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1.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 29(1): 18-22, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831282

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Rubella and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) are infectious diseases caused by viruses. Rubella is an air-borne infection. TBE, on the other hand, is transmitted by virus-infected ticks. Both diseases show specific symptoms after an incubation period of approximately 10 days. The Austrian vaccination plan recommends vaccinations against both viruses, as only these can protect against both infectious diseases. Because of both, an increase in measles infections and the high endemic rate of TBE in Austria, our goal was to evaluate the vaccination rate, antibody titre and general level of knowledge with respect to these two infections amongst adults in order to identify possible nescience regarding booster vaccination and general titre rates. METHODS: One hundred ninety-nine people participated in the study of the TBE and rubella titre determination. We used indirect ELISA and asked the volunteers to complete a questionnaire. RESULTS: The analysis of the results showed a vaccination coverage rate of over 90% for both diseases. CONCLUSION: Our findings lead to the conclusion that the protection through immunization is very high and the vaccines used are extremely effective, particularly as some individuals do not adhere to the recommended vaccination schedule.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Encefalitis Transmitidos por Garrapatas , Encefalitis Transmitida por Garrapatas , Rubéola (Sarampión Alemán) , Vacunas Virales , Adulto , Austria , Encefalitis Transmitida por Garrapatas/epidemiología , Encefalitis Transmitida por Garrapatas/prevención & control , Humanos , Estudiantes , Vacunación
2.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; abr. 7, 2021. 5 p.
No convencional en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177307

RESUMEN

En las campañas de vacunación, como en la actual situación de COVID-19, es habitual que los países señalen posibles efectos adversos después de la vacunación. Esto no significa necesariamente que los eventos estén relacionados con la vacunación en sí, pero es necesario investigarlos. También muestra que el sistema de vigilancia funciona y que existen controles efectivos. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) está en contacto regular con la Agencia Europea de Medicamentos (EMA) y otras autoridades reguladoras del mundo para obtener la información más reciente sobre la seguridad de todas las vacunas para COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/efectos adversos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Trombosis Venosa Profunda de la Extremidad Superior/inducido químicamente , Pandemias/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Monitoreo de Drogas/efectos adversos , Programas de Inmunización/organización & administración , Europa (Continente)
3.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 26: 2515690X211003727, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761791

RESUMEN

Currently, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a big challenge to the healthcare systems in the world. Several researchers in the world have immediately carried out clinical investigations for the discovery of vaccines and drugs. Different studies have shown that antiviral measures including small bioactive compounds targeting multifaceted molecular communications take in COVID-19 infection. The drug development archived in this review emphasizes mainly on drugs that are effective for the Management of MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and other RNA viruses. The investigation of therapeutic agents for COVID-19 includes anti-inflammatory agents, antibodies, and nucleic acid-based treatments targeting virus gene expression as well as different sorts of vaccines. Numerous patents revealed techniques of these biologics with the potential for treating and preventing coronavirus infections, which may apply to COVID-19. Phase 3 clinical trials such as Sputnik V, AZD1222, mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, Ad5-nCoV, Anti-COVID antibodies, Kevzara; Actemra, Jakafi; Baricitinib, and some others were undergoing in the race for Covid-19 treatment. However, there's still a lack of a review on vaccines and drugs for COVID-19 management. Therefore, this review summarizes different studies that are ongoing in the race for Covid-19 protection and treatment.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Vacunas Virales , Anticuerpos Antivirales , /prevención & control , Humanos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio , Virus del SRAS
4.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 163, 2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771096

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral pandemic disease that may induce severe pneumonia in humans. In this paper, we investigated the putative implication of 12 vaccines, including BCG, OPV and MMR in the protection against COVID-19. Sequences of the main antigenic proteins in the investigated vaccines and SARS-CoV-2 proteins were compared to identify similar patterns. The immunogenic effect of identified segments was, then, assessed using a combination of structural and antigenicity prediction tools. RESULTS: A total of 14 highly similar segments were identified in the investigated vaccines. Structural and antigenicity prediction analysis showed that, among the identified patterns, three segments in Hepatitis B, Tetanus, and Measles proteins presented antigenic properties that can induce putative protective effect against COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a possible protective effect of HBV, Tetanus and Measles vaccines against COVID-19, which may explain the variation of the disease severity among regions.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos Virales/inmunología , Proteínas Virales/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Vacuna BCG , Simulación por Computador , Protección Cruzada , Humanos , Conformación Proteica
6.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 03 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653888

RESUMEN

There are no approved vaccines against the life-threatening Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Attenuated vaccines have proven their potential to induce strong and long-lasting immune responses. We have previously described that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) envelope (E) protein is a virulence factor. Based on this knowledge, a collection of mutants carrying partial deletions spanning the C-terminal domain of the E protein (rMERS-CoV-E*) has been generated using a reverse genetics system. One of these mutants, MERS-CoV-E*Δ2in, was attenuated and provided full protection in a challenge with virulent MERS-CoV after a single immunization dose. The MERS-CoV-E*Δ2in mutant was stable as it maintained its attenuation after 16 passages in cell cultures and has been selected as a promising vaccine candidate.IMPORTANCE The emergence of the new highly pathogenic human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 that has already infected more than 80 million persons, killing nearly two million of them, clearly indicates the need to design efficient and safe vaccines protecting from these coronaviruses. Modern vaccines can be derived from virus-host interaction research directed to the identification of signaling pathways essential for virus replication and for virus-induced pathogenesis, in order to learn how to attenuate these viruses and design vaccines. Using a reverse genetics system developed in our laboratory, an infectious cDNA clone of MERS-CoV was engineered. Using this cDNA, we sequentially deleted several predicted and conserved motifs within the envelope (E) protein of MERS-CoV, previously associated with the presence of virulence factors. The in vitro and in vivo evaluation of these deletion mutants highlighted the relevance of predicted linear motifs in viral pathogenesis. Two of them, an Atg8 protein binding motif (Atg8-BM), and a forkhead-associated binding motif (FHA-BM), when deleted, rendered an attenuated virus that was evaluated as a vaccine candidate, leading to full protection against challenge with a lethal dose of MERS-CoV. This approach can be extended to the engineering of vaccines protecting against the new pandemic SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/patogenicidad , /inmunología , Ingeniería Genética/métodos , Humanos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/inmunología , Vacunas Atenuadas/uso terapéutico , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico
7.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 03 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653891

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a causative agent of the CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, enters host cells via the interaction of its receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein with host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Therefore, the RBD is a promising vaccine target to induce protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, we report the development of an RBD protein-based vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2 using self-assembling Helicobacter pylori-bullfrog ferritin nanoparticles as an antigen delivery system. RBD-ferritin protein purified from mammalian cells efficiently assembled into 24-mer nanoparticles. Sixteen- to 20-month-old ferrets were vaccinated with RBD-ferritin nanoparticles (RBD nanoparticles) by intramuscular or intranasal inoculation. All vaccinated ferrets with RBD nanoparticles produced potent neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Strikingly, vaccinated ferrets demonstrated efficient protection from SARS-CoV-2 challenge, showing no fever, body weight loss, or clinical symptoms. Furthermore, vaccinated ferrets showed rapid clearance of infectious virus in nasal washes and lungs as well as of viral RNA in respiratory organs. This study demonstrates that spike RBD-nanoparticles are an effective protein vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Nanopartículas/química , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/metabolismo , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico , /química , Animales , Celulosa/química , Coronavirus/inmunología , Coronavirus/patogenicidad , Hurones , Ferritinas , Vacunas Virales/química
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 632914, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33643995

RESUMEN

Background: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a major threat to public health and has had a significant impact on all aspects of life. An effective vaccine is the most anticipated resolution. This study aims to evaluate Jordanian intent to be vaccinated. Methods: This is a cross-sectional web-based study. Sample characteristics were gathered, and the participants were classified according to the degree of COVID-19 risk based on the categories of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Participants' KAP toward COVID-19 were assessed, and two scores were calculated: knowledge score and practice score. The association between different sample characteristics and these scores was identified using binary logistical regressions. The participants' vaccination intention was evaluated and multinomial logistic regression was applied to identify the predictors of vaccination intention. Finally, the reasons behind the participants' vaccination refusal/hesitation were determined and categorized into different groups. Results: 1,144 participants were enrolled in the study (females = 66.5%). 30.4% of the participants were at high risk of COVID-19 complications, and 27.5% were at medium risk. Overall, participants' knowledge of COVID-19 symptoms, transmission methods, protective measures, and availability of cure were high (median of knowledge score = 17 out of 21). High protective practices were followed by many participants (median of practice score = 7 out of 10). 3.7% of participants were infected, and 6.4% suspected they were infected with the COVID-19 virus. 36.8% of the participants answered "No" when asked if they would take the vaccine once it becomes available, and 26.4% answered, "Not sure." The main reasons for the participants' vaccination refusal or hesitancy were concerns regarding the use of vaccines and a lack of trust in them. Conclusion: Participants reported high refusal/hesitancy. Several barriers were identified, and efforts should be intensified to overcome these barriers.


Asunto(s)
Cooperación del Paciente , Vacunación , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medio Oriente/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vacunas Virales/administración & dosificación , Adulto Joven
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1403, 2021 03 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658497

RESUMEN

SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are advancing into human clinical trials, with emphasis on eliciting high titres of neutralising antibodies against the viral spike (S). However, the merits of broadly targeting S versus focusing antibody onto the smaller receptor binding domain (RBD) are unclear. Here we assess prototypic S and RBD subunit vaccines in homologous or heterologous prime-boost regimens in mice and non-human primates. We find S is highly immunogenic in mice, while the comparatively poor immunogenicity of RBD is associated with limiting germinal centre and T follicular helper cell activity. Boosting S-primed mice with either S or RBD significantly augments neutralising titres, with RBD-focussing driving moderate improvement in serum neutralisation. In contrast, both S and RBD vaccines are comparably immunogenic in macaques, eliciting serological neutralising activity that generally exceed levels in convalescent humans. These studies confirm recombinant S proteins as promising vaccine candidates and highlight multiple pathways to achieving potent serological neutralisation.


Asunto(s)
/uso terapéutico , /patogenicidad , Animales , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Formación de Anticuerpos/fisiología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Citometría de Flujo , Humanos , Macaca , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Linfocitos T Colaboradores-Inductores/inmunología , Linfocitos T Colaboradores-Inductores/metabolismo , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico
10.
Lancet ; 397(10281): 1263-1264, 2021 04 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765410
12.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(3): 327-333, 2021 03 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705704

RESUMEN

Most viral vaccines are based on inducing neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against the virus envelope or spike glycoproteins. Many viral surface proteins exist as trimers that transition from a pre-fusion state when key NAb epitopes are exposed to a post-fusion form in which the potential for virus-cell fusion no longer exists. For optimal vaccine performance, these viral proteins are often engineered to enhance stability and presentation of these NAb epitopes. The method involves the structure-guided introduction of proline residues at key positions that maintain the trimer in the pre-fusion configuration. We review how this technique emerged during HIV-1 Env vaccine development and its subsequent wider application to other viral vaccines including SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
Prolina/química , Prolina/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/química , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , /genética , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Prolina/genética , Ingeniería de Proteínas , Vacunas Virales/genética
14.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; mar. 02, 2021. 28 p. ilus.
No convencional en Inglés, Español, Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150961

RESUMEN

Todos os países do mundo formularam planos de resposta para enfrentar a pandemia da COVID-19. No entanto, os desafios impostos pela doença os obrigam a aprender e adaptar-se constantemente. Cada vez mais é necessário reforçar o componente de comunicação de riscos como uma ferramenta essencial para transmitir à população, da devida forma, todas as informações sobre o processo de imunização, desde os testes clínicos e a produção de novas vacinas, até a adoção, distribuição e priorização dos grupos aos quais serão administradas uma ou mais vacinas ­ dependendo da definição e disponibilidade de cada país ­, bem como sobre o acesso universal às vacinas, após os grupos prioritários terem sido imunizados. A Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde, em seu esforço constante e permanente para apoiar os países das Américas, apresenta este documento para facilitar a formulação de uma estratégia de comunicação de riscos e participação comunitária (CRPC) para a vacinação contra o SARS-CoV-2. O intuito é contribuir para o fortalecimento das capacidades de comunicação e planejamento dos ministérios e secretarias de saúde, bem como de outros órgãos responsáveis pela comunicação na área das novas vacinas contra a COVID-19 nas Américas.


Todos los países del mundo han desarrollado planes de respuesta para enfrentar la pandemia de COVID-19; sin embargo, los desafíos que presenta la enfermedad los obliga a un aprendizaje y a una adaptación constantes. Cada vez es más necesario reforzar el componente de comunicación de riesgos como herramienta esencial para transmitir de forma adecuada a la población toda la información sobre el proceso de inmunización, desde los ensayos clínicos y la producción de nuevas vacunas, hasta la introducción, distribución y priorización de grupos a los que hay que administrar una o varias vacunas ­según la definición y la disponibilidad de cada país­ así como el acceso universal a ellas, una vez inmunizados los grupos prioritarios. La OPS, dentro de su empeño constante por apoyar a los países de las Américas, publica el presente documento con ánimo de facilitar la elaboración de una estrategia de comunicación de riesgos y participación comunitaria para la vacunación contra la COVID-19. Su finalidad es contribuir a fortalecer las capacidades y la planificación de la comunicación de los ministerios o secretarías de salud, así como de otros organismos encargados de comunicar en el área de las nuevas vacunas contra la COVID-19 en las Américas.


All countries around the world have developed response plans to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the challenges presented by the disease require constant learning and adaptation. It is increasingly necessary to strengthen the risk communication component as an essential tool for providing the population with all of the necessary information about the immunization process. This ranges from clinical trials and the production of new vaccines to the introduction, distribution, and prioritization of groups that need one or more vaccines­according to each country's definitions and vaccine availability. It also includes universal access to vaccines, once the priority groups have been immunized. PAHO, in its constant, ongoing effort to support the countries of the Americas, is making this document available to facilitate the preparation of a risk communication and community engagement strategy for vaccination against COVID-19. Its goal is to help to strengthen the communication and planning capacities of the ministries or secretariats of health and other agencies in charge of communicating about new COVID-19 vaccines in the Americas.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Programas de Inmunización/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Comunicación en Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus/inmunología
15.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; mar. 3, 2021.
No convencional en Inglés, Español, Portugués, Francés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151152

RESUMEN

Há quase um ano desde o início da pandemia de COVID-19, e os cientistas de todo o mundo avançaram rapidamente no desenvolvimento de vacinas seguras e eficazes que ajudarão a reduzir doenças, hospitalizações e mortes associadas à COVID-19. Espera-se que essas vacinas contribuam consideravelmente para a proteção e a promoção equitativas do bem-estar humano e que possibilitem o retorno progressivo às atividades sociais, econômicas, profissionais e familiares. O objetivo deste documento é apoiar os países da Região das Américas no planejamento dos componentes operacionais do programa de imunizações em preparação para a vacina contra a COVID-19. Para tanto, seguem-se os princípios e valores recomendados pelo SAGE e pelo GTA bem como as recomendações técnicas da OPAS e da OMS. Essas recomendações destinam-se ao planejamento da introdução das vacinas contra a COVID-19 no nível operacional, seguindo as recomendações do roteiro do SAGE e da priorização dos grupos populacionais estabelecida pelo país. As recomendações são preliminares e serão atualizadas à medida que novas evidências forem disponibilizadas.


A casi un año del inicio de la pandemia de COVID-19, científicos de todo el mundo han avanzado rápidamente en el desarrollo de vacunas seguras y eficaces que contribuirán a reducir las enfermedades, las hospitalizaciones y las muertes asociadas a la COVID-19. Se espera que dichas vacunas ayuden significativamente a proteger y promocionar de manera equitativa el bienestar humano, y que permitan retomar de forma progresiva las actividades sociales, económicas, laborales y familiares. El propósito de este documento es apoyar a los países de la Región de las Américas a planificar los componentes operacionales del programa de inmunizaciones en preparación para la introducción de la vacuna contra la COVID-19. Para ello se siguen los principios y los valores recomendados por el Grupo de Expertos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) en Asesoramiento Estratégico sobre Inmunización y el Grupo Técnico Asesor sobre enfermedades prevenibles por vacunación de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS), así como las recomendaciones técnicas de la OPS y la OMS. El documento contiene recomendaciones relativas a la microplanificación de la introducción de las vacunas y a la priorización de los grupos poblacionales. Las recomendaciones son preliminares y se actualizarán a medida que se disponga de nueva evidencia.


Almost a year into the COVID-19 pandemic, scientists throughout the world have swiftly moved to develop safe and effective vaccines that will help reduce illness, hospitalizations, and deaths associated with COVID-19. These vaccines are expected to make a significant contribution to equitable protection and promotion of human well-being and a gradual return to social, economic, work, and family life. This manual is designed to assist the countries of the Region of the Americas in planning the operational components of the immunization program to ready them for the COVID-19 vaccine. To accomplish this, it follows the principles and values recommended by SAGE and the TAG, as well as the technical recommendations of PAHO and WHO. The aim of these recommendations is to plan for the introduction of COVID-19 vaccines at the operational level and country prioritization of population groups. The recommendations are preliminary and will be updated as new evidence becomes available.


Près d'un an après le début de la pandémie de COVID-19, les scientifiques du monde entier ont réalisé des avancées rapides dans la mise au point de vaccins sûrs et efficaces qui contribueront à réduire les maladies, les hospitalisations et les décès associés à la COVID­19. Ces vaccins devraient contribuer de manière significative à la protection et à la promotion équitables du bien-être humain, et permettre un retour progressif aux activités sociales, économiques, professionnelles et familiales. Le présent document a pour objet d'aider les pays de la Région des Amériques à planifier les composantes opérationnelles du programme de vaccination en vue des préparatifs concernant le vaccin contre la COVID-19. Il suit les principes et les valeurs recommandés par le SAGE et le GCT, ainsi que les recommandations techniques de l'OPS et de l'OMS. Ces recommandations visent à planifier l'introduction des vaccins contre la COVID-19 au niveau opérationnel et la détermination des groupes de population à vacciner en priorité. Les recommandations sont préliminaires et seront mises à jour à mesure que de nouveaux éléments probants seront disponibles.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Programas de Inmunización/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Prioridades en Salud
16.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; mar. 16,2021. 105 p.
No convencional en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151162

RESUMEN

El propósito de esta guía es brindar orientación sobre 1) la elaboración y actualización del plan nacional de despliegue y vacunación para las vacunas contra la COVID­19; 2) el diseño de estrategias para el despliegue, la imeplementación y el seguimiento; y 3) la armonización del plan y el financiamiento con los demás planes nacionales de recuperación, respuesta y apoyo frente a la COVID-19. Está dirigida a las autoridades nacionales responsables de gestionar el despliegue, la implementación y el seguimiento de las vacunas contra la COVID­19, así como a los asociados encargados de prestar el apoyo necesario.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Programas de Inmunización/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus/inmunología
17.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669550

RESUMEN

Vaccine development against SARS-CoV-2 has been fierce due to the devastating COVID-19 pandemic and has included all potential approaches for providing the global community with safe and efficient vaccine candidates in the shortest possible timeframe. Viral vectors have played a central role especially using adenovirus-based vectors. Additionally, other viral vectors based on vaccinia viruses, measles viruses, rhabdoviruses, influenza viruses and lentiviruses have been subjected to vaccine development. Self-amplifying RNA virus vectors have been utilized for lipid nanoparticle-based delivery of RNA as COVID-19 vaccines. Several adenovirus-based vaccine candidates have elicited strong immune responses in immunized animals and protection against challenges in mice and primates has been achieved. Moreover, adenovirus-based vaccine candidates have been subjected to phase I to III clinical trials. Recently, the simian adenovirus-based ChAdOx1 vector expressing the SARS-CoV-2 S spike protein was approved for use in humans in the UK.


Asunto(s)
Adenoviridae/inmunología , Vectores Genéticos/inmunología , ARN Viral/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Humanos , Ratones , Pandemias
18.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670023

RESUMEN

With the rapid global spread of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a safe and effective vaccine against human coronaviruses (HCoVs) is believed to be a top priority in the field of public health. Due to the frequent outbreaks of different HCoVs, the development of a pan-HCoVs vaccine is of great value to biomedical science. The antigen design is a key prerequisite for vaccine efficacy, and we therefore developed a novel antigen with broad coverage based on the genetic algorithm of mosaic strategy. The designed antigen has a potentially broad coverage of conserved cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes to the greatest extent, including the existing epitopes from all reported HCoV sequences (HCoV-NL63, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2). This novel antigen is expected to induce strong CTL responses with broad coverage by targeting conserved epitopes against multiple coronaviruses.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Epítopos de Linfocito T/inmunología , Proteínas Virales/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Humanos , Pandemias , Linfocitos T Citotóxicos/inmunología
19.
Genebra; World Health Organization; feb. 12, 2021. 74 p.
No convencional en Inglés, Español | Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-1151149

RESUMEN

La pandemia de la COVID 19 está provocando pérdidas humanas y económicas sin precedentes en todos los países y en todas las sociedades del mundo. De forma colectiva, la disponibilidad de vacunas seguras y efectivas frente al virus, tecnologías de diagnóstico y terapéuticas especializadas, así como el cumplimiento de las medidas sociales y de salud pública y la prevención de nuevas introducciones zoonóticas, son fundamentales para salvar más vidas. COVAX, el mecanismo del pilar de las vacunas del Acelerador del Acceso a las herramientas contra la COVID-19, tiene por finalidad acelerar el acceso equitativo de todos los países a vacunas adecuadas, seguras y efectivas. Para enero de 2021, había ya en desarrollo más de 200 candidatos a nuevas vacunas frente al coronavirus, de los cuales 64 en fase de ensayos clínicos. El London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine ha desarrollado una herramienta interactiva1 para seguir el progreso de estos candidatos a vacuna en tiempo real. Se recomienda la consulta periódica de esta herramienta para conocer el estado de desarrollo de estas potenciales vacunas, así como sus respectivos perfiles y posible cadena de temperatura controlada (CTC). Dado el contexto de pandemia, es posible que las vacunas no hayan sido precalificadas cuando comiencen a utilizarse, sino que se autorizarán según los procedimientos de la Lista de uso en emergencias ( ) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). El procedimiento EUL fue desarrollado por la OMS para agilizar la disponibilidad y uso de productos médicos no autorizados en situaciones de emergencia de salud pública. En este contexto, es posible que algunas de las características del perfil de las vacunas no hayan sido determinadas en el momento del etiquetado para su uso. Por ejemplo, puede que aún no se conozcan la fecha de caducidad o el tipo de sensor de control del vial de la vacuna (SVV). Por tanto, será preciso aplicar prácticas y procedimientos rigurosos de suministro, distribución, logística y gestión durante el despliegue de la vacunación. La información mínima que debe constar en la etiqueta (ver abajo) y en el prospecto en los seis idiomas de las Naciones Unidas aún se está deliberando. Es posible que la etiqueta indique una fecha de fabricación en lugar de fecha de caducidad, y que esa fecha de caducidad se actualice posteriormente mediante datos de estabilidad en tiempo real accesibles a través de un código de barras que instaría a los usuarios a consultar una página web. Esta característica significa que hay una serie de nuevos requisitos en las actividades de gestión de las vacunas que deben aplicarse rigurosamente durante su despliegue.


The COVID-19 pandemic is causing unprecedented human and economic costs in all countries and societies across the world. Collectively, the availability of safe and effective vaccines against the virus, specialized diagnostics technologies and therapeutics, as well as adherence to public health and social measures, and preventing new zoonotic introductions, are instrumental in saving further lives. The vaccine pillar of the Access to COVID-19 Tools Accelerator (COVAX) Facility aims to accelerate equitable access to appropriate, safe and efficacious vaccines for all countries. As of January 2021, over 200 novel coronavirus vaccine candidates are under development, of which 64 are in clinical trials. The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine has developed an interactive tool1 that tracks the progress of the candidate vaccines in real time. It is recommended to access it regularly to verify the status of the vaccines' development progress, profiles and potential controlled temperature chain (CTC). Given the pandemic context, the vaccines may not be prequalified during their initial periods of use; they will be released under World Health Organization (WHO) Emergency Use Listing (EUL) ( ) procedures. The EUL process was developed by WHO to expedite the availability and use of unlicensed medical products needed in public health emergency situations. In this context, it is possible that some vaccine profile characteristics will not be established by the time they are labelled for use. For example, the expiry date and vaccine vial monitor (VVM) category may not be established. Consequently, strict supply, distribution, logistics and management procedures and practices must be applied throughout the vaccination deployment. The minimum label information (shown below) and package insert in six United Nations (UN) languages are under consideration. The label may include a manufacturing date rather than an expiry date and the expiry date could be updated through real-time stability data accessible via a barcode that would direct users to a website. This characteristic represents new requirements of vaccine management activities that need to be handled appropriately in the field.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/provisión & distribución , Programas de Inmunización/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus/inmunología
20.
Genebra; World Health Organization; feb. 10, 2021. 7 p.
No convencional en Inglés | Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-1151150

RESUMEN

This interim guidance has been developed on the basis of the advice issued by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) at its extraordinary meeting on 8 February 2021.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus/inmunología
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