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1.
Acta Med Indones ; 53(1): 1-4, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818400

RESUMEN

It has been a year since the Indonesian government announced its first COVID-19 identified in Jakarta. Since then, there have been more than 900,000 cases in Indonesia with case fatality rate (CFR) of 2.9%. The number of new cases per day is now ranging from 9,000 cases to almost 13,000 cases. Not only in Indonesia, but the number of new cases along with the mortality rate in other countries, such as Malaysia, Japan, United States, and Europe region also increased dramatically. COVID-19 vaccines are being investigated and the world hopes that vaccines will be the answer to tackle this pandemic. Is it really so? Immunization is an effort to induce immunity in individuals to prevent a disease or the complication related to the diseases that may be catastrophic. Immunization can be divided into passive, which is by giving certain type of antibody and active, which means that either we get the disease, or we get the antigen injected into our body.Having prior vaccination or past COVID-19 does not mean that someone is totally immune to COVID-19 as a recent study suggested that the antibody related to COVID-19 past infection is significantly decreasing after 3 months post-infection. Compliance to implementation of health protocol remained the most crucial strategy during this pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Fragilidad , Ajuste de Riesgo , Vacunación , Anciano , /prevención & control , /efectos adversos , Femenino , Anciano Frágil/estadística & datos numéricos , Fragilidad/diagnóstico , Fragilidad/epidemiología , Evaluación Geriátrica , Humanos , Indonesia/epidemiología , Masculino , Ajuste de Riesgo/métodos , Ajuste de Riesgo/organización & administración , Factores de Riesgo , Seroconversión , Vacunación/métodos , Vacunación/normas , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
2.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 496(1): 44-47, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689074

RESUMEN

The high efficiency of using thermoheliox (inhalation with a high-temperature mixture of helium and oxygen) in the treatment of patients affected by COVID-19 was shown. The dynamics of accumulation of IgG, IgM, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with coronavirus infection in the "working" and control groups was studied experimentally. It was shown that thermoheliox intensifies the synthesis of IgG, IgM, and CRP antibodies, while eliminating the induction period on the kinetic curves of the synthesis of specific antibodies in the IgG form and transfers the synthesis of CRP to a fast phase. The results of experiments confirm the previously obtained data based on the analysis of the kinetic model of the development of coronaviral infection in the human body.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Proteína C-Reactiva/biosíntesis , /prevención & control , Inmunidad/inmunología , Vacunación/métodos , /inmunología , Humanos , Cinética , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología
3.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1652021 02 05.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651507

RESUMEN

In 2021 many people in the Netherlands will be vaccinated against COVID-19. The mass vaccination and the new types of vaccines trigger questions about the safety of these vaccines. In this paper we discuss: (1) what reactions are expected from COVID-19 vaccines, (2) what precautions are needed when vaccinating people, and (3) how to act when allergic reactions occur. The COVID-19 vaccines include the first vaccines produced with the mRNA platform. The most frequent adverse reactions are comparable with other vaccines. Allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccines are rare but can occur. These reactions may be related to excipients in the vaccines, like polyethylene glycol. In case of a possible allergic reaction, a doctor, in consultation with an allergist, can investigate whether vaccination is safe in the future and whether precautions are necessary. Allergic reactions to vaccine components must be recorded completely and unambiguously in the patient file.


Asunto(s)
Hipersensibilidad a las Drogas , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Vacunación , /epidemiología , /efectos adversos , /farmacología , Hipersensibilidad a las Drogas/etiología , Hipersensibilidad a las Drogas/prevención & control , Hipersensibilidad a las Drogas/terapia , Humanos , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Ajuste de Riesgo , Vacunación/métodos , Vacunación/normas
4.
DNA Cell Biol ; 40(4): 595-605, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769863

RESUMEN

Canine distemper (CD) is a significant threat to wild and captive giant panda populations. Captive giant pandas are inoculated with canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccination to prevent the infection with the CDV. As an important regulator, microRNA (miRNA) plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression, including in disease immunity. To understand the role of miRNA in immune response to CDV vaccination, we investigated the miRNA expression profile in five giant panda cubs after two inoculations, 21 days apart. A total of 187 conserved miRNAs and 96 novel miRNAs were identified. Among the 187 conserved miRNAs, 29 differentially expressed miRNAs were found postinoculation. The upregulation of miR-16, miR-182, miR-30b, and miR-101 indicated that the innate immune may be enhanced, whereas the upregulation of miR-142 and miR-19a are probably involved in the enhanced cellular immune response. However, the downregulated miR-155 and miR-181a might indicate the giant panda has weak ability to produce antibodies and memory B cells. Integrated analysis of miRNA-messenger RNA (mRNA) found 20 negatively regulated miRNA-mRNA pairs, where downregulated miR-204 might enhance giant panda cub innate immunity by increasing TLR6 expression, and downregulated miR-330 might activate macrophages and regulate the immune response by increasing TMEM106A expression. Our research provides key information for future development to enhance the immune response of giant pandas and potentially improve the survival of captive and wild giant panda populations threatened by CD.


Asunto(s)
Moquillo/tratamiento farmacológico , MicroARNs/genética , Ursidae/genética , Animales , China , Moquillo/virología , Virus del Moquillo Canino/genética , Virus del Moquillo Canino/inmunología , Virus del Moquillo Canino/patogenicidad , Expresión Génica/genética , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica/métodos , Inmunidad Innata/genética , MicroARNs/efectos de los fármacos , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Vacunación/métodos , Vacunación/veterinaria
5.
PLoS Biol ; 19(3): e3001167, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684102

RESUMEN

As the vaccines against COVID are slowly becoming available, we need to consider the paradox of why so many people of color are dying from the disease yet cannot get the vaccinations. Concerns focus on vaccine refusal but lack of access is the bigger problem.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/psicología , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Racismo/psicología , Negativa a la Vacunación/etnología , /epidemiología , /metabolismo , Humanos , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Vacunación/métodos , Vacunación/psicología , Negativa a la Vacunación/psicología , Negativa a la Vacunación/tendencias
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1916, 2021 03 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772022

RESUMEN

Multiphoton microscopy is a powerful technique for deep in vivo imaging in scattering samples. However, it requires precise, sample-dependent increases in excitation power with depth in order to generate contrast in scattering tissue, while minimizing photobleaching and phototoxicity. We show here how adaptive imaging can optimize illumination power at each point in a 3D volume as a function of the sample's shape, without the need for specialized fluorescent labeling. Our method relies on training a physics-based machine learning model using cells with identical fluorescent labels imaged in situ. We use this technique for in vivo imaging of immune responses in mouse lymph nodes following vaccination. We achieve visualization of physiologically realistic numbers of antigen-specific T cells (~2 orders of magnitude lower than previous studies), and demonstrate changes in the global organization and motility of dendritic cell networks during the early stages of the immune response. We provide a step-by-step tutorial for implementing this technique using exclusively open-source hardware and software.


Asunto(s)
Inmunidad/inmunología , Ganglios Linfáticos/inmunología , Microscopía de Fluorescencia por Excitación Multifotónica/métodos , Vacunación/métodos , Inmunidad Adaptativa/inmunología , Algoritmos , Animales , Antígenos/inmunología , Femenino , Ganglios Linfáticos/metabolismo , Aprendizaje Automático , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Transgénicos , Microscopía de Fluorescencia por Excitación Multifotónica/instrumentación , Linfocitos T/inmunología , Linfocitos T/metabolismo
8.
Eur J Cancer ; 147: 154-160, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676266

RESUMEN

The worldwide spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the associated infectious coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has posed a unique challenge to medical staff, patients and their families. Patients with cancer, particularly those with haematologic malignancies, have been identified to be at high risk to develop severe COVID-19. Since publication of our previous guideline on evidence-based management of COVID-19 in patients with cancer, research efforts have continued and new relevant data has come to light, maybe most importantly in the field of vaccination studies. Therefore, an update of our guideline on several clinically important topics is warranted. Here, we provide a concise update of evidence-based recommendations for rapid diagnostics, viral shedding, vaccination and therapy of COVID-19 in patients with cancer. This guideline update was prepared by the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society for Haematology and Medical Oncology by critically reviewing the currently available data on these topics applying evidence-based medicine criteria.


Asunto(s)
/normas , Neoplasias , Esparcimiento de Virus/fisiología , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , /epidemiología , /virología , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/normas , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Alemania/epidemiología , Neoplasias Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiología , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/virología , Hematología/organización & administración , Hematología/normas , Humanos , Inmunización Pasiva/métodos , Inmunización Pasiva/normas , Infectología/organización & administración , Infectología/normas , Oncología Médica/organización & administración , Oncología Médica/normas , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Neoplasias/terapia , Neoplasias/virología , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Vacunación/métodos , Vacunación/normas
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 637654, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33732258

RESUMEN

A coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which has caused the pandemic viral pneumonia disease COVID-19, significantly threatens global public health, highlighting the need to develop effective and safe vaccines against its infection. In this study, we developed a novel DNA vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2 by expressing a chimeric protein of its receptor-binding domain (RBD) fused to a 33-bp sequence (11 aa) from the hepatitis B virus (HBV) preS1 region with a W4P mutation (W4P-RBD) at the N-terminal region and evaluated its immunogenicity. In vitro transfection experiments in multiple cell lines demonstrated that W4P-RBD vs. wild-type RBD protein (W-RBD) led to enhanced production of IL-6 and TNFα at the transcription and translation levels, suggesting the adjuvant potential of N-terminal HBV preS1 sequences for DNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. W4P-RBD also led to enhanced production of IgG and IgA, which can neutralize and block SARS-CoV-2 infection in both blood sera and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from the lung in vaccinated mice. Additionally, W4P-RBD led to an enhanced T-cell-mediated cellular immune response under S1 protein stimulation. In summary, W4P-RBD led to robust humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 in vaccinated mice, highlighting its feasibility as a novel DNA vaccine to protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Asunto(s)
/inmunología , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B/genética , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B/inmunología , Mutación , Dominios Proteicos/inmunología , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/inmunología , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusión/inmunología , Vacunas de ADN/inmunología , Animales , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Inmunogenicidad Vacunal , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Vacunación/métodos , Células Vero
10.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 82(2): 1-4, 2021 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646036

RESUMEN

The UK government recently decided to extend the interval between the first dose of the Pfizer BioNTech and AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccines from 3 weeks to 12 weeks to maximise the number of people receiving the initial dose, despite the trials only providing vaccine efficacy data based on a schedule of 21 days between doses. This editorial discusses whether there is evidence to support this policy change.


Asunto(s)
Inmunogenicidad Vacunal , Cobertura de Vacunación , Vacunación , /epidemiología , /prevención & control , /inmunología , Esquema de Medicación , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/métodos , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/normas , Regulación Gubernamental , Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Formulación de Políticas , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Vacunación/métodos , Vacunación/normas , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Cobertura de Vacunación/métodos , Cobertura de Vacunación/normas
11.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48065

RESUMEN

Desde 18 de janeiro, quando deu início ao Plano Nacional de Operacionalização da Vacinação Contra a Covid-19, o Ministério da Saúde tem distribuído, com a maior celeridade possível, as doses recebidas aos estados e municípios, a fim de ampliar a vacinação no Brasil


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Vacunación , Vacunación/métodos , Betacoronavirus
14.
Immunity ; 54(3): 542-556.e9, 2021 03 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631118

RESUMEN

A combination of vaccination approaches will likely be necessary to fully control the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Here, we show that modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vectors expressing membrane-anchored pre-fusion stabilized spike (MVA/S) but not secreted S1 induced strong neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 in mice. In macaques, the MVA/S vaccination induced strong neutralizing antibodies and CD8+ T cell responses, and conferred protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection and virus replication in the lungs as early as day 2 following intranasal and intratracheal challenge. Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of lung cells on day 4 after infection revealed that MVA/S vaccination also protected macaques from infection-induced inflammation and B cell abnormalities and lowered induction of interferon-stimulated genes. These results demonstrate that MVA/S vaccination induces neutralizing antibodies and CD8+ T cells in the blood and lungs and is a potential vaccine candidate for SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
/inmunología , Vectores Genéticos/genética , Vacunas de ADN/inmunología , Virus Vaccinia/genética , Animales , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Antígenos Virales/genética , Antígenos Virales/inmunología , /patología , /genética , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Expresión Génica , Orden Génico , Inmunofenotipificación , Pulmón/inmunología , Pulmón/patología , Pulmón/virología , Macaca , Macrófagos Alveolares/inmunología , Macrófagos Alveolares/metabolismo , Macrófagos Alveolares/patología , Ratones , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Subgrupos de Linfocitos T/inmunología , Subgrupos de Linfocitos T/metabolismo , Vacunación/métodos , Vacunas de ADN/genética
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1220-1222, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522478

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) symptoms can be mistaken for vaccine-related side effects during initial days after immunization. Among 4,081 vaccinated healthcare workers in Israel, 22 (0.54%) developed COVID-19 from 1-10 days (median 3.5 days) after immunization. Clinicians should not dismiss postvaccination symptoms as vaccine-related and should promptly test for COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/efectos adversos , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunación , Adulto , Rutas de Resultados Adversos , /epidemiología , /métodos , /administración & dosificación , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiología , Masculino , Vacunación/efectos adversos , Vacunación/métodos , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
16.
J Hepatol ; 74(4): 944-951, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563499

RESUMEN

According to a recent World Health Organization estimate, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, which originated in China in 2019, has spread globally, infecting nearly 100 million people worldwide by January 2021. Patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD), particularly cirrhosis, hepatobiliary malignancies, candidates for liver transplantation, and immunosuppressed individuals after liver transplantation appear to be at increased risk of infections in general, which in turn translates into increased mortality. This is also the case for SARS-CoV-2 infection, where patients with cirrhosis, in particular, are at high risk of a severe COVID-19 course. Therefore, vaccination against various pathogens including SARS-CoV-2, administered as early as possible in patients with CLD, is an important protective measure. However, due to impaired immune responses in these patients, the immediate and long-term protective response through immunisation may be incomplete. The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to the exceptionally fast development of several vaccine candidates. A small number of these SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates have already undergone phase III, placebo-controlled, clinical trials in healthy individuals with proof of short-term safety, immunogenicity and efficacy. However, although regulatory agencies in the US and Europe have already approved some of these vaccines for clinical use, information on immunogenicity, duration of protection and long-term safety in patients with CLD, cirrhosis, hepatobiliary cancer and liver transplant recipients has yet to be generated. This review summarises the data on vaccine safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy in this patient population in general and discusses the implications of this knowledge on the introduction of the new SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Sistema Biliar , Hepatopatías , Trasplante de Hígado , Neoplasias del Sistema Biliar/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Sistema Biliar/terapia , /prevención & control , Humanos , Huésped Inmunocomprometido , Hepatopatías/epidemiología , Hepatopatías/inmunología , Hepatopatías/terapia , Trasplante de Hígado/métodos , Trasplante de Hígado/estadística & datos numéricos , Ajuste de Riesgo , Vacunación/métodos
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2244: 403-463, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555597

RESUMEN

Human cytomegalovirus is the largest human herpesvirus and shares many core features of other herpesviruses such as tightly regulated gene expression during genome replication and latency as well as the establishment of lifelong persistence following infection. In contrast to stereotypic clinical syndromes associated with alpha-herpesvirus infections, almost all primary HCMV infections are asymptomatic and acquired early in life in most populations in the world. Although asymptomatic in most individuals, HCMV is a major cause of disease in hosts with deficits in adaptive and innate immunity such as infants who are infected in utero and allograft recipients following transplantation. Congenital HCMV is a commonly acquired infection in the developing fetus that can result in a number of neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Similarly, HCMV is a major cause of disease in allograft recipients in the immediate and late posttransplant period and is thought to be a major contributor to chronic allograft rejection. Even though HCMV induces robust innate and adaptive immune responses, it also encodes a vast array of immune evasion functions that are thought aid in its persistence. Immune correlates of protective immunity that prevent or modify intrauterine HCMV infection remain incompletely defined but are thought to consist primarily of adaptive responses in the pregnant mother, thus making congenital HCMV a potentially vaccine modifiable disease. Similarly, HCMV infection in allograft recipients is often more severe in recipients without preexisting adaptive immunity to HCMV. Thus, there has been a considerable effort to modify HCMV specific immunity in transplant recipient either through active immunization or passive transfer of adaptive effector functions. Although efforts to develop an efficacious vaccine and/or passive immunotherapy to limit HCMV disease have been underway for nearly six decades, most have met with limited success at best. In contrast to previous efforts, current HCMV vaccine development has relied on observations of unique properties of HCMV in hopes of reproducing immune responses that at a minimum will be similar to that following natural infection. However, more recent findings have suggested that immunity following naturally acquired HCMV infection may have limited protective activity and almost certainly, is not sterilizing. Such observations suggest that either the induction of natural immunity must be specifically tailored to generate protective activity or alternatively, that providing targeted passive immunity to susceptible populations could be prove to be more efficacious.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra Citomegalovirus/inmunología , Citomegalovirus/inmunología , Vacunación/métodos , Inmunidad Adaptativa/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Citomegalovirus/genética , Infecciones por Citomegalovirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Citomegalovirus/prevención & control , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunidad Humoral/inmunología , Inmunidad Innata/inmunología , Lactante , Masculino , Embarazo , Vacunas/inmunología , Vacunas/metabolismo , Vacunas/farmacología
18.
Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr ; 31(1): 61-69, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639056

RESUMEN

The human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine is the world's first proven and effective vaccine to prevent cancers in males and females when administered pre-exposure. Like most of the US, barely half of Vermont teens are up-to-date with the vaccination, with comparable deficits in New Hampshire and Maine. The rates for HPV vaccine initiation and completion are as low as 33% in rural New England. Consequently, there is a compelling responsibility to communicate its importance to unvaccinated teenagers before their risk for infection increases. Messaging in rural areas promoting HPV vaccination is compromised by community-based characteristics that include access to appropriate medical care, poor media coverage, parental and peer influence, and skepticism of science and medicine. Current strategies are predominantly passive access to literature and Internet-based information. Evidence indicates that performance-based messaging can clarify the importance of HPV vaccination to teenagers and their parents in rural areas. Increased HPV vaccination will significantly contribute to the prevention of a broadening spectrum of cancers. Reducing rurality-based inequities is a public health priority. Development of a performance-based peer-communication intervention can capture a window of opportunity to provide increasingly effective and sustained HPV protection. An effective approach can be partnering rural schools and regional health teams with a program that is nimble and scalable to respond to public health policies and practices compliant with COVID-19 pandemic-related modifications on physical distancing and interacting in the foreseeable future.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus/administración & dosificación , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunación/métodos , Adolescente , /prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , New England/epidemiología , Pandemias , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/virología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Pública/métodos , /fisiología
19.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 182(4): 339-349, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524979

RESUMEN

The number of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients keeps rising in most of the European countries despite the pandemic precaution measures. The current antiviral and anti-inflammatory therapeutic approaches are only supportive, have limited efficacy, and the prevention in reducing the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus is the best hope for public health. It is presumed that an effective vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 infection could mobilize the innate and adaptive immune responses and provide a protection against severe forms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease. As the race for the effective and safe vaccine has begun, different strategies were introduced. To date, viral vector-based vaccines, genetic vaccines, attenuated vaccines, and protein-based vaccines are the major vaccine types tested in the clinical trials. Over 80 clinical trials have been initiated; however, only 18 vaccines have reached the clinical phase II/III or III, and 4 vaccine candidates are under consideration or have been approved for the use so far. In addition, the protective effect of the off-target vaccines, such as Bacillus Calmette-Guérin and measles vaccine, is being explored in randomized prospective clinical trials with SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. In this review, we discuss the most promising anti-COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials and different vaccination strategies in order to provide more clarity into the ongoing clinical trials.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/métodos , Proyectos de Investigación , Vacunación/métodos , /inmunología , /administración & dosificación , Humanos
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 137: 111254, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550049

RESUMEN

The SARS-CoV-2, previously called a novel coronavirus, that broke out in the Wuhan city of China caused a significant number of morbidity and mortality in the world. It is spreading at peak levels since the first case reported and the need for vaccines is in immense demand globally. Numerous treatment and vaccination strategies that were previously employed for other pathogens including coronaviruses are now being been adopted to guide the formulation of new SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Several vaccine targets can be utilized for the development of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. In this review, we highlighted the potential of various antigenic targets and other modes for formulating an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. There are a varying number of challenges encountered during developing the most effective vaccines, and measures for tackling such challenges will assist in fast pace development of vaccines. This review will give a concise overview of various aspects of the vaccine development process against SARS-CoV-2, including 1) potential antigen targets 2) different vaccination strategies from conventional to novel platforms, 3) ongoing clinical trials, 4) varying challenges encountered during developing the most effective vaccine and the futuristic approaches.


Asunto(s)
Vacunación/métodos , /epidemiología , /prevención & control , /farmacología , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Desarrollo de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , /fisiología , Resultado del Tratamiento
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