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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 193, 2024 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350887

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Omicron has become the dominant variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) since first reported in November 2021. From the initially detected Wuhan lineage, sublineages BA.2, BA.4, BA.5, BQ, XAG, and XBB have emerged over time and are dominant in many countries. Therefore, the aim is to evaluate which variants are circulating and the clinical characteristics of inpatients infected with the Omicron variant. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study selected hospitalized patients admitted with respiratory symptoms to a hospital in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, between June and July 2022. SARS-CoV-2 results were analyzed together with clinical outcomes and vaccination status. A viral genome library was prepared and forwarded to the Illumina MiSeq Platform for sequencing. RESULTS: In total, 37 genomes were sequenced. Concerning the Omicron sublineages, our study detected: BA.1 (21 K), BA.2 (21 L), BA.4 (22A), BA.5 (22B), BA.2.12.1 (22C), BQ.1 (22E), XBB (22F), and XAG recombinant. Omicron BA.5 (30%), BA.2 (19%), and BQ.1 (19%) were the most frequent sublineages, respectively. In total, 38% of patients present hypertension, and the most common symptoms were coughing (62%). Analyzing the COVID-19 vaccination, 30% of patients were fully vaccinated, 49% had a partial vaccination status, and 21% were unvaccinated (no dose). CONCLUSIONS: BA.5 was the most prevalent sublineage in our study and surpassed the predominance of BA.2, as reported by the national genomic surveillance program. BQ.1 was diagnosed earlier in this study than it was officially reported in the state. Current data have demonstrated that the Omicron variant causes less severe infections, with the high rate of transmissibility and mutational landscape causing the rapid emergence of new sublineages.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Pacientes Internos , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tos
2.
Appl Clin Inform ; 15(1): 129-144, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354837

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Given the inequities in access to health care resources like COVID-19 vaccination, health systems should carefully consider how to reach underrepresented groups. Reflecting on vaccine rollout efforts holds insight on the role of community engagement and informatics support in promoting health equity. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of four outreach strategies deployed by University of Washington (UW) Medicine in improving vaccine equity over traditional vaccine scheduling online or by phone, we report on appointment scheduling and completion of appointments (i.e., vaccine administration) through (1) automated outreach to individuals from underrepresented groups, (2) temporary "pop-up" clinics in neighborhoods highly impacted by COVID-19, (3) vulnerable population clinics, and (4) mobile vaccine vans. METHODS: We conducted a 6-month retrospective analysis of electronic health records (EHR) to describe the sociodemographic characteristics of individuals who scheduled appointments using the outreach strategies and characteristics associated with a greater likelihood of vaccine administration based on appointment completion. To help explain trends in the EHR data, we engaged 10 health system leaders and staff who spearheaded the outreach strategies in follow-up conversations to identify qualitative insights into what worked and why. RESULTS: Compared with traditional scheduling, all outreach strategies except vulnerable population clinics had higher vaccine appointment completion rates, including automated outreach (N = 3,734 [94.7%], p < 0.001), pop-up clinics (N = 4,391 [96.0%], p < 0.001), and mobile vans (N = 4,198 [99.1%], p < 0.001); and lower cancellation rates, including automated outreach (N = 166 [1.1%], p < 0.001), pop-up clinics (N = 155 [0.6%], p < 0.001), and mobile vans (N = 0 [0%], p < 0.001). Qualitative insights emphasized ongoing community partnerships and information resources in successful outreach. CONCLUSION: Vaccine equity outreach strategies improved the proportion of patients who scheduled and completed vaccination appointments among populations disproportionately impacted by COVID-19. Engaging community partners and equity-focused informatics tools can facilitate outreach. Lessons from these outreach strategies carry practical implications for health systems to amplify their health equity efforts.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas , Humanos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Estudios Retrospectivos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Informática
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 17(2)2024 Feb 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355209

RESUMEN

We report a case of bilateral posterior ischaemic optic neuropathy, which followed vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 for COVID-19 prophylaxis. A man in his early 60s was initially assessed for bilateral acute vision loss following 3 days of frontal headaches. The patient denied any other preceding visual concerns or symptoms of giant cell arteritis. The patient received his first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination 10 days before the onset of his symptoms.At initial presentation, visual acuity was counting fingers bilaterally. Blood work found normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate (6 mm/hour) and C reactive protein (<5 mg/L) as well as a negative infectious and autoimmune serology. He was negative for COVID-19 with PCR testing. Diffusion-weighted MRI showed restricted diffusion along both optic nerves. After 5 months, the patient's visual acuity remained counting fingers bilaterally with pale optic nerves. Isolated bilateral posterior ischaemic optic neuropathy has not been reported in association with the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Neuropatía Óptica Isquémica , Masculino , Humanos , Neuropatía Óptica Isquémica/etiología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/efectos adversos , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , COVID-19/prevención & control , Trastornos de la Visión , Ceguera , Vacunación
4.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 472, 2024 Feb 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355444

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Vaccine homophily describes non-heterogeneous vaccine uptake within contact networks. This study was performed to determine observable patterns of vaccine homophily, as well as the impact of vaccine homophily on disease transmission within and between vaccination groups under conditions of high and low vaccine efficacy. METHODS: Residents of British Columbia, Canada, aged ≥ 16 years, were recruited via online advertisements between February and March 2022, and provided information about vaccination status, perceived vaccination status of household and non-household contacts, compliance with COVID-19 prevention guidelines, and history of COVID-19. A deterministic mathematical model was used to assess transmission dynamics between vaccine status groups under conditions of high and low vaccine efficacy. RESULTS: Vaccine homophily was observed among those with 0, 2, or 3 doses of the vaccine. Greater homophily was observed among those who had more doses of the vaccine (p < 0.0001). Those with fewer vaccine doses had larger contact networks (p < 0.0001), were more likely to report prior COVID-19 (p < 0.0001), and reported lower compliance with COVID-19 prevention guidelines (p < 0.0001). Mathematical modelling showed that vaccine homophily plays a considerable role in epidemic growth under conditions of high and low vaccine efficacy. Furthermore, vaccine homophily contributes to a high force of infection among unvaccinated individuals under conditions of high vaccine efficacy, as well as to an elevated force of infection from unvaccinated to suboptimally vaccinated individuals under conditions of low vaccine efficacy. INTERPRETATION: The uneven uptake of COVID-19 vaccines and the nature of the contact network in the population play important roles in shaping COVID-19 transmission dynamics.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Estudios Transversales , Pandemias/prevención & control , Vacunación , Colombia Británica/epidemiología
5.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2316422, 2024 Dec 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346223

RESUMEN

Booster vaccinations against SARS-CoV-2 are recommended 6-12 months after the last dose or infection in elderly and high-risk groups. The present analysis aims to evaluate whether an interval shorter than 12 months is required in multiple sclerosis patients receiving ofatumumab. Neutralizing antibody status over 1 year in patients receiving booster vaccination in the non-interventional, multicenter KYRIOS study under continued ofatumumab treatment was analyzed. Fifteen patients were included. At the time of the first booster vaccination, ten patients were seropositive for neutralizing antibodies, four patients were seronegative, and for one patient, no baseline levels were available. All patients who were seropositive at baseline showed >2-fold increase in neutralizing antibody titers after the first booster and two patients (20%) showed a >10-fold increase. Among seronegative patients, three (75%) had a >10-fold increase in neutralizing antibody titers. Seropositivity was maintained in almost all patients until month 12. One initially seronegative patient had less than 2-fold increase in neutralizing antibody titers after the booster vaccination and can be considered a non-responder. Most patients with continued ofatumumab treatment are able to maintain permanent seropositivity and therefore presumably constant protection against severe courses of COVID-19 if repeated booster vaccinations are applied.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados , COVID-19 , Esclerosis Múltiple , Anciano , Humanos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Esclerosis Múltiple/tratamiento farmacológico , Vacunas de ARNm , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Vacunación
6.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2307735, 2024 Dec 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346925

RESUMEN

There is evidence that advice from Healthcare Professionals (HCPs) plays an important role in patients' decision to get vaccinated, but the extent to which patients perceive this impact is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived impact of a discussion with a HCP on participants' decision to be vaccinated against COVID-19. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults who consulted a general practitioner (GP) or a pharmacist in Ile-de-France, France, after COVID-19 vaccines became available (October-November 2021 period). A total of 344 participants were included, 65.2% of whom reported having had a discussion about COVID-19 vaccines with a HCP. Overall, 55% of participants were advised to be vaccinated by their HCP. Most of the discussions took place with a GP (n = 203, 48.9%). According to 52.5% of participants, the discussion had a positive impact, i.e. it was perceived as encouraging vaccination. The latter reported that, among HCPs, GPs had the greatest number of discussions with a positive impact on the decision to be vaccinated against COVID-19 (93.1%). In the study population, the COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy rate, according to the WHO definition, was high (38.1%), although the COVID-19 vaccine coverage rate was 87.1%. Vaccine hesitant participants were more likely to report a discussion that had a perceived negative impact on their decision to get vaccinated (20.0%) than non-hesitant participants (5.8%, p = .004).


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Médicos Generales , Adulto , Humanos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Vacunación , Vacilación a la Vacunación
7.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2301189, 2024 Dec 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346919

RESUMEN

High levels of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy have been reported among Black and Latinx populations, with lower vaccination coverage among racialized versus White sexual and gender minorities. We examined multilevel contexts that influence COVID-19 vaccine uptake, barriers to vaccination, and vaccine hesitancy among predominantly racialized sexual and gender minority individuals. Semi-structured online interviews explored perspectives and experiences around COVID-19 vaccination. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, uploaded into ATLAS.ti, and reviewed using thematic analysis. Among 40 participants (mean age, 29.0 years [SD, 9.6]), all identified as sexual and/or gender minority, 82.5% of whom were racialized. COVID-19 vaccination experiences were dominated by structural barriers: systemic racism, transphobia and homophobia in healthcare and government/public health institutions; limited availability of vaccination/appointments in vulnerable neighborhoods; absence of culturally-tailored and multi-language information; lack of digital/internet access; and prohibitive indirect costs of vaccination. Vaccine hesitancy reflected in uncertainties about a novel vaccine amid conflicting information and institutional mistrust was integrally linked to structural factors. Findings suggest that the uncritical application of "vaccine hesitancy" to unilaterally explain undervaccination among marginalized populations risks conflating structural and institutional barriers with individual-level psychological factors, in effect placing the onus on those most disenfranchised to overcome societal and institutional processes of marginalization. Rather, disaggregating structural determinants of vaccination availability, access, and institutional stigma and mistrust from individual attitudes and decision-making that reflect vaccine hesitancy, may support 1) evidence-informed interventions to mitigate structural barriers in access to vaccination, and 2) culturally-informed approaches to address decisional ambivalence in the context of structural homophobia, transphobia, and racism.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas , Adulto , Humanos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Caza , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunación , Investigación Cualitativa
8.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1303, 2024 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347001

RESUMEN

Efficient cytosolic delivery of RNA molecules remains a formidable barrier for RNA therapeutic strategies. Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) serve as state-of-the-art carriers that can deliver RNA molecules intracellularly, as exemplified by the recent implementation of several vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Using a bottom-up rational design approach, we assemble LNPs that contain programmable lipid phases encapsulating small interfering RNA (siRNA). A combination of cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, cryogenic electron tomography and small-angle X-ray scattering reveals that we can form inverse hexagonal structures, which are present in a liquid crystalline nature within the LNP core. Comparison with lamellar LNPs reveals that the presence of inverse hexagonal phases enhances the intracellular silencing efficiency over lamellar structures. We then demonstrate that lamellar LNPs exhibit an in situ transition from a lamellar to inverse hexagonal phase upon interaction with anionic membranes, whereas LNPs containing pre-programmed liquid crystalline hexagonal phases bypass this transition for a more efficient one-step delivery mechanism, explaining the increased silencing effect. This rational design of LNPs with defined lipid structures aids in the understanding of the nano-bio interface and adds substantial value for LNP design, optimization and use.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Liposomas , Nanopartículas , Humanos , ARN Interferente Pequeño/genética , ARN Interferente Pequeño/química , Lípidos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Transfección
9.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 447, 2024 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347498

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Vaccine hesitancy is a significant threat to global health. A key part of addressing hesitancy is to ensure that public health messaging prioritises information that is considered important to the public. This study aimed to examine how different vaccine characteristics affect public preferences for vaccines in New Zealand, what trade-offs they are willing to make between different vaccine characteristics, and how their preferences are affected by their vaccine-related conspiracy beliefs and COVID-19 vaccination status. METHODS: An online discrete choice experiment (DCE) was designed to elicit individual preferences about vaccines using the 1000minds platform. Members of the general population of New Zealand aged ≥ 18 years were invited to complete the DCE. Participants were asked to indicate their preference between two options showing different combinations of vaccine characteristics. Data on sociodemographic characteristics were collected. Beliefs were measured using the vaccine conspiracy beliefs scale (VCBS) with scores ≥ 19 indicating strong vaccine-related conspiracy beliefs. The DCE was analysed using the PAPRIKA method (Potentially All Pairwise RanKings of all possible Alternatives) and preferences compared between respondents with high versus low VCBS scores and vaccinated versus unvaccinated respondents for COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 611 respondents from 15 regions completed the DCE. Mean (SD) age was 45.9 (14.7) years with most having had 2 or more doses of the coronavirus vaccine (86%). Mean (SD) VCBS score was 18.5 (12.4) indicating moderate vaccine-related conspiracy beliefs. Risk of severe adverse effects was the most highly valued vaccine characteristic, followed by vaccine effectiveness and duration of protection. Vaccine origin and route of administration were ranked least important. Respondents scoring high on the VCBS placed less value on the effectiveness of vaccines but greater value on development time and total number of doses (p < 0.001). COVID-19 unvaccinated respondents ranked development time and total number of doses more highly than those vaccinated respondents (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Risk of severe adverse effects, vaccine effectiveness and duration of protection were rated by the New Zealand public as the top three most important vaccine characteristics. This information is important for informing public health messaging to promote vaccine uptake and inform vaccine decision-making.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas , Humanos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Nueva Zelanda , Vacunación , COVID-19/prevención & control , Toma de Decisiones
10.
Int J Equity Health ; 23(1): 27, 2024 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347545

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This paper discusses the stages of health system resilience (HSR) and the factors underlying differences in HSR during the covid-19 pandemic, especially the vaccination challenge. We studied the relationship between vaccination strategies and macro-context backgrounds in 21 Latin American countries. Our objective was to capture the impact of those aspects in the SR and identify potential improvements for future crises and for vaccination programs in general. METHODS: The study uses mixed-methods research to provide insights into how the countries' backgrounds and vaccination strategies impact the HSR. Particularly, we used explanatory sequential mixed methods, which entails a quantitative-qualitative two-phase sequence. The quantitative phase was conducted using cluster and variance analysis, in which the HSR was measured using as a proxy the covid-19 vaccination outcomes in three cut-offs of reaching 25%, 50%, and 75% of population coverage. This approach allows us to discriminate covid-19 vaccination progress by stages and contrast it to the qualitative stage, in which we performed a country-case analysis of the background conditions and the changes in vaccination strategies that occurred during the corresponding dates. RESULTS: The paper provides a rich comparative case analysis of countries, classifying them by early, prompt, and delayed performers. The results show that differences in vaccination performance are due to flexibility in adapting strategies, cooperation, and the ability to design multilevel solutions that consider the needs of various actors in the health ecosystem. These differences vary depending on the vaccination stage, which suggests the importance of acknowledging learning, diffusion, and feedback processes at the regional level. CONCLUSIONS: We identified the importance of societal well-being as an ideal country antecedent for high and sustained levels of performance in covid-19 vaccination. Whereas in other countries where the set-up and beginning phases were rough, the value of the operational decisions and the learning on the move regarding their own and their peers' trajectories were crucial and were reflected in performance improvement. A contribution of this study is that the above-mentioned analysis was done using vaccination coverage cut-off points that allow a performance view that takes into consideration the stages of the vaccination progress and the learning process that goes with it. As well as framing this into the HSR shock cycles that allow to differentiate the stages of resilience on which countries must act.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Resiliencia Psicológica , Humanos , América Latina , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Ecosistema , Pandemias , Vacunación
11.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 104: adv18389, 2024 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38348725

RESUMEN

Herpes zoster (HZ) results from reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus. Recent observations have suggested that HZ is associated with vaccination against COVID-19. To investigate the association between the vaccine and HZ severity, a single-centre, cross-sectional study of all patients diagnosed with HZ and 2 control diagnoses (cellulitis and bone fractures), between 2017 and 2021, was performed. Hospital visits and hospitalization rates were compared. All medical records of patients diagnosed with HZ in the first year after the COVID-19 vaccination campaign began were reviewed, in order to generate a retrospective cohort comparing vaccinated and unvaccinated patients with HZ. All participants had received the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 (BNT162b2) vaccine. During the study period, 2,413 patients were diagnosed with HZ, and when normalized to control diagnoses the number of cases remained stable. The retrospective cohort included 365 patients. A multivariate analysis controlling for sex, age, autoimmune diseases, malignancies, and immunosuppressive therapy showed higher admission rates in vaccinated compared with unvaccinated individuals (odds ratio (OR) 2.75, 95% CI 1.27-5.96, p = 0.01). However, matching techniques and stratification by age, used to better control for confounders, invalidated these findings. No differences were observed in other variables indicative of disease severity (hospital stay length and complications). In conclusion, COVID-19 vaccination was not found to be associated with an increased risk of HZ-related admission and complications.


Asunto(s)
Vacuna BNT162 , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Varicela , Herpes Zóster , Humanos , Vacuna BNT162/efectos adversos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/efectos adversos , Estudios Transversales , Herpes Zóster/epidemiología , Herpes Zóster/prevención & control , Herpesvirus Humano 3 , Estudios Retrospectivos , Vacunación
13.
J Med Virol ; 96(2): e29438, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353517

RESUMEN

This study evaluated the possible effects of blood types on coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine immunogenicity and antibody (Ab) persistency. Five different vaccinated groups against COVID-19 were investigated at Pasteur Institute of Iran from April 2021 to December 2022. Anti-Spike IgG and neutralizing Ab rise were tracked on Day 21 as well as the humoral immune persistency assessment 180 after booster shots. Late adverse events up to 6 months after the booster dose were collected. The results showed that blood type A, led to a significantly higher anti-Spike Ab rise in AstraZeneca primed recipients in comparison with Sinopharm primed ones in heterologous regimens (p: 0.019). Furthermore, blood type O was a great co-effector in homologous AstraZeneca recipients regarding neutralizing Ab rise (0.013). In addition, blood type O led to a better anti-Spike Ab persistency in the Sinopharm homologous group whereas type A had the best effect on neutralizing Ab durability in the same vaccine group. What is more, Rh-positive individuals in AstraZeneca + PastoCovac Plus group had a higher rate of anti-Spike Ab rise (p = 0.001). Neutralizing Ab rise was also induced in AstraZeneca homologous and heterologous regimens of Rh-positive individuals significantly higher than Sinopharm primed cases. The present study showed the potential impact of blood types A/O and Rh-positive on a better humoral immune responses and Ab persistency. It is proposed that blood type A and Rh-positive could increase the Ab rise in AstraZeneca vaccinated individuals. Moreover, blood type O might be a better co-effector of anti-Spike Ab persistency in Sinopharm recipients.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Inmunidad Humoral , Humanos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevención & control , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Vacunación , Anticuerpos Antivirales
14.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 295, 2024 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340168

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 infection is a worldwide disease that causes numerous immune-inflammatory disorders, tissue damage, and lung dysfunction. COVID-19 vaccines, including those from Pfizer, AstraZeneca, and Sinopharm, are available globally as effective interventions for combating the disease. The severity of COVID-19 can be most effectively reduced by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) because they possess anti-inflammatory activity and can reverse lung dysfunction. MSCs can be harvested from various sources, such as adipose tissue, bone marrow, peripheral blood, inner organs, and neonatal tissues. The regulation of inflammatory cytokines is crucial in inhibiting inflammatory diseases and promoting the presence of anti-inflammatory cytokines for infectious diseases. MSCs have been employed as therapeutic agents for tissue damage, diabetes, autoimmune diseases, and COVID-19 patients. Our research aimed to determine whether live or dead MSCs are more suitable for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Our findings concluded that dead MSCs, when directly administered to the patient, offer advantages over viable MSCs due to their extended presence and higher levels of immune regulation, such as T-reg, B-reg, and IL-10, compared to live MSCs. Additionally, dead and apoptotic MSCs are likely to be more readily captured by monocytes and macrophages, prolonging their presence compared to live MSCs.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Trasplante de Células Madre Mesenquimatosas , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas , Recién Nacido , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Citocinas , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico
15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 153(2): 503-512, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38344971

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The immunogenicity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mRNA vaccines is variable in individuals with different inborn errors of immunity or acquired immune deficiencies and is yet unknown in people with idiopathic CD4 lymphopenia (ICL). OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the immunogenicity of mRNA vaccines in patients with ICL with a broad range of CD4 T-cell counts. METHODS: Samples were collected from 25 patients with ICL and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (HVs) after their second or third SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine dose. Anti-spike and anti-receptor binding domain antibodies were measured. T-cell receptor sequencing and stimulation assays were performed to quantify SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses. RESULTS: The median age of ICL participants was 51 years, and their median CD4 count was 150 cells/µL; 11 participants had CD4 counts ≤100 cells/µL. Anti-spike IgG antibody levels were greater in HVs than in patients with ICL after 2 and 3 doses of mRNA vaccine. There was no detectable significant difference, however, in anti-S IgG between HVs and participants with ICL and CD4 counts >100 cells/µL. The depth of spike-specific T-cell responses by T-cell receptor sequencing was lower in individuals with ICL. Activation-induced markers and cytokine production of spike-specific CD4 T cells in participants with ICL did not differ significantly compared with HVs after 2 or 3 vaccine doses. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ICL and CD4 counts >100 cells/µL can mount vigorous humoral and cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination; however, patients with more severe CD4 lymphopenia have blunted vaccine-induced immunity and may require additional vaccine doses and other risk mitigation strategies.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Linfopenia , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Vacunas de ARNm , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunación , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfocitos T , Inmunidad , ARN Mensajero , Anticuerpos Antivirales
16.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1337299, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347925

RESUMEN

Background: To address the health needs of refugees, health services must be culturally competent and facilitate this population's access to health care, especially in a context prone to the amplification of social inequities, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. However, few quantitative studies exist in the European Union, and to the extent of our knowledge, there are no published quantitative studies exploring refugees' access to health care during the pandemic in Portugal. The objective of this study is to describe the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of refugees living in Lisbon and to explore their healthcare access patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive, and quantitative study from May to November 2022. Using Levesque' s theory on health care access, we designed and applied a 38-item questionnaire through face-to-face interviews with refugees living in Lisbon for at least 12 months, and used descriptive statistics to characterize sociodemographic and healthcare access profiles during the pandemic. Results: The mean age of the 36 recruited refugees was 35 years (SD = 10.24), the majority were male (56%), married (72%), had at least a secondary education (69%), were unemployed (77.8%), and had a median length of stay in Portugal of 17 months (IQR = 45). All were registered in a primary care center, and 94% used healthcare services during the pandemic. The majority never tested positive for the coronavirus (58%) and one out of the positive was admitted to hospital due to severe COVID-19. A total of 97% received COVID-19 vaccination, of which 69% had an incomplete schedule. A quarter of the participants did not have access to information about COVID-19 in a language they understood, and although 97% needed health care during the pandemic, more than half (63%) did not seek it because of structural and cultural barriers. Half of the respondents had difficulty getting medical advice by phone or email, and 39.4% could not afford a medical examination or treatment. Only 18.2% sought counseling services. A total of 58.8% of the participants felt like healthcare professionals did not always show respect towards their culture, and 64.7% reported that healthcare professionals did not always discuss treatment options with them. Conclusion: This study's findings highlight the need to endow inclusive communication, cultural competency, and patient involvement in health care, alongside improving the socioeconomic condition of refugees. Identified population characteristics and barriers to health care access by refugees in this study may inform future research on the health care needs of refugees in Portugal and ultimately assist in the devising of strategies to reduce inequalities in health care access.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Refugiados , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Portugal/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud
17.
Clin Ter ; 175(1): 68-72, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358479

RESUMEN

Abstract: We aimed to investigate some of the medical ethics issues that characterize the COVID-19 vaccination phase in pregnancy and breast-feeding. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, focusing mainly on the countries of East Asia and Oceania. Vaccination during pregnancy and breastfeeding appears to help protect babies from COVID-19 by enabling antibodies to pass from mother to baby. However, individual countries of the same continent may adopt conflicting policy positions. Not only that, indications on the type of vaccine sometimes vary, depending on whether a woman is pregnant or breastfeeding. In this review we have taken into considerationp the policy positions on pregnancy and lactation by country and type of Covid-19 vaccine in East Asia and Oceania. Ten out of the 18 countries considered (representing more than two thirds of the population of East Asia and Oceania) provide different vaccine indications for pregnant and breastfeeding women. Can this diversity of recommendations be seen as a form of optimal protection for women in these categories, or does it suggest that some countries have taken a defensive position to avoid compensation claims in the event of complications? Is it ethically correct to leave questions concerning informed consent open? Misin-formation during a health crisis leaves people without protection and with increased vaccine hesitancy, especially for vulnerable populations in hard-to-reach areas of East Asia and Oceania.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Lactante , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/uso terapéutico , Lactancia , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunación , Asia Oriental , Ética Médica , Oceanía
18.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0292532, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335165

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Vaccine uptake is influenced by a variety of factors. Behavioral Insights (BI) can be used to address vaccine hesitancy to understand the factors that influence the decision to take or refuse a vaccine. METHODOLOGY: This two-part study consisted of a survey designed to identify the influence of various drivers of people's COVID-19 vaccination status and their intention to take the vaccine in Ghana, as well as an experiment to test which of several behaviorally informed message frames had the greatest effect on vaccine acceptance. Data was collected from a total of 1494 participants; 1089 respondents (73%) reported already being vaccinated and 405 respondents (27%) reported not being vaccinated yet. The mobile phone-based surveys were conducted between December 2021 and January 2022 using Random Digit Dialing (RDD) to recruit study participants. Data analysis included regression models, relative weights analyses, and ANOVAs. RESULTS: The findings indicated that vaccine uptake in Ghana is influenced more by social factors (what others think) than by practical factors such as ease of vaccination. Respondents' perceptions of their family's and religious leaders' attitudes towards the vaccine were among the most influential drivers. Unexpectedly, healthcare providers' positive attitudes about the COVID-19 vaccine had a significant negative relationship with respondents' vaccination behavior. Vaccine intention was positively predicted by risk perception, ease of vaccination, and the degree to which respondents considered the vaccine effective. Perceptions of religious leaders' attitudes also significantly and positively predicted respondents' intention to get vaccinated. Although perceptions of religious leaders' views about the vaccine are an important driver of vaccine acceptance, results asking respondents to rank-order who influences them suggest that people may not be consciously aware-or do not want to admit-the degree to which they are affected by what religious leaders think. Message frames that included fear, altruism, social norms were all followed by positive responses toward the vaccine, as were messages with three distinct messengers: Ghana Health Services, a doctor, and religious leaders. CONCLUSIONS: What drives COVID-19 vaccine intentions does not necessarily drive behaviors. The results of this study can be used to develop appropriate COVID-19 vaccine uptake strategies targeting the most important drivers of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance, using effective message frames.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Humanos , Intención , Ghana , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunación
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(6): e37132, 2024 Feb 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335378

RESUMEN

AstraZeneca (AZ) vaccine is one of the most common vaccines against COVID-19 used globally. However, adverse reactions post-vaccination have been reported, including severe symptoms and cases of sudden death within several hours. Therefore, this study aimed to establish a database of spectral characteristics of blood pressure waveforms (BPWs) for the AZ vaccine and analyze reactions after vaccine administration using objective physiological signal and symptom analyses for identifying potential differences between heavy and slight groups defined in the study. In total, 24 participants were enrolled in the case-control study. BPW measurements were acquired pre- and post-vaccination. A questionnaire survey on side effects was conducted 5 days after vaccination. The related spectral characteristics of heavy and slight groups were acquired after Fourier transform analysis. Four types of harmonic indexes from BPW signals, including amplitude proportion (Cn), coefficient of variation of Cn (CVn), phase angle (Pn), and standard deviation of Pn (Pn_SD), were derived. The characteristics of harmonic indexes of arterial BPW for the AZ vaccine were in C6 (P = .011), CV2 (P = .027), P5 (P = .009), and P2_SD (P = .027) on the radial pulse. C5 (P = .037), C8 (P = .007), C9 (P = .037), CV5 (P = .015), CV8 (P = .005), and CV9 (P = .028) were significantly different at posttest between heavy and slight groups. In both pretest or posttest, C8 was almost significantly different between slight and heavy groups. More parameters changed significantly post-vaccination, with more severe side effects. Most average values of posttest/pretest of CVn and Pn_SD in the slight group exceeded 100%. All average values of posttest/pretest of CVn and Pn_SD in the heavy group were smaller than 100%. This approach may enable prediction of the risk of reactions post-vaccination to determine suitability of the AZ vaccine and evaluation of side effect severity in vaccinated individuals using pulse analysis to ensure relevant precautions are taken.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Humanos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/efectos adversos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , COVID-19/prevención & control , Frecuencia Cardíaca , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Análisis Espectral
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3385, 2024 02 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336858

RESUMEN

Many countries worldwide had difficulties reaching a sufficiently high vaccination uptake during the COVID-19 pandemic. Given this context, we collected data from a panel of 30,000 individuals, which were representative of the population of Romania (a country in Eastern Europe with a low 42.6% vaccination rate) to determine whether people are more likely to be connected to peers displaying similar opinions about COVID-19 vaccination. We extracted 443 personal networks, amounting to 4430 alters. We estimated multilevel logistic regression models with random-ego-level intercepts to predict individual opinions about COVID-19 vaccination. Our evidence indicates positive opinions about the COVID-19 vaccination cluster. Namely, the likelihood of having a positive opinion about COVID-19 vaccination increases when peers have, on average, a more positive attitude than the rest of the nodes in the network (OR 1.31, p < 0.001). We also found that individuals with higher education and age are more likely to hold a positive opinion about COVID-19 vaccination. With the given empirical data, our study cannot reveal whether this assortative mixing of opinions is due to social influence or social selection. However, it may nevertheless have implications for public health interventions, especially in countries that strive to reach higher uptake rates. Understanding opinions about vaccination can act as an early warning system for potential outbreaks, inform predictions about vaccination uptake, or help supply chain management for vaccine distribution.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunación , Transporte Biológico
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