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2.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210014, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825774

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with the willingness to take the pandemic influenza vaccine. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of Brazilian civil servants participating in the fourth wave (2012-2013) of the longitudinal Pró-Saúde Study. Associations were expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), estimated by multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: Among 2,828 participants, 15.9% would not be willing to vaccinate in the future if the Brazilian Ministry of Health promoted a new vaccination campaign against pandemic influenza. Not willing to vaccinate in the future was strongly associated with not taking the pandemic influenza vaccine in 2010 (OR = 9.0, 95%CI 6.9 - 11.6). Among the unvaccinated, females, those aged > 60 years, and non-health care workers were less willing to vaccinate in the future. Again, in the vaccinated group, females were less willing to vaccinate. CONCLUSION: Multidisciplinary efforts should be encouraged in order to identify reasons for refusing vaccination, focusing on the individual and group perceptions of susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers to vaccination. Such information is needed to identify target groups for the delivery of customized interventions towards preventing emerging pandemics, such as avian influenza and COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Empleados de Gobierno , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Vacunación , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Empleados de Gobierno/psicología , Empleados de Gobierno/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Vacunas contra la Influenza/administración & dosificación , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunación/psicología
3.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211007393, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813931

RESUMEN

As mass vaccination is underway to combat the COVID-19 pandemic and achieve herd immunity, healthcare professionals need to recognize the fear and phobia of needles among their patients. Approximately 11.5 to 66 million U.S. adults may suffer from this condition. This population often avoids seeking medical care including vaccinations. The exact number of people suffering from this phobia is unknown, and the potential years of life lost in the American health care system cannot be estimated accurately. The resistance to vaccinations among this population may delay achieving herd immunity to end this current pandemic. An overview of needle phobia, vaccinations, and current treatments are explored. The use of telemedicine could prove critical for reaching this population as well as those who are hesitant about vaccinations. Providing education to healthcare providers to identify and manage these patients during the pandemic is necessary.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Miedo , Agujas , Pandemias , Trastornos Fóbicos , Vacunación/psicología , Adulto , Ansiedad , Humanos , Terapia Implosiva
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 578, 2021 04 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832447

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Communities with low vaccination rates are at greater risk during outbreaks of vaccine preventable diseases. Most Australian parents support vaccines, but some refuse and are often judged harshly by their community, especially during an outbreak. We sought the perspectives of Australian public health experts on the key issues faced when managing a measles outbreak in an area with high anti-vaccination sentiment. METHODS: A measles outbreak scenario formed the basis of a 3-round modified Delphi process to identify key practitioner concerns in relation to parents/carers who don't follow the recommended vaccination schedule. We surveyed a range of professionals in the field: policymakers, infectious disease experts, immunisation program staff, and others involved in delivering childhood vaccinations, to identify key priorities when responding to an outbreak in a community with low vaccination coverage. RESULTS: Findings indicate that responses to measles outbreaks in communities with high anti-vaccination sentiment are motivated by concerns about the potential for a much larger outbreak event. The highest operational priority is to isolate infected children. The two most highly ranked practical issues are mistrust from non-vaccinating members of the local region and combatting misinformation about vaccines. Trying to change minds of such individuals is not a priority during an outbreak, nor is vaccinating their children. Using media and social media to provide information about the outbreak and measures the public can take to limit the spread of the disease was a focus. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide a deeper understanding of the challenges faced during an outbreak and priorities for communicating with communities where there is a high level of anti-vaccination sentiment. In the context of a global pandemic, the results of this study also have implications for managing public health responses to community transmission of SARS-CoV-2, as COVID-19 vaccines becomes widely available.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Brotes de Enfermedades , Vacuna Antisarampión , Sarampión , Salud Pública , Vacunación , Australia/epidemiología , /prevención & control , Niño , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Humanos , Sarampión/epidemiología , Sarampión/prevención & control , Vacuna Antisarampión/administración & dosificación , Vacunación/psicología
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811158

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Vaccine hesitancy is a complex public health issue referring to concerns about safety, efficacy, or need for vaccination. Using pneumococcal vaccination, which is recommend in anti-CD20-treated multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, as a model, we assessed vaccination behavior in patients with MS to prepare for the upcoming SARS-CoV-2 vaccination challenge. METHODS: By a medical chart review, we retrospectively identified patients with MS treated with ocrelizumab at the University Hospital Bern in 2018-2020. Pneumococcal vaccination was discussed with the patients during clinical visits and highlighted in the after-visit summary addressed to the general practitioner before ocrelizumab initiation as part of our clinical standard of care. RESULTS: Pneumococcal vaccination was performed in 71/121 (58.7%) of patients, and 50/121 (41.3%) patients were not vaccinated. Patients who did not get a pneumococcal vaccination were younger (no vaccination vs vaccination; mean [95% CI] 40.1 [36.1-44.1] vs 45.4 [41.9-48.8], p = 0.028) and had more frequently a relapsing remitting disease course (no vaccination vs vaccination, n [%]; 43/50 [86.0%] vs 49/71 [69.0%], p = 0.031). Furthermore, patients who did not get vaccination had more frequently a history of comorbid psychiatric disorder (no vaccination vs vaccination, n (%); 12/50 [24.0] vs 7/71 [9.8], p = 0.035). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that in our single-center cohort, 41.3% of patients with MS do not get the recommended pneumococcal vaccination. Future research should focus on vaccine hesitancy in the vulnerable cohort of patients with MS to improve the safety of MS immunotherapies.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Esclerosis Múltiple , Vacunación , Adulto , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Esclerosis Múltiple/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Vacunación/psicología , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 338, 2021 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845781

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As COVID-19 vaccine distribution efforts continue, public health workers can strategize about vaccine promotion in an effort to increase willingness among those who may be hesitant. METHODS: In April 2020, we surveyed a national probability sample of 2279 U.S. adults using an online panel recruited through address-based sampling. Households received a computer and internet access if needed to participate in the panel. Participants were invited via e-mail and answered online survey questions about their willingness to get a novel coronavirus vaccine when one became available. The survey was completed in English and Spanish. We report weighted percentages. RESULTS: Most respondents were willing to get the vaccine for themselves (75%) or their children (73%). Notably, Black respondents were less willing than White respondents (47% vs. 79%, p < 0.001), while Hispanic respondents were more willing than White respondents (80% vs. 75%, p < 0.003). Females were less likely than makes (72% vs. 79%, p < 0.001). Those without insurance were less willing than the insured (47% vs. 78%, p < 0.001). Willingness to vaccinate was higher for those age 65 and older than for some younger age groups (85% for those 65 and older vs. 75% for those 50-64, p < 0.017; 72% for those 35-49, p < 0.002; 70% for those 25-34, p = NS and 75% for ages 18-24, p = NS), but other groups at increased risk because of underlying medical conditions or morbid obesity were not more willing to get vaccinated than their lower risk counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: Most Americans were willing to get a COVID-19 vaccine, but several vulnerable populations reported low willingness. Public health efforts should address these gaps as national implementation efforts continue.


Asunto(s)
/administración & dosificación , Vacunación/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Afroamericanos , Anciano , Niño , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Pública , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(13): 473-477, 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793457

RESUMEN

Incarcerated and detained persons are at increased risk for acquiring COVID-19. However, little is known about their willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination. During September-December 2020, residents in three prisons and 13 jails in four states were surveyed regarding their willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination and their reasons for COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy or refusal. Among 5,110 participants, 2,294 (44.9%) said they would receive a COVID-19 vaccination, 498 (9.8%) said they would hesitate to receive it, and 2,318 (45.4%) said they would refuse to receive it. Willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination was lowest among Black/African American (Black) (36.7%; 510 of 1,390) persons, participants aged 18-29 years (38.5%; 583 of 1,516), and those who lived in jails versus prisons (43.7%; 1,850 of 4,232). Common reasons reported for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy were waiting for more information (54.8%) and efficacy or safety concerns (31.0%). The most common reason for COVID-19 vaccination refusal was distrust of health care, correctional, or government personnel or institutions (20.1%). Public health interventions to improve vaccine confidence and trust are needed to increase vaccination acceptance by incarcerated or detained persons.


Asunto(s)
/administración & dosificación , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Prisioneros/psicología , Vacunación/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , /prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Prisiones , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 684, 2021 04 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832446

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We investigated if people's response to the official recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with conspiracy beliefs related to COVID-19, a distrust in the sources providing information on COVID-19, and an endorsement of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). METHODS: The sample consisted of 1325 Finnish adults who filled out an online survey marketed on Facebook. Structural regression analysis was used to investigate whether: 1) conspiracy beliefs, a distrust in information sources, and endorsement of CAM predict people's response to the non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) implemented by the government during the COVID-19 pandemic, and 2) conspiracy beliefs, a distrust in information sources, and endorsement of CAM are related to people's willingness to take a COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: Individuals with more conspiracy beliefs and a lower trust in information sources were less likely to have a positive response to the NPIs. Individuals with less trust in information sources and more endorsement of CAM were more unwilling to take a COVID-19 vaccine. Distrust in information sources was the strongest and most consistent predictor in all models. Our analyses also revealed that some of the people who respond negatively to the NPIs also have a lower likelihood to take the vaccine. This association was partly related to a lower trust in information sources. CONCLUSIONS: Distrusting the establishment to provide accurate information, believing in conspiracy theories, and endorsing treatments and substances that are not part of conventional medicine, are all associated with a more negative response to the official guidelines during COVID-19. How people respond to the guidelines, however, is more strongly and consistently related to the degree of trust they feel in the information sources, than to their tendency to hold conspiracy beliefs or endorse CAM. These findings highlight the need for governments and health authorities to create communication strategies that build public trust.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , /prevención & control , Terapias Complementarias , Femenino , Finlandia/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Confianza , Vacunación/psicología , Adulto Joven
9.
Br J Nurs ; 30(6): 374-376, 2021 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769872

RESUMEN

University of Southampton, discusses strategies to enhance vaccination uptake among certain groups in society who are influenced by anti-vaxxers.


Asunto(s)
Movimiento Anti-Vacunación , Comunicación , /epidemiología , /efectos adversos , Miedo , Humanos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Vacunación/psicología
12.
PLoS Biol ; 19(3): e3001167, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684102

RESUMEN

As the vaccines against COVID are slowly becoming available, we need to consider the paradox of why so many people of color are dying from the disease yet cannot get the vaccinations. Concerns focus on vaccine refusal but lack of access is the bigger problem.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/psicología , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Racismo/psicología , Negativa a la Vacunación/etnología , /epidemiología , /metabolismo , Humanos , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Vacunación/métodos , Vacunación/psicología , Negativa a la Vacunación/psicología , Negativa a la Vacunación/tendencias
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670821

RESUMEN

Vaccination is a key strategy to prevent the pandemic caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aims to investigate the willingness of Chinese adults to be vaccinated against COVID-19 and further explore the factors that may affect their willingness. We used a self-design anonymous questionnaire to conduct an online survey via the Sojump. A total of 1009 valid questionnaires were analyzed. The age of the participants ranged from 18 to 74. Among them, 609 (60.4%, 95%CI: 57.4-63.4%) were willing to receive the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine. Logistic regression analysis results showed that the age of 30-49 (OR = 2.042, 95%CI: 1.098-3.799), universities and colleges education (OR = 1.873, 95% CI = 1.016-3.451), master degree or above education (OR = 1.885, 95%CI = 1.367-2.599), previous influenza vaccination history (OR = 2.176, 95%CI: 1.474-3.211), trust in the effectiveness of the vaccine (OR = 6.419, 95%CI: 3.717-11.086), and close attention to the latest news of the vaccine (OR = 1.601, 95%CI: 1.046-2.449) were facilitative factors that affected their willingness to be vaccinated. More than half of the adults in China would be willing to receive a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Middle-aged people with higher education, those who had been vaccinated against influenza, and those who believed that COVID-19 vaccine was effective and paid close attention to it were more willing to be vaccinated. Our findings can provide reference for the implementation of vaccination and the prevention of COVID-19 in China. More studies are needed after the vaccine is launched.


Asunto(s)
/administración & dosificación , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Vacunación/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , China , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
15.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247642, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657152

RESUMEN

Vaccinations are without doubt one of the greatest achievements of modern medicine, and there is hope that they can constitute a solution to halt the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. However, the anti-vaccination movement is currently on the rise, spreading online misinformation about vaccine safety and causing a worrying reduction in vaccination rates worldwide. In this historical time, it is imperative to understand the reasons of vaccine hesitancy, and to find effective strategies to dismantle the rhetoric of anti-vaccination supporters. For this reason, we analyzed the behavior of anti-vaccination supporters on the platform Twitter. Here we identify that anti-vaccination supporters, in comparison with pro-vaccination supporters, share conspiracy theories and make use of emotional language. We demonstrate that anti-vaccination supporters are more engaged in discussions on Twitter and share their contents from a pull of strong influencers. We show that the movement's success relies on a strong sense of community, based on the contents produced by a small fraction of profiles, with the community at large serving as a sounding board for anti-vaccination discourse to circulate online. Our data demonstrate that Donald Trump, before his profile was suspended, was the main driver of vaccine misinformation on Twitter. Based on these results, we welcome policies that aim at halting the circulation of false information about vaccines by targeting the anti-vaccination community on Twitter. Based on our data, we also propose solutions to improve the communication strategy of health organizations and build a community of engaged influencers that support the dissemination of scientific insights, including issues related to vaccines and their safety.


Asunto(s)
Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/psicología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/tendencias , Vacunación/psicología , Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/tendencias , Escala de Evaluación de la Conducta , Comunicación , Humanos , Salud Pública , /patogenicidad , Vacunas/inmunología
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 3, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33520072

RESUMEN

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has resulted in many cases of morbidity and mortality across the globe, and the lack of the COVID-19 vaccine has contributed greatly to this experience. COVID-19 vaccines have currently been rolled out, and are available in some countries. However, strategies need to be put in place to prevent COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy (VH) especially in Africa; a continent where VH has been previously reported following the introduction of new vaccines. For this cause, we, therefore, recommend optimal community involvement in the structure and modalities for the delivery of the prospective COVID-19 vaccine. Also, feedback mechanisms for the acknowledgement of community efforts in previous health interventions should be improved upon to encourage the acceptance of the prospective COVID-19 vaccine. In addition, improved multi-sectoral collaboration should be initiated and promoted to enhance the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines through the provision of more resources required to address COVID-19 VH. Furthermore, integration of the COVID-19 vaccine into the routine immunization schedule would strengthen the health system, improve uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine, and improve the health of all persons living on the African continent.


Asunto(s)
/administración & dosificación , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Negativa a la Vacunación/psicología , África , Conducta Cooperativa , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Vacunación/psicología
19.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246970, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592035

RESUMEN

Vaccine hesitancy could become a significant impediment to addressing the COVID-19 pandemic. The current study examined the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and factors associated with vaccine intentions. A national panel survey by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) was designed to be representative of the US household population. Sampled respondents were invited to complete the survey between May 14 and 18, 2020 in English or Spanish. 1,056 respondents completed the survey-942 via the web and 114 via telephone. The dependent variable was assessed by the item "If a vaccine against the coronavirus becomes available, do you plan to get vaccinated, or not?" Approximately half (53.6%) reported intending to be vaccinated, 16.7% did not intend, and 29.7% were unsure. In the adjusted stepwise multinominal logistic regression, Black and Hispanic respondents were significantly less likely to report intending to be vaccinated as were respondents who were females, younger, and those who were more politically conservative. Compared to those who reported positive vaccine intentions, respondents with negative vaccine intentions were significantly less likely to report that they engaged in the COVID-19 prevention behaviors of wearing masks (aOR = 0.53, CI = 0.37-0.76) and social distancing (aOR = 0.22, CI = 0.12-0.42). In a sub-analysis of reasons not to be vaccinated, significant race/ethnic differences were observed. This national survey indicated a modest level of COVID-19 vaccine intention. These data suggest that public health campaigns for vaccine uptake should assess in greater detail the vaccine concerns of Blacks, Hispanics, and women to tailor programs.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Máscaras , Vacunación/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Raciales , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(6): 217-222, 2021 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571174

RESUMEN

As of February 8, 2021, 59.3 million doses of vaccines to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had been distributed in the United States, and 31.6 million persons had received at least 1 dose of the COVID-19 vaccine (1). However, national polls conducted before vaccine distribution began suggested that many persons were hesitant to receive COVID-19 vaccination (2). To examine perceptions toward COVID-19 vaccine and intentions to be vaccinated, in September and December 2020, CDC conducted household panel surveys among a representative sample of U.S. adults. From September to December, vaccination intent (defined as being absolutely certain or very likely to be vaccinated) increased overall (from 39.4% to 49.1%); the largest increase occurred among adults aged ≥65 years. If defined as being absolutely certain, very likely, or somewhat likely to be vaccinated, vaccination intent increased overall from September (61.9%) to December (68.0%). Vaccination nonintent (defined as not intending to receive a COVID-19 vaccination) decreased among all adults (from 38.1% to 32.1%) and among most sociodemographic groups. Younger adults, women, non-Hispanic Black (Black) persons, adults living in nonmetropolitan areas, and adults with lower educational attainment, with lower income, and without health insurance were most likely to report lack of intent to receive COVID-19 vaccine. Intent to receive COVID-19 vaccine increased among adults aged ≥65 years by 17.1 percentage points (from 49.1% to 66.2%), among essential workers by 8.8 points (from 37.1% to 45.9%), and among adults aged 18-64 years with underlying medical conditions by 5.3 points (from 36.5% to 41.8%). Although confidence in COVID-19 vaccines increased during September-December 2020 in the United States, additional efforts to tailor messages and implement strategies to further increase the public's confidence, overall and within specific subpopulations, are needed. Ensuring high and equitable vaccination coverage across all populations is important to prevent the spread of COVID-19 and mitigate the impact of the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/administración & dosificación , Intención , Vacunación/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , /prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
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