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1.
Int J Aging Hum Dev ; 96(1): 76-90, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35702009

RESUMEN

This analysis investigates how age, race/ethnicity, and geographic location contributed to vaccine hesitancy in a sample of 645 New York City (NYC) Transport Workers Union (TWU), Local 100 members surveyed in August 2020. Union members ages 50+ were 46% less likely to be vaccine hesitant than their younger counterparts (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.42, 0.97). Non-Whites (OR 3.95; 95% 2.44, 6.39) and those who did not report their race (OR 3.10; 95% CI 1.87, 5.12) were significantly more likely to be vaccine hesitant than Whites. Those who were not concerned about contracting COVID-19 in the community had 1.83 greater odds (95% CI 1.12, 2.98) of being vaccine hesitant than those who were concerned. Older respondents tended to reside in Queens while vaccine hesitant and non-White respondents were clustered in Brooklyn. General trends observed in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy persist in a population of high risk, non-healthcare essential workers.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas , Humanos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacilación a la Vacunación , Vacunación , Padres , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud
2.
J Exp Med ; 220(1)2023 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342455

RESUMEN

Inborn and acquired deficits of type I interferon (IFN) immunity predispose to life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia. We longitudinally profiled the B cell response to mRNA vaccination in SARS-CoV-2 naive patients with inherited TLR7, IRF7, or IFNAR1 deficiency, as well as young patients with autoantibodies neutralizing type I IFNs due to autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type-1 (APS-1) and older individuals with age-associated autoantibodies to type I IFNs. The receptor-binding domain spike protein (RBD)-specific memory B cell response in all patients was quantitatively and qualitatively similar to healthy donors. Sustained germinal center responses led to accumulation of somatic hypermutations in immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. The amplitude and duration of, and viral neutralization by, RBD-specific IgG serological response were also largely unaffected by TLR7, IRF7, or IFNAR1 deficiencies up to 7 mo after vaccination in all patients. These results suggest that induction of type I IFN is not required for efficient generation of a humoral response against SARS-CoV-2 by mRNA vaccines.


Asunto(s)
Linfocitos B , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Interferón Tipo I , Humanos , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Autoanticuerpos , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética , Receptor Toll-Like 7/genética , Vacunación , Vacunas de ARNm , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , Linfocitos B/inmunología , Interferón Tipo I/deficiencia
3.
J Infect Chemother ; 29(1): 102-104, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087922

RESUMEN

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, maintaining adequate staffing in healthcare facilities is important to provide a safe work environment for healthcare workers (HCWs). Japan's early return-to-work (RTW) program may be a rational strategy at a time when there is an increased demand for the services of HCWs. We assessed whether the early RTW program for HCWs who have been in close contact with a COVID-19 case in our hospital was justified. Close contacts were identified according to the guidance document of the World Health Organization. HCWs who met all of the following conditions were eligible to apply to an early RTW program: (1) difficult to replace with another HCW, (2) received the third dose of a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine, (3) a negative COVID-19 antigen test before each work shift, and (4) consent from relevant HCWs and their managers to participate in the program. Between January and March 2022, 256 HCWs were identified as close contacts (median age, 35 years; 192 female). Thirty-seven (14%) secondary attack cases of COVID-19 were detected. Among 141 HCWs (55%) who applied to the early RTW program, nurses and physicians comprised about three-quarters of participants, with a higher participation rate by physicians (78%) than nurses (59%). Eighteen HCWs tested positive for COVID-19 by the sixth day after starting the early RTW program. No COVID-19 infection clusters were reported during the observation period. These findings suggest that the early RTW program for COVID-19 close contacts was a reasonable strategy for HCWs during the Omicron wave.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Reinserción al Trabajo , Japón , Personal de Salud , Atención a la Salud
4.
J Infect Chemother ; 29(1): 33-38, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103949

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Information regarding effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant strains on clinical manifestations and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnant women is limited. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted using the data from the nationwide COVID-19 registry in Japan. We identified pregnant patients with symptomatic COVID-19 hospitalized during the study period. The Delta and Omicron variants of concern (VOC) predominant periods were defined as August 1 to December 31, 2021 and January 1 to May 31, 2022, respectively. Clinical characteristics were compared between the patients in the Delta and Omicron VOC periods. In addition, logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for developing moderate-to-severe COVID-19. RESULTS: During the study period, 310 symptomatic COVID-19 cases of pregnant women were identified; 111 and 199 patients were hospitalized during the Delta and Omicron VOC periods, respectively. Runny nose and sore throat were more common, and fatigue, dysgeusia, and olfactory dysfunction were less common manifestations observed in the Omicron VOC period. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, onset during the later stage of pregnancy (OR: 2.08 [1.24-3.71]) and onset during the Delta VOC period (OR: 2.25 [1.08-4.90]) were independently associated with moderate-to-severe COVID-19, whereas two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine were protective against developing moderate-to-severe COVID-19 (OR: 0.34 [0.13-0.84]). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 in pregnant women differed between the Delta and Omicron VOC periods. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was still effective in preventing severe COVID-19 throughout the Delta and Omicron VOC periods.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas , COVID-19/epidemiología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología
5.
J Infect Chemother ; 29(1): 112-114, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36167304

RESUMEN

Vaccines having aided in escaping the majority of the population from immunological naïvety, our strategies are now shifting towards an increased focus on identifying and protecting the extremely vulnerable. We here describe the results of testing 12 patients, those with lymphoid malignancies having been targeted their B-cells for therapy with rituximab-containing regimens or a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, for anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike antibodies after receiving the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine doses. The interval from last dosing of B-cell depletion therapy to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was at median 5.3 (range 3.1-6.6) months. Using the 'seroprotection' threshold of 775 [BAU/mL] for the anti-spike antibody titer, our finding points out the crucial unresponsiveness of the targeted population with 0/12 (0%) achieving 'seroprotection'. Although IgG seroconversion was observed in 4/12 (33%), supporting the overall benefit of vaccination, the figures still point out a potential need for optimization of practice. IgA was further less responsive (unsuccessful 'seroconversion' in 11/12 (92%)), implicating an underlying class switch defect. Those with depletion on B-cells are caught at a dilemma between, being too early and too late on receiving SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. They wish to get over their immunological naïvety at the earliest, while, in order to assure quality immune memory, are also required to hold the patience for their B-cells to repopulate. Although it remains an issue whether intensified vaccine schedules and/or regimens will lead to stronger immunogenicity or more effective boosters for non-responders, we shall take advantage of every increasing evidence in order to optimize current options.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Vacunas Virales , Humanos , Formación de Anticuerpos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Vacuna BNT162 , Cambio de Clase de Inmunoglobulina , Vacunas Virales/farmacología , COVID-19/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunación , Anticuerpos Antivirales
6.
J Infect Chemother ; 29(1): 105-108, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113847

RESUMEN

Acute exacerbations due to COVID-19 vaccination in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) have been reported, but their incidence is unknown. We investigated the incidence of exacerbations of ILD and respiratory symptoms due to the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. A questionnaire survey was conducted on adverse reactions to the mRNA COVID-19 vaccination in 545 patients with ILD attending our hospital and retrospectively examined whether the eligible patients actually developed acute exacerbations of ILD induced by the vaccine. Of the 545 patients, 17 (3.1%) patients were aware of the exacerbation of respiratory symptoms, and four (0.7%) patients developed an acute ILD exacerbation after vaccination. Of the four patients who experienced exacerbations, two had collagen vascular disease-associated ILD, one had nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, another had unclassifiable idiopathic pneumonia, and none had idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Four patients were treated using steroid pulse therapy with a steroid taper, and two of the four also received intravenous cyclophosphamide pulse therapy. Tacrolimus was started in one patient with myositis-associated interstitial lung disease. Eventually, all patients exhibited improvement with immunosuppressive treatment and were discharged. COVID-19 vaccination for patients with ILD should be noted for developing acute exacerbations of ILD with low incidence, although manageable with early diagnosis and treatment.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/efectos adversos , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Incidencia , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Pulmonares Intersticiales/etiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , ARN Mensajero , Vacunación/efectos adversos
7.
J Infect Chemother ; 29(1): 61-66, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152928

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Data are limited regarding the safety of and antibody response to the BNT162b2 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) messenger ribonucleic acid vaccine in adolescents and young adults with underlying disease. METHODS: This prospective observational study enrolled patients age 12-25 years with chronic underlying disease who received 2 doses of BNT162b2. A 18-item questionnaire was used to assess adverse events within 7 days post-vaccination, and data regarding severe adverse events were collected from electronic medical records. An antibody titer for the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein in SARS-CoV-2 was used to assess antibody response after the second vaccine dose. RESULTS: Study participants were 429 patients (241 [56.2%] age 12-15 years; 188 [43.8%] age 16-25 years). The most common underlying diseases were genetic or chromosomal abnormalities and/or congenital anomalies, followed by endocrine or metabolic diseases; 32% of participants were immunocompromised. Severe adverse events were observed after the second dose in 1 (0.4%) patient age 12-15 years and in 2 (1.1%) patients age 16-25 years; all patients recovered. Seropositivity after the second vaccine dose was 99.0%. The geometric mean antibody titer was higher in patients age 12-15 years versus 16-25 years (1603.3 [1321.8-1944.7] U/mL vs. 949.4 [744.2-1211.0] U/mL). Compared with immunocompetent patients, immunocompromised patients had a lower antibody titer (2106.8 [1917.5-2314.7] U/mL vs. 467.9 [324.4-674.8] U/mL). CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with BNT162b2 was acceptably safe and immunogenic for adolescents and young adults with underlying disease.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Humanos , Adulto Joven , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Formación de Anticuerpos , Vacuna BNT162 , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/efectos adversos
8.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 121(1): e202202595, 2023 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35984671

RESUMEN

Introduction. In Argentina, health care workers have been the first ones to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, but there are still few data on the production of anti-S IgG antibodies. Objectives. To assess specific IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (anti-S IgG) after the vaccination of health care workers from a children's hospital. To explore the association between the presence of these antibodies, age, and history of prior infection. Population and methods. Cross-sectional study in 193 workers who received both doses of the two- component Sputnik V vaccine. The anti-S IgG antibody titer was measured and age, history of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, and date of vaccination were recorded. Results. Anti-S IgG antibodies were produced in 98.6% of the subjects. The titer was higher in those with prior infection (p < 0.001), but no relationship was established with subjects' age. Conclusion. We provide data on post-vaccination production of IgG anti-S antibodies among health care workers from a children's hospital and explore some predictors.


Introducción. En Argentina, el personal de salud ha sido el primero en vacunarse contra COVID-19, pero todavía existen pocos datos sobre la producción de anticuerpos IgG anti-S. Objetivos. Evaluar IgG específica contra glicoproteína spike del SARS-CoV-2 (IgG anti-S) posvacunación en personal de un hospital pediátrico. Explorar la asociación entre presencia de dichos anticuerpos, edad y antecedente de infección previa. Población y métodos. Estudio transversal que incluyó 193 trabajadores vacunados con los dos componentes de la vacuna Sputnik V. Se pesquisó el título de IgG anti-S y se registraron edad, antecedente de infección previa por SARS-CoV-2 y fecha de la vacunación. Resultados. El 98,6 % de los sujetos generó IgG anti-S. El título fue mayor en quienes habían cursado infección previamente (p <0,001), pero no hubo relación con la edad de los sujetos. Conclusión. Aportamos datos de generación de anticuerpos IgG anti-S posvacunación en personal de salud de un hospital pediátrico y exploramos algunos predictores.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Personal de Salud , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19/inmunología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Estudios Transversales , Hospitales Pediátricos , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus
9.
J Theor Biol ; 556: 111280, 2023 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36202234

RESUMEN

Compelling evidence continues to build to support the idea that SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibody (NAb) levels in an individual can serve as an important indicator of the strength of protective immunity against infection. It is not well understood why NAb levels in some individuals remain high over time, while in others levels decline rapidly. In this work, we present a two-state mathematical model of within-host NAb dynamics in response to vaccination. By fitting only four host-specific parameters, the model is able to capture individual-specific NAb levels over time as measured by the AditxtScore™ for NAbs. The model can serve as a foundation for predicting NAb levels in the long-term, understanding connections between NAb levels, protective immunity, and breakthrough infections, and potentially guiding decisions about whether and when a booster vaccination may be warranted.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Vacunación , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Modelos Teóricos
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36411077

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Acute inflammatory CNS diseases include neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD). Both MOGAD and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) have been reported after vaccination. Consequently, the mass SARS-CoV-2 vaccination program could result in increased rates of these conditions. We described the features of patients presenting with new acute CNS demyelination resembling NMOSDs or MOGAD within 8 weeks of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. METHODS: The study included a prospective case series of patients referred to highly specialized NMOSD services in the UK from the introduction of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination program up to May 2022. Twenty-five patients presented with new optic neuritis (ON) and/or transverse myelitis (TM) ± other CNS inflammation within 8 weeks of vaccination with either AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1S) or Pfizer (BNT162b2) vaccines. Their clinical records and paraclinical investigations including MRI scans were reviewed. Serologic testing for antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) was performed using live cell-based assays. Patients' outcomes were graded good, moderate, or poor based on the last clinical assessment. RESULTS: Of 25 patients identified (median age 38 years, 14 female), 12 (48%) had MOG antibodies (MOGIgG+), 2 (8%) had aquaporin 4 antibodies (AQP4IgG+), and 11 (44%) had neither. Twelve of 14 (86%) antibody-positive patients received the ChAdOx1S vaccine. MOGIgG+ patients presented most commonly with TM (10/12, 83%), frequently in combination with ADEM-like brain/brainstem lesions (6/12, 50%). Transverse myelitis was longitudinally extensive in 7 of the 10 patients. A peak in new MOGAD cases in Spring 2021 was attributable to postvaccine cases. Both AQP4IgG+ patients presented with brain lesions and TM. Four of 6 (67%) seronegative ChAdOx1S recipients experienced longitudinally extensive TM (LETM) compared with 1 of 5 (20%) of the BNT162b2 group, and facial nerve inflammation was reported only in ChAdOx1S recipients (2/5, 40%). Guillain-Barre syndrome was confirmed in 1 seronegative ChAdOx1S recipient and suspected in another. DISCUSSION: ChAdOx1S was associated with 12/14 antibody-positive cases, the majority MOGAD. MOGAD patients presented atypically, only 2 with isolated ON (1 after BNT162b2 vaccine) but with frequent ADEM-like brain lesions and LETM. Within the seronegative group, phenotypic differences were observed between ChAdOx1S and BNT162b2 recipients. These observations might support a causative role of the ChAdOx1S vaccine in inflammatory CNS disease and particularly MOGAD. Further study of this cohort could provide insights into vaccine-associated immunopathology.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Encefalomielitis Aguda Diseminada , Mielitis Transversa , Neuromielitis Óptica , Neuritis Óptica , Femenino , Humanos , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito , Acuaporina 4 , Mielitis Transversa/etiología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/efectos adversos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacuna BNT162 , COVID-19/prevención & control , Sistema Nervioso Central , Encefalomielitis Aguda Diseminada/etiología , Vacunación/efectos adversos , Inflamación
12.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 300, 2022 Oct 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316674

RESUMEN

Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 protect from critical or severe pathogenesis also against new variants of concern (VOCs) such as BA.4 and BA.5, but immediate interventions to avoid viral transmission and subsequent inflammatory reactions are needed. Here we applied the ColdZyme® medical device mouth spray to fully differentiated, polarized human epithelium cultured at an air-liquid interphase (ALI). We found using VOCs BA.1 and BA.4/5 that this device effectively blocked respiratory tissue infection. While infection with these VOCs resulted in intracellular complement activation, thus enhanced inflammation, and drop of transepithelial resistance, these phenomena were prevented by a single administration of this medical device. Thus, ColdZyme® mouth spray significantly shields epithelial integrity, hinders virus infection and blocks in a secondary effect intrinsic complement activation within airway cultures also in terms of the highly contagious VOCs BA.4/5. Crucially, our in vitro data suggest that ColdZyme® mouth spray may have an impact to protect against SARS-CoV-2 transmission, also in case of the Omicron BA.1, BA.4 and BA.5 variants.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Humanos , Células Epiteliales , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Epitelio , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/prevención & control
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(43): e31304, 2022 Oct 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316859

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus, was reported in Wuhan of China in December 2019. The world is still in a state of pandemic owing to COVID-19. COVID-19 vaccines help our bodies develop immunity against the virus that causes COVID-19 without having to get the illness. Herein, we describe a rare case of a critical disorder, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), in a patient with nephritic sclerosis associated with hypertension, following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. HLH is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory syndrome caused by aberrantly activated macrophages and cytotoxic T cells that may rapidly progress to terminal multiple organ failure. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 85-year-old Japanese woman with chronic renal failure and hypertension was included in this study. Routine laboratory investigations provided the following results: white blood cell (WBC) count, 4.6 × 109/L; hemoglobin (Hb), 8.1 g/dL; platelet count, 27 × 109/L; blood urea nitrogen 48.9 mg/dL, and serum creatinine 3.95 mg/dL. The patient developed malaise, vomiting, and persistent high fever (up to 39.7°C) on the 12th day after receiving the second dose of the vaccine. Initial evaluation revealed neutropenia. The total WBC count was 0.40 × 109/L (Neutrophils 0, Lymphocytes 240/µ, blast 0%); Hb 9.0 g/dL, platelet count 27 × 109/L; and, C Reactive Protein 9.64 mg/dL. DIAGNOSIS: Further tests showed hyperferritinemia (serum ferritin 2284.4 µg/L). Bone marrow examination revealed haemophagocytosis. A provisional diagnosis of HLH associated with the Comirnaty® vaccination was made based on the HLH-2004 diagnostic criteria. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and 500 mg methylprednisolone. OUTCOMES: A significant improvement was observed in the patient's condition; the abnormal laboratory results resolved gradually, and the patient was discharged. LESSONS: This case serves to create awareness among clinicians that HLH is a rare complication of COVID-19 vaccination and should be considered, especially in patients with a history of chronic renal failure and hypertension.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Hipertensión , Fallo Renal Crónico , Linfohistiocitosis Hemofagocítica , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Vacuna BNT162 , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/efectos adversos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Fallo Renal Crónico/complicaciones , Linfohistiocitosis Hemofagocítica/inducido químicamente , Linfohistiocitosis Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Vacunación/efectos adversos
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(43): e31162, 2022 Oct 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316870

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In recent years, many studies have found possible links between gene polymorphisms and venous thromboembolism (VTE). By identifying genetic risk factors before facing environmental risk factors such as surgical interventions and COVID-19 vaccination, we could rapidly respond to the risk of VTE. The aim of this study was to perform an umbrella review of genetic variants related to VTE. Integrative gene analysis of VTE was performed to identify critical genetic variations. METHODS: This study conducted an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. All included studies were selected from the PubMed/MEDLINE database. To select eligible studies, the following variables were extracted: first author name; effect size of each study genetic variant; year of publication; the number of studies included in each article; ethnicity, sample size, P values, and heterogeneity estimates. To assess cumulative evidence in genetic epidemiology about effects of gene polymorphisms on VTE, Human Genome Epidemiology Network's Venice criteria were used. Methodological quality assessment was conducted with JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Systematic Reviews and Research Syntheses. RESULTS: Genes provided in the present study with genetic variants associated with VTE were FVL (G1691A), Prothrombin (G20210A), MTHFR (C677T, A1298C), PAI-1 (4G/5G), factor VII activating protease (1601G > A), and endothelial protein C receptor (g.6936A_G, c.4600A_G). Among them, variants in FVL, Prothrombin, MTHFR, and PAI-1 showed high significance. Particularly, variants in Prothrombin (G20210A), MTHFR (C677T), and PAI-1 (4G/5G) had more than 2 types of model significance. CONCLUSION: The present study performed a systematic review of genetic variants associated with VTE. Our results could lead to a more comprehensive understanding of VTE etiology. These results could give a strategy of prediagnosis about evaluating individual risks of VTE who might be exposed to environmental risk factors.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Metilenotetrahidrofolato Reductasa (NADPH2)/genética , Inhibidor 1 de Activador Plasminogénico/genética , Protrombina/genética , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiología , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética , Metaanálisis como Asunto
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(43): e31389, 2022 Oct 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316903

RESUMEN

The COVID 19 pandemic is far from over, and vaccines remain important tool for fighting the disease. As the preventive effects of the COVID-19 vaccine emerges, it is likely that the perception of importance and safety of vaccines have a positive effect on the acceptance of other vaccines. However, it is still unclear how COVID-19 pandemic has affected the general vaccination perception and acceptance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the perception of HPV vaccination. This study involved an offline survey of 161 women aged between 20 and 49 years who visited the gynecologic clinic at Chung-nam National University Sejong Hospital from January 2021 to June 2021. The questionnaire consists of items related to experience and knowledge of COVID-19 and HPV viruses, as well as attitudes toward HPV vaccination. Knowledge about COVID-19 virus and HPV correlated positively with their experiences (P = .011 and P = .045, respectively). Positive attitude was increased, and negative attitude was reduced toward HPV vaccination in the COVID-19 pandemic era. Participants stated that accurate information and cost reduction about HPV vaccine was needed to increase the HPV vaccination rate. During the COVID-19 pandemic era, positive attitudes towards HPV vaccination have tended to increase. To increase the HPV vaccination rate, public efforts are needed for further information and cost reduction.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Vacunas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Pandemias/prevención & control , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Vacunación , Papillomaviridae , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Percepción
16.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 60(5): 673-680, 2022 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318630

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Vaccines are highly effective at preventing severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but there are limited data on COVID-19 vaccines in pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines in pregnant women when administered according to the 12-week-interval dosing schedule recommended in the UK. METHODS: This was a cohort study of pregnant women receiving COVID-19 vaccination between April and September 2021. The outcomes were immunogenicity and reactogenicity after COVID-19 vaccination. Pregnant women were recruited by phone, e-mail and/or text and were vaccinated according to vaccine availability at their local vaccination center. For immunogenicity assessment, blood samples were taken at specific timepoints after each dose to evaluate nucleocapsid protein (N) and spike protein (S) antibody titers. The comparator group comprised non-pregnant female healthcare workers in the same age group who were vaccinated as part of the national immunization program in a contemporaneous longitudinal cohort study. Longitudinal changes in serum antibody titers and association with pregnancy status were assessed using a two-step regression approach. Reactogenicity assessment in pregnant women was undertaken using an online questionnaire. The comparator group comprised non-pregnant women aged 18-49 years who had received two vaccine doses in primary care. The association of pregnancy status with reactogenicity was assessed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 67 pregnant women, of whom 66 had received a mRNA vaccine, and 79 non-pregnant women, of whom 50 had received a mRNA vaccine, were included in the immunogenicity study. Most (61.2%) pregnant women received their first vaccine dose in the third trimester, while 3.0% received it in the first trimester and 35.8% in the second trimester. SARS-CoV-2 S-antibody geometric mean concentrations after mRNA vaccination were not significantly different at 2-6 weeks after the first dose but were significantly lower at 2-6 weeks after the second dose in infection-naïve pregnant compared with non-pregnant women. In pregnant women, prior infection was associated with higher antibody levels at 2-6 weeks after the second vaccine dose. Reactogenicity analysis included 108 pregnant women and 116 non-pregnant women. After the first dose, tiredness and chills were reported less commonly in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women (P = 0.043 and P = 0.029, respectively). After the second dose, feeling generally unwell was reported less commonly (P = 0.046) in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women. CONCLUSIONS: Using an extended 12-week interval between vaccine doses, antibody responses after two doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine were found to be lower in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women. Strong antibody responses were achieved after one dose in previously infected women, regardless of pregnancy status. Pregnant women reported fewer adverse events after both the first and second dose of vaccine. These findings should now be addressed in larger controlled studies. © 2022 The Authors. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Longitudinales , ARN Mensajero
17.
Afr Health Sci ; 22(Spec Issue): 85-92, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36321123

RESUMEN

Introduction: Keeping HIV-infected adults away from the health care system during the COVID-19 travel restrictions, presents a challenge to HIV treatment adherence. Methods: This study focused on the initial two phases where Phase 1 designed a Makerere College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD)-based application; and Phase 2 piloted patient enrolment onto the application and determined the feasibility of remote follow-up of patients receiving long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART). Results: A off/online user application, MakCHS Health app, was developed. Overall, 112 patients [(66(59%) female] receiving ART at Mulago ISS clinic, Kampala, were enrolled onto the MakCHS Health app. Up to 89 (80%) utilized the app to access medical help. Patients' medical queries included needs for drug refills, missed taking HIV medication, medical illnesses, access to COVID-19 vaccination and other personal needs that required clinicians' attention. Conclusion: Piloting a MakCHS Health application for patient follow-up was feasible and well-received by HIV treatment providers and patients receiving ART. We recommend scale up of the application to enroll all patients receiving long-term treatment for HIV/AIDS, and subsequently expand to. other HIV treatment programs in similar settings.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Teléfono Celular , Infecciones por VIH , Adulto , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Pandemias , Uganda , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico
18.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 20(4): 333-340, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36324222

RESUMEN

The neurological complications of Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) including stroke have been documented in the recent literature. COVID-19-related inflammation is suggested to contribute to both a hypercoagulable state and haemorrhagic transformation, including in younger individuals. COVID-19 is associated with a heightened risk of ischaemic stroke. Haemorrhagic stroke in COVID-19 patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) accounts for <1% of stroke cases in the general population but has come to heightened public attention due to the increased risk associated with adenoviral COVID-19 vaccines. However, recent evidence suggests the prevalence of stroke is less in vaccinated individuals than in unvaccinated COVID-19 patients. This review evaluates the current evidence of COVID-19-related ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, with a focus on current epidemiology and inflammatory-linked pathophysiology in the field of vascular neurology and stroke medicine.


Asunto(s)
Isquemia Encefálica , COVID-19 , Accidente Cerebrovascular Hemorrágico , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/diagnóstico , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/terapia , Isquemia Encefálica/etiología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19
19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 997884, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36324470

RESUMEN

Objectives: Vaccine hesitancy remains a global issue, especially within poverty-stricken countries where there's an interplay of financial and non-financial barriers. This narrative review aims to understand attitudes and behaviors toward COVID-19 vaccination in four South Asian countries and make context-specific recommendations to vaccine program drivers and decision-makers. Methods: A search was conducted using PubMed and Science Direct, and CINHAL from January 2020 up to May 2022 restricted to the English language for terms: "Afghanistan" OR "Pakistan" OR "India" OR "Bangladesh" in combination with "COVID-19 vaccine" and other related terms. All articles were initially included, and those with relevance were included in the synthesis of this paper. Results: A narrative review was performed for this study. Our narrative review included a total of eighteen studies with a sample size (n = 223-5,237) averaging about 1,325 participants per study conducted. The studies included revealed public hesitancy to receive the COVID-19 vaccine ranging from 6.3 to 56.2% with an average of 31.63% across all eighteen studies. Several reasons were linked to this observation in these four South Asian countries, and the predominant ones included: Insufficient information provided to the general public about the side effects of the vaccines, concerns regarding vaccine safety, and skepticism of vaccine efficacy. Conclusion: Vaccine hesitancy is a global problem within the context of COVID-19, and issues regarding equity, misinformation, and poverty in South Asian countries makes it difficult to meet goals for herd immunity. Policymakers and governments should aim toward financial and non-financial incentives to drive the public toward vaccination.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas , Humanos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacilación a la Vacunación , Vacunación
20.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 51(10): 637-647, 2022 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36317574

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This review aims to examine asthma management during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Relevant recommendations and articles were identified by respiratory professional societies and PubMed search using the terms "asthma" and "COVID-19", and examined for relevance and inclusion in this study. RESULTS: Recommendations for the management of asthma have remained similar but are now supported by new evidence between the years 2020 and 2022. Patients with well-controlled, mild-to-moderate asthma are unlikely to be at increased risk of acquiring COVID-19 or having worse outcomes from COVID-19. All asthma patients should receive COVID-19 vaccination. Spirometry can be performed with the usual strict infection control procedures unless there is a suspicion of COVID-19. Mask-wearing and other health measures remain important for asthma patients. CONCLUSION: While previous recommendations were largely based on expert opinion, the tremendous amount of literature published since the pandemic first emerged 2 years ago has helped guide respiratory professional bodies to update their recommendations. This study provides a timely review of the various recommendations and can be used to guide healthcare professionals in managing asthma patients, as the world prepares for a future with COVID-19 becoming endemic. The long-term consequences of COVID-19 infection in asthma patients and the ripple effects of COVID-19 remain uncertain and deserve ongoing study.


Asunto(s)
Asma , COVID-19 , Adulto , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Asma/terapia , Asma/epidemiología , Control de Infecciones
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