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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804765

RESUMEN

The recent pandemic Sars-CoV2 infection and studies on previous influenza epidemic have drawn attention to the association between the obesity and infectious diseases susceptibility and worse outcome. Metabolic complications, nutritional aspects, physical inactivity, and a chronic unbalance in the hormonal and adipocytokine microenvironment are major determinants in the severity of viral infections in obesity. By these pleiotropic mechanisms obesity impairs immune surveillance and the higher leptin concentrations produced by adipose tissue and that characterize obesity substantially contribute to such immune response dysregulation. Indeed, leptin not only controls energy balance and body weight, but also plays a regulatory role in the interplay between energy metabolism and immune system. Since leptin receptor is expressed throughout the immune system, leptin may exert effects on cells of both innate and adaptive immune system. Chronic inflammatory states due to metabolic (i.e., obesity) as well as infectious diseases increase leptin concentrations and consequently lead to leptin resistance further fueling inflammation. Multiple factors, including inflammation and ER stress, contribute to leptin resistance. Thus, if leptin is recognized as one of the adipokines responsible for the low grade inflammation found in obesity, on the other hand, impairments of leptin signaling due to leptin resistance appear to blunt the immunologic effects of leptin and possibly contribute to impaired vaccine-induced immune responses. However, many aspects concerning leptin interactions with inflammation and immune system as well as the therapeutical approaches to overcome leptin resistance and reduced vaccine effectiveness in obesity remain a challenge for future research.


Asunto(s)
Leptina/inmunología , Leptina/metabolismo , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/virología , Virosis/complicaciones , Animales , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , /tratamiento farmacológico , /metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/inmunología , Humanos , Sistema Inmunológico/metabolismo , Sistema Inmunológico/virología , Obesidad/inmunología , Obesidad/metabolismo , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico , Virosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Virosis/inmunología , Virosis/metabolismo
2.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 03 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653888

RESUMEN

There are no approved vaccines against the life-threatening Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Attenuated vaccines have proven their potential to induce strong and long-lasting immune responses. We have previously described that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) envelope (E) protein is a virulence factor. Based on this knowledge, a collection of mutants carrying partial deletions spanning the C-terminal domain of the E protein (rMERS-CoV-E*) has been generated using a reverse genetics system. One of these mutants, MERS-CoV-E*Δ2in, was attenuated and provided full protection in a challenge with virulent MERS-CoV after a single immunization dose. The MERS-CoV-E*Δ2in mutant was stable as it maintained its attenuation after 16 passages in cell cultures and has been selected as a promising vaccine candidate.IMPORTANCE The emergence of the new highly pathogenic human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 that has already infected more than 80 million persons, killing nearly two million of them, clearly indicates the need to design efficient and safe vaccines protecting from these coronaviruses. Modern vaccines can be derived from virus-host interaction research directed to the identification of signaling pathways essential for virus replication and for virus-induced pathogenesis, in order to learn how to attenuate these viruses and design vaccines. Using a reverse genetics system developed in our laboratory, an infectious cDNA clone of MERS-CoV was engineered. Using this cDNA, we sequentially deleted several predicted and conserved motifs within the envelope (E) protein of MERS-CoV, previously associated with the presence of virulence factors. The in vitro and in vivo evaluation of these deletion mutants highlighted the relevance of predicted linear motifs in viral pathogenesis. Two of them, an Atg8 protein binding motif (Atg8-BM), and a forkhead-associated binding motif (FHA-BM), when deleted, rendered an attenuated virus that was evaluated as a vaccine candidate, leading to full protection against challenge with a lethal dose of MERS-CoV. This approach can be extended to the engineering of vaccines protecting against the new pandemic SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/patogenicidad , /inmunología , Ingeniería Genética/métodos , Humanos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/inmunología , Vacunas Atenuadas/uso terapéutico , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico
3.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 03 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653891

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a causative agent of the CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, enters host cells via the interaction of its receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein with host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Therefore, the RBD is a promising vaccine target to induce protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, we report the development of an RBD protein-based vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2 using self-assembling Helicobacter pylori-bullfrog ferritin nanoparticles as an antigen delivery system. RBD-ferritin protein purified from mammalian cells efficiently assembled into 24-mer nanoparticles. Sixteen- to 20-month-old ferrets were vaccinated with RBD-ferritin nanoparticles (RBD nanoparticles) by intramuscular or intranasal inoculation. All vaccinated ferrets with RBD nanoparticles produced potent neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Strikingly, vaccinated ferrets demonstrated efficient protection from SARS-CoV-2 challenge, showing no fever, body weight loss, or clinical symptoms. Furthermore, vaccinated ferrets showed rapid clearance of infectious virus in nasal washes and lungs as well as of viral RNA in respiratory organs. This study demonstrates that spike RBD-nanoparticles are an effective protein vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Nanopartículas/química , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/metabolismo , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico , /química , Animales , Celulosa/química , Coronavirus/inmunología , Coronavirus/patogenicidad , Hurones , Ferritinas , Vacunas Virales/química
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1403, 2021 03 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658497

RESUMEN

SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are advancing into human clinical trials, with emphasis on eliciting high titres of neutralising antibodies against the viral spike (S). However, the merits of broadly targeting S versus focusing antibody onto the smaller receptor binding domain (RBD) are unclear. Here we assess prototypic S and RBD subunit vaccines in homologous or heterologous prime-boost regimens in mice and non-human primates. We find S is highly immunogenic in mice, while the comparatively poor immunogenicity of RBD is associated with limiting germinal centre and T follicular helper cell activity. Boosting S-primed mice with either S or RBD significantly augments neutralising titres, with RBD-focussing driving moderate improvement in serum neutralisation. In contrast, both S and RBD vaccines are comparably immunogenic in macaques, eliciting serological neutralising activity that generally exceed levels in convalescent humans. These studies confirm recombinant S proteins as promising vaccine candidates and highlight multiple pathways to achieving potent serological neutralisation.


Asunto(s)
/uso terapéutico , /patogenicidad , Animales , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Formación de Anticuerpos/fisiología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Citometría de Flujo , Humanos , Macaca , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Linfocitos T Colaboradores-Inductores/inmunología , Linfocitos T Colaboradores-Inductores/metabolismo , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico
5.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 58, 2021 02 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618668

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A severe form of pneumonia, named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization is widespread on the whole world. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was proved to be the main agent of COVID-19. In the present study, we conducted an in depth analysis of the SARS-COV-2 nucleocapsid to identify potential targets that may allow identification of therapeutic targets. METHODS: The SARS-COV-2 N protein subcellular localization and physicochemical property was analyzed by PSORT II Prediction and ProtParam tool. Then SOPMA tool and swiss-model was applied to analyze the structure of N protein. Next, the biological function was explored by mass spectrometry analysis and flow cytometry. At last, its potential phosphorylation sites were analyzed by NetPhos3.1 Server and PROVEAN PROTEIN. RESULTS: SARS-COV-2 N protein composed of 419 aa, is a 45.6 kDa positively charged unstable hydrophobic protein. It has 91 and 49% similarity to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV and is predicted to be predominantly a nuclear protein. It mainly contains random coil (55.13%) of which the tertiary structure was further determined with high reliability (95.76%). Cells transfected with SARS-COV-2 N protein usually show a G1/S phase block company with an increased expression of TUBA1C, TUBB6. At last, our analysis of SARS-COV-2 N protein predicted a total number of 12 phosphorylated sites and 9 potential protein kinases which would significantly affect SARS-COV-2 N protein function. CONCLUSION: In this study, we report the physicochemical properties, subcellular localization, and biological function of SARS-COV-2 N protein. The 12 phosphorylated sites and 9 potential protein kinase sites in SARS-COV-2 N protein may serve as promising targets for drug discovery and development for of a recombinant virus vaccine.


Asunto(s)
/virología , Proteínas de la Nucleocápside/metabolismo , /patogenicidad , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , /inmunología , Genoma Viral/genética , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Proteínas de la Nucleocápside/química , Proteínas de la Nucleocápside/genética , Fosforilación , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico
6.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 59(6): 812-820, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218394

RESUMEN

The pandemic situation triggered by the spread of COVID-19 has caused great harm worldwide. More than six million people have been infected, and more than 360,000 of them have died. This is the worst catastrophe suffered by mankind in recent history. In the face of this severe disaster, people all over the world are frightened of the prospect of facing an outbreak or an annual recurrence. However, the development of a vaccine will help control the impact of COVID-19. Women in particular have been more seriously affected by the pandemic. Since the pressure and physical load they suffer are often greater than what men endure, women are more threatened by COVID-19. Though women have a poorer quality of life and work and face worse economic conditions, they also tend to have better physiological immunity than men, which can ease the effect of COVID-19. The early development of a vaccine against COVID-19 is an important issue that must take into consideration women's better immune response to the virus along with the technique of hormone regulation. Relevant research has been conducted on female-specific vaccines in the past, and women's issues were considered during those clinical trials to ensure that complications and antibody responses were positive and effective in women. National policies should also propose good strategies for women to be vaccinated. This could improve consciousness, give women a better vaccination experience, enhance their willingness to vaccinate, and protect them from COVID-19 infection.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Factores Sexuales , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Femenino , Política de Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Embarazo , Vacunación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Vacunas Virales/inmunología
8.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(11): 1034-1037, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151866

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 is an emerging pandemic infection whose significant ability to spread in a naïve population is well established. The first response of states to the COVID-19 outbreak was to impose lock-down and social barrier measures, such as wearing a surgical mask or social distancing. One of the consequences of this pandemic in terms of public health was the suspension or slowdown of infant vaccination campaigns, in almost all countries. The indirect effects of COVID-19 may therefore weigh on mortality from measles and polio in developing countries. In this pandemic chaos, the only hope lies in the rapid development of an effective vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, acceptance of this vaccine has not yet been won, as beyond the many unknowns that will inevitably weigh around such rapid development, skepticism among vaccine hesitants is growing.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Programas de Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Salud Pública/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/organización & administración , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Programas de Inmunización/organización & administración , Programas de Inmunización/normas , Programas de Inmunización/tendencias , Sarampión/epidemiología , Sarampión/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Participación del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Participación del Paciente/tendencias , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Poliomielitis/epidemiología , Poliomielitis/prevención & control , Salud Pública/normas , Salud Pública/tendencias , Cobertura de Vacunación/organización & administración , Cobertura de Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico
9.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(10): 2172-2188, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012348

RESUMEN

In the midst of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic and its attendant morbidity and mortality, safe and efficacious vaccines are needed that induce protective and long-lived immune responses. More than 120 vaccine candidates worldwide are in various preclinical and phase 1 to 3 clinical trials that include inactivated, live-attenuated, viral-vectored replicating and nonreplicating, protein- and peptide-based, and nucleic acid approaches. Vaccines will be necessary both for individual protection and for the safe development of population-level herd immunity. Public-private partnership collaborative efforts, such as the Accelerating COVID-19 Therapeutic Interventions and Vaccines mechanism, are key to rapidly identifying safe and effective vaccine candidates as quickly and efficiently as possible. In this article, we review the major vaccine approaches being taken and issues that must be resolved in the quest for vaccines to prevent coronavirus disease 2019. For this study, we scanned the PubMed database from 1963 to 2020 for all publications using the following search terms in various combinations: SARS, MERS, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, vaccine, clinical trial, coronavirus, pandemic, and vaccine development. We also did a Web search for these same terms. In addition, we examined the World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and other public health authority websites. We excluded abstracts and all articles that were not written in English.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/métodos , Humanos , Salud Pública , Estados Unidos
10.
Front Immunol ; 11: 552925, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072093

RESUMEN

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) induced Coronavirus Disease - 19 (COVID-19) cases have been increasing at an alarming rate (7.4 million positive cases as on June 11 2020), causing high mortality (4,17,956 deaths as on June 11 2020) and economic loss (a 3.2% shrink in global economy in 2020) across 212 countries globally. The clinical manifestations of this disease are pneumonia, lung injury, inflammation, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Currently, there is no vaccine or effective pharmacological agents available for the prevention/treatment of SARS-CoV2 infections. Moreover, development of a suitable vaccine is a challenging task due to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) and Th-2 immunopathology, which aggravates infection with SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, the emerging SARS-CoV-2 strain exhibits several distinct genomic and structural patterns compared to other coronavirus strains, making the development of a suitable vaccine even more difficult. Therefore, the identification of novel small molecule inhibitors (NSMIs) that can interfere with viral entry or viral propagation is of special interest and is vital in managing already infected cases. SARS-CoV-2 infection is mediated by the binding of viral Spike proteins (S-protein) to human cells through a 2-step process, which involves Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE2) and Transmembrane Serine Protease (TMPRSS)-2. Therefore, the development of novel inhibitors of ACE2/TMPRSS2 is likely to be beneficial in combating SARS-CoV-2 infections. However, the usage of ACE-2 inhibitors to block the SARS-CoV-2 viral entry requires additional studies as there are conflicting findings and severe health complications reported for these inhibitors in patients. Hence, the current interest is shifted toward the development of NSMIs, which includes natural antiviral phytochemicals and Nrf-2 activators to manage a SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is imperative to investigate the efficacy of existing antiviral phytochemicals and Nrf-2 activators to mitigate the SARS-CoV-2-mediated oxidative stress. Therefore, in this review, we have reviewed structural features of SARS-CoV-2 with special emphasis on key molecular targets and their known modulators that can be considered for the development of NSMIs.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Internalización del Virus/efectos de los fármacos , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Humanos , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Serina Endopeptidasas/inmunología , Inhibidores de Serina Proteinasa/uso terapéutico , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/antagonistas & inhibidores , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Células Th2/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico
13.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(10): e1008292, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075052

RESUMEN

The lack of effective vaccines for many endemic diseases often forces policymakers to rely on non-immunizing control measures, such as vector control, to reduce the massive burden of these diseases. Controls can have well-known counterintuitive effects on endemic infections, including the honeymoon effect, in which partially effective controls cause not only a greater initial reduction in infection than expected, but also large outbreaks during control resulting from accumulation of susceptibles. Unfortunately, many control measures cannot be maintained indefinitely, and the results of cessation are poorly understood. Here, we examine the results of stopped or failed non-immunizing control measures in endemic settings. By using a mathematical model to compare the cumulative number of cases expected with and without control, we show that deployment of control can lead to a larger total number of infections, counting from the time that control started, than without any control-the divorce effect. This result is directly related to the population-level loss of immunity resulting from non-immunizing controls and is seen in a variety of models when non-immunizing controls are used against an infection that confers immunity. Finally, we examine three control plans for minimizing the magnitude of the divorce effect in seasonal infections and show that they are incapable of eliminating the divorce effect. While we do not suggest stopping control programs that rely on non-immunizing controls, our results strongly argue that the accumulation of susceptibility should be considered before deploying such controls against endemic infections when indefinite use of the control is unlikely. We highlight that our results are particularly germane to endemic mosquito-borne infections, such as dengue virus, both for routine management involving vector control and for field trials of novel control approaches, and in the context of non-pharmaceutical interventions aimed at COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Programas de Inmunización , Animales , Número Básico de Reproducción , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Culicidae , Vacunas contra el Dengue/uso terapéutico , Política de Salud , Humanos , Insectos Vectores , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Salud Pública , Rubéola (Sarampión Alemán)/prevención & control , Vacuna contra la Rubéola/uso terapéutico , Estaciones del Año , Dengue Grave/prevención & control , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 206, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963672

RESUMEN

The intense global efforts are directed towards development of vaccines to halt the COVID-19 virus pandemic. There are 160 candidate vaccines under clinical trials across the world using different molecular targets and techniques. This race for the vaccine has several challenges and ethical issues like compressed timelines, generation and proper management of resources and finances, risks to the participating volunteers due to curtailed research trial processes, geopolitical contentions, misinformation through social media and parallel race with drugs. We feel that the fundamental principles of ethics: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice should not be violated in this hastened vaccine development process. We recommend constitute a Consortium on a global platform to formulate, provide and monitor a comprehensive ethical umbrella to the process of vaccine development.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/ética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico , Discusiones Bioéticas , Comunicación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Asignación de Recursos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Factores de Tiempo , Vacunas Virales/economía , Vacunas Virales/provisión & distribución
19.
Dis Model Mech ; 13(9)2020 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887790

RESUMEN

The spread of the novel virus SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was explosive, with cases first identified in December 2019, and >22 million people infected and >775,000 deaths as of August 2020. SARS-CoV-2 can cause severe respiratory disease in humans leading to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The development of effective clinical interventions, such as antivirals and vaccines that can limit or even prevent the burden and spread of SARS-CoV-2, is a global health priority. Testing of leading antivirals, monoclonal antibody therapies and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 will require robust animal and cell models of viral pathogenesis. In this Special Article, we discuss the cell-based and animal models of SARS-CoV-2 infection and pathogenesis that have been described as of August 2020. We also outline the outstanding questions for which researchers can leverage animal and cell-based models to improve our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and protective immunity. Taken together, the refinement of models of SARS-CoV-2 infection will be critical to guide the development of therapeutics and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 to end the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Animales , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Interacciones Microbiota-Huesped , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Especificidad de la Especie , Técnicas de Cultivo de Tejidos , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico
20.
Contact Dermatitis ; 83(5): 432-435, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880961

RESUMEN

Although the development of successful vaccines against coronaviruses may be achieved, for some individuals the immune response that they stimulate may prove to be insufficient for effective host defence. The principle that a relatively strong contact allergen will have an enhancing effect on sensitization compared with a less potent contact allergen if they are co-administered, may not, at first, appear relevant to this issue. However, this augmentation effect is thought to be due to the sharing of common or complementary pathways. Here, we briefly consider aspects of the shared and complementary pathways between skin sensitization induced by exposure to a contact allergen and the immune response to viruses, with particular reference to COVID-19. The relationship leads us to explore whether this principle, which we name here as "co-operative immune augmentation" may be extended to include viral vaccination. We consider evidence that even relatively weak contact allergens, used in vaccines for other purposes, can show enhanced sensitization, which is in keeping with a co-operative augmentation principle. Finally, we consider how the potent contact allergen diphenylcyclopropenone could be employed safely as an enhancer of vaccine responses.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Ciclopropanos/uso terapéutico , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico , Alérgenos/uso terapéutico , Desensibilización Inmunológica/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
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