunació. Concloem que la Bioètica no es proposa a establir normes coercitives, sinó que contribueix a la solució dels conflictes morals identificats en cada cas concret en oferir paràmetres. El dret brasiler busca assegurar el dret a la salut en la seva dimensió col·lectiva en establir l'obligatorietat de la immunització per als nens


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Niño , Adolescente , Vacunación/ética , Vacunación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Defensa del Niño/ética , Salud del Niño/legislación & jurisprudencia , Defensa del Niño/legislación & jurisprudencia , Política Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Brasil
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...