Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 23.172
Filtrar
2.
Brasília; s.n; 8 jun. 2020.
No convencional en Portugués | LILACS, BRISA/RedTESA, PIE | ID: biblio-1100298

RESUMEN

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 13 artigos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Acetilcisteína/uso terapéutico , Evaluación de la Tecnología Biomédica , gammaglobulinas/uso terapéutico , Inmunoglobulinas/uso terapéutico , Metilprednisolona/uso terapéutico , Vacuna BCG , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Famotidina/uso terapéutico , Autohemoterapia , Cloroquina/uso terapéutico , Colchicina/uso terapéutico , Interferón-alfa/uso terapéutico , Ritonavir/uso terapéutico , Vacunas Neumococicas , Lopinavir/uso terapéutico , Estudio Observacional , Óxido Nítrico/uso terapéutico
4.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(5): 747-752, 2020 May 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447919

RESUMEN

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in children aged 6-72 months. Methods: The cohort study was conducted based on community child vaccination clinics in Yiwu and Yongkang counties of Zhejiang province. From October 2017 to December 2017, a total of 1 752 children aged 6-72 months were enrolled from 10 child vaccination clinics. The questionnaire survey was conducted after the written consents were obtained from the parents or legal guardians of the children. Then, a follow up was conducted for enrolle children until 30 April 2018, the influenza vaccination status and the number of influenza-like illness (ILI) cases, hospital visit due to ILI, self-medication due to ILI were observed and recorded every month. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated by using the generalized linear model (GLM) where dependent variables were the number of ILI cases, hospital visit and self-medication respectively. Results: Of the 1 752 children, 925 (52.80%) were boys and the median age was 30.00 months. The cumulative observation was 308 166 person days at the end of 2017-2018 season, with 5.27 ILI cases per 1 000 person days, 3.41 hospital visit due to ILI per 1 000 person days, 1.45 self-medication due to ILI per 1 000 person days. Of the 1 752 children, 643 received the influenza vaccination in 2017-2018 season. Compared with unvaccinated children, the VE was 23.5% against ILI case number (95%CI: 15.1%-31.1%), 19.3% against hospital visit due to ILI (95%CI: 8.2%-29.1%) and 25.8% against self-medication due to ILI (95%CI: 9.3%- 39.3%). Modeling splitting 643 children with 2017-2018 vaccination into those before and after vaccination, the influenza VE was 31.9% against ILI case number (95%CI: 12.7%-46.9%), 32.6% against hospital visit due to ILI (95%CI: 8.6%-50.3%) and 44.3% against self-medication due to ILI (95%CI: 11.9%-64.8%) in children aged 36-72 months. However, the children aged 6-35 months showed no significant VEs. For the VE analysis in children with different vaccination status, the VEs were significant if they received vaccination in both 2016-2017 season and 2017-2018 season or only in 2017-2018 seasons. The VE was not demonstrated among the children who were immunized only in 2016-2017 season. Conclusion: Influenza vaccination is moderate effective in preventing the incidence of ILI and hospital visit and self-medication in children in influenza season, the protection effect in children aged 36-72 months is better than that in children aged 6-35 months.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la Influenza/uso terapéutico , Gripe Humana , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Humanos , Lactante , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Masculino , Estaciones del Año , Vacunación
5.
Orv Hetil ; 161(23): 962-970, 2020 06.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453699

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In recent years, a significant mortality peak has been observed several times during the first months in Hungary. So far, no mortality study clarified the connection between the mortality peaks and influenza with results comparable with findings from other countries. AIM: Calculation of the influenza-related number of death and excess mortality rates in Hungary for the period between 2009/10 and 2016/17, using the statistical package FluMONO. METHOD: We applied the FluMOMO methods, a multivariable time series model with all-cause mortality as outcome, and with influenza-activity and extreme temperature as explanatory variables adjusting for time trend and seasonality. As an indicator of weekly influenza-activity (IA), we used the percentage of consultations for influenza-like illness (ILI) in general practices. RESULTS: According to our estimation, 1091, 2969, 4036, 2336, 2608, 6470, 51 and 5162 deaths were attributable to influenza epidemics in the 2009/10, 2010/11, 2011/12, 2012/13, 2013/14, 2014/15, 2015/16 and 2016/17 seasons, respectively. The average annual mortality excess rate per 100,000 inhabitants ranged between 0.5 and 52.7. These results are similar to those from other countries regarding their order of magnitude. The Hungarian extra mortality, however, tends to be higher than that in countries with higher vaccination rates. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza-related mortality tends to be lower in countries with higher vaccination rates. Increase in vaccination rates seems to be necessary in Hungary. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(23): 962-970.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Gripe Humana/mortalidad , Humanos , Hungría/epidemiología , Vacunas contra la Influenza/administración & dosificación , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Mortalidad , Vigilancia de la Población , Estaciones del Año , Temperatura , Vacunación
6.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399192

RESUMEN

Seasonal influenza remains a major public health problem, responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths every year, mostly of elderly people. Despite the wide availability of vaccines, there are multiple problems decreasing the effectiveness of vaccination programs. These include viral variability and hence the requirement to match strains by estimating which will become prevalent each season, problems associated with vaccine and adjuvant production, and the route of administration as well as the perceived lower vaccine efficiency in older adults. Clinical protection is still suboptimal for all of these reasons, and vaccine uptake remains too low in most countries. Efforts to improve the effectiveness of influenza vaccines include developing universal vaccines independent of the circulating strains in any particular season and stimulating cellular as well as humoral responses, especially in the elderly. This commentary assesses progress over the last 3 years towards achieving these aims. Since the beginning of 2020, an unprecedented international academic and industrial effort to develop effective vaccines against the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has diverted attention away from influenza, but many of the lessons learned for the one will synergize with the other to mutual advantage. And, unlike the SARS-1 epidemic and, we hope, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, influenza will not be eliminated and thus efforts to improve influenza vaccines will remain of crucial importance.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la Influenza/inmunología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral
7.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(5): 695-698, 2020 05 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407707

RESUMEN

As scientists consider SARS-CoV-2 vaccine design, we discuss problems that may be encountered and how to tackle them by what we term "rational vaccine design." We further discuss approaches to pan-coronavirus vaccines. We draw on experiences from recent research on several viruses including HIV and influenza, as well as coronaviruses.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Antígenos Virales/inmunología , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Vacunas contra el SIDA/inmunología , Vacunas contra el SIDA/normas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Humanos , Vacunas contra la Influenza/inmunología , Vacunas contra la Influenza/normas , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Proyectos de Investigación/tendencias
9.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 05 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397182

RESUMEN

In the midst of the ongoing COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic, influenza virus remains a major threat to public health due to its potential to cause epidemics and pandemics with significant human mortality. Cases of H7N9 human infections emerged in eastern China in 2013 and immediately raised pandemic concerns as historically, pandemics were caused by the introduction of new subtypes into immunologically naïve human populations. Highly pathogenic H7N9 cases with severe disease were reported recently, indicating the continuing public health threat and the need for a prophylactic vaccine. Here we review the development of recombinant influenza virus-like particles (VLPs) as vaccines against H7N9 virus. Several approaches to vaccine development are reviewed including the expression of VLPs in mammalian, plant and insect cell expression systems. Although considerable progress has been achieved, including demonstration of safety and immunogenicity of H7N9 VLPs in the human clinical trials, the remaining challenges need to be addressed. These challenges include improvements to the manufacturing processes, as well as enhancements to immunogenicity in order to elicit protective immunity to multiple variants and subtypes of influenza virus.


Asunto(s)
Subtipo H7N9 del Virus de la Influenza A/inmunología , Vacunas contra la Influenza/inmunología , Vacunas de Partículas Similares a Virus/genética , Animales , Antígenos Virales/inmunología , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Epítopos , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidad Clase II , Humanos
10.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2020-05-28.
en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52224

RESUMEN

Este manual serve como referência e catálogo de ferramentas disponíveis para auxiliar os governos de diferentes países a decidirem sobre o planejamento, implementação e monitoramento da vacinação de profissionais da saúde contra Influenza, para alcançar a melhor cobertura vacinal possível. Não se trata de um documento prescritivo, mas sim uma explicação dos princípios gerais e principais considerações que dão suporte à formulação de políticas; planejamento e gestão de vacinação; e monitoramento e avaliação da vacinação de profissionais da saúde contra Influenza. O manual também define medidas que assegurem a integração da vacinação de profissionais da saúde contra Influenza e as atuais políticas nacionais da saúde ocupacional, bem como os sistemas de segurança ocupacional e gestão de saúde das instituições de saúde. Discorre também sobre a oportunidade de a vacinação de profissionais da saúde contra Influenza promover uma abordagem integrada para monitoramento e otimização da adesão a todas as intervenções incluídas nas políticas nacionais da saúde ocupacional. Além disso, o manual fala sobre como a vacinação de profissionais da saúde está relacionada e contribui com a preparação para a Influenza pandêmica. A vacinação de profissionais da saúde contra Influenza sazonal é diferente em relação a outras doenças preveníveis por vacinas, já que a vacinação, no caso da primeira, é obrigatoriamente anual. No entanto, os elementos deste manual podem ser relevantes para a vacinação em geral de profissionais da saúde, principalmente as seções sobre planejamento e gestão dpós-vacinação, assim como monitoramento e avaliação.


Asunto(s)
Vacunación , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana , Personal de Salud , Inmunización
11.
; Fiocruz.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-47172

RESUMEN

Pesquisadores da Fiocruz Minas estão integrando uma rede do Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Vacinas (INCTV) para o desenvolvimento de uma vacina contra o novo coronavírus (Sars-CoV-2). O estudo terá como base uma técnica elaborada pelo Grupo de Imunologia de Doenças Virais da Fiocruz Minas, que utiliza o vírus da influenza para gerar resposta imunológica contra o novo coronavírus.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/prevención & control , Vacunas/análisis , Betacoronavirus , Vacunas contra la Influenza
12.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(3): 349-353, 2020 Mar 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294833

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand the cognition on and status quo of influenza vaccination among all age groups in the survey areas from 6 provinces so as to explore the main factors related to influenza vaccination. Methods: A cross-sectional survey method was conducted to study the knowledge on influenza prevention and control, as well as on the status of influenza vaccination in Beijing, Inner Mongolia, Shanghai, Guangdong, Yunnan, and Gansu provinces through 12320 health hotline telephone with method of random number table in Mar-May 2018. The survey sample size was 9 438 respondents. Results: The survey response rate was 46.4%(10 045/21 658). A total of 10 045 respondents were surveyed. The awareness on flu-related knowledge "influenza is different from the common cold" was 75.3% (7 564/10 045), rate on "influenza virus will cause serious consequences" was 82.0% (8 241/10 045). The rate of health behavior such as frequent hand, washing hand, wearing masks and isolating themselves were 80.41% (7 936/9 873), 75.8% (7 506/9 899) and 73.6%(7 228/9 822) respectively when the influenza-like symptoms already started. The influenza vaccination rate in the past year was only 5.7% (570/10 037). Multivariate logistic analysis of influenza vaccination rate in the past year showed that respondents who were from Gansu province or Beijing, respondents occupations were as medical staff or full-time students, respondents who were living with more than 2 people at the same house, respondents who had had influenza symptoms without wearing masks, the influenza vaccination rates were higher in the past year. Conclusions: Rates regarding the awareness of influenza-related knowledge, health behavior when the influenza-related symptoms already started and having received the influenza vaccine vaccination in the past year should be further improved in the six provinces. Health education on influenza-related knowledge and vaccine vaccination should be strengthened, strategies including free vaccination are bound to be explored.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la Influenza/administración & dosificación , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Vacunación/psicología , China , Cognición , Estudios Transversales , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
Salud Publica Mex ; 62(2): 215-224, 2020.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237565

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the validity of the official vaccination figures according to the available information and to identify opportunities for improvement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated vaccination coverage and dropout rates (for multi-dose vaccines) for one-year-old children, based on public information from the dynamic cubes of the Ministry of Health, for the years 2015 to 2017. R. RESULTS: We observed variations in the vaccination monthly reports, which indicate low rates of vaccination, as well as high dropout rates when comparing first and third doses applied. For children 1 year of age, the national complete coverage was estimated at 48.9. CONCLUSIONS: There is no reliable information to estimate the actual vaccination coverage. Government documents report a constant overestimation of vaccination coverage that creates a "false sense of security". This has become a barrier for the critical analysis of the Universal Vaccination Program.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la Influenza/provisión & distribución , Cobertura de Vacunación , Vacunación , Niño , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Lactante , México
16.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(12): e76, 2020 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233157

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at risk of being exposed to or transmitting infections in hospitals, and vaccination against vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) is a well-known preventive strategy. Vaccination against influenza, hepatitis B virus, measles-mumps-rubella, varicella, and pertussis is recommended for HCP. However, there is no information on the current status of hospitals' vaccination policies for HCP in Korea. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide survey on hospital vaccination policies and barriers to implementing recommended vaccination programs in 2018. The online survey questionnaire was distributed to 652 hospitals, and 200 of them responded. RESULTS: Of the 200 surveyed hospitals, 151 (75.5%) conducted a pre-employment screening program for at least one VPD, and 196 (98%) had vaccination programs that included at least one vaccine. Influenza vaccine was most commonly included in their programs (97.5%, n = 195), followed by hepatitis B vaccines (69%, n = 138). However, < 25% of the hospitals included other vaccines in their policies (measles-mumps-rubella, 24.5%; varicella, 18.5%; pertussis, 11%). Only 13 hospitals (6.5%) included the five recommended vaccines for HCP in their policies. Influenza vaccination coverage had a mean of 89.9% and was significantly higher in hospitals fully funding the vaccination cost (91.8% vs. 80.4%, P < 0.001). Among hospitals funding influenza vaccines, the coverage was lower in hospitals with ≥ 700 beds (-6.5%, P = 0.003). Hospitals' financial burden was the most important barrier to implementing vaccination polices as recommended (78.6%, 121/154), followed by lack of awareness (21%) or campaign (21%) and lack of leadership (17%). CONCLUSION: Despite the recommendations on vaccination for HCP, the vaccination policies for HCP differ in hospitals and appear to be insufficient to protect HCP and prevent nosocomial transmission. Strong leadership of each hospital to protect HCP and financial support from the government are required to implement appropriate vaccination policies in hospitals.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Política Organizacional , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Prevenibles por Vacunación , Vacunas , Vacuna contra la Varicela , Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Humanos , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Vacuna contra el Sarampión-Parotiditis-Rubéola , Vacuna contra la Tos Ferina , República de Corea , Enfermedades Prevenibles por Vacunación/prevención & control , Vacunas/uso terapéutico
17.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(4): 425-429, 2020 Apr 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268652

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the effect of influenza vaccination intervention among key populations of chronic disease management in communities of Shanghai. Methods: A total of 50 787 patients aged ≥60 with diabetes, hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Huangpu, Yangpu, Baoshan and Qingpu districts of Shanghai from January 2013 to August 2017 were selected as the intervention group, and 52 268 people from key populations with chronic disease management in Xuhui, Hongkou, Jiading and Fengxian districts were selected as the control group according to the geographical location and economic level. The intervention group accepted follow-up and health education of influenza vaccination via chronic disease outpatient based on information system. The implementation time of the intervention was from September 2017 to January 2018. The basic information and diagnosis information of two groups, and intervention completion of the intervention group were obtained from Shanghai chronic disease management information system and hospital record system. Results: The age of the intervention group and the control group were (76.76±8.33) and (77.97±8.51) years old, respectively (P<0.001); and there were statistical differences in gender, occupational and influenza vaccination rate between the two groups (P<0.001). A total of 28 644 (56.40%) subjects of the intervention group received intervention. There was no significant difference in age composition between finished and unfinished intervention groups (P=0.095), and there was significant difference in gender composition (P=0.044). Before the intervention, the vaccination rate of the intervention group was 0.75% (382 subjects) which was lower than that of the control group with 1.02% (533 subjects) (χ(2)=20.96, P<0.001). After the intervention, the vaccination rate of the intervention group was 1.73% (496 subjects) which was higher than that of the control group with 1.42% (744 subjects) (χ(2)=11.65, P=0.001). Subjects that were male, younger, uptake of influenza vaccine before the intervention, received intervention and professional and technical personnel were more likely to take influenza vaccine, with OR (95%CI) 1.29 (1.13-1.47), 0.97 (0.96-0.98), 260.30 (215.21-314.83), 1.85 (1.61-2.11) and 1.48 (1.10-1.99), respectively. Conclusion: Influenza vaccination intervetion raised the vaccination rate of key population of chronic disease management. Male, younger, those who had been vaccinated before the intervention, who received the intervention, and professional and technical personnel were more likely to be vaccinated.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la Influenza/administración & dosificación , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , China , Enfermedad Crónica , Diabetes Mellitus , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión , Masculino , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica
18.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(4): 444-450, 2020 Apr 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268655

RESUMEN

Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccines varies greatly during the different flu seasons. Although the WHO assesses and updates influenza vaccine strains every year, the effectiveness of vaccine is sometimes not good. This review explores the various factors that influencing influenza vaccine effects in order to improve the effectiveness of influenza vaccines and provide a scientific basis for influenza vaccination. The results reveal that the degree of matching between epidemic strains and vaccine strains, pre-exposure (natural infection, vaccination), age, and immune status could all affect the vaccine effectiveness.


Asunto(s)
Inmunogenicidad Vacunal , Vacunas contra la Influenza/administración & dosificación , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Humanos , Vacunación
19.
EMBO Mol Med ; 12(5): e12059, 2020 05 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320128

RESUMEN

Undoubtedly, vaccination is one of the health interventions showing major impact on humankind. Vaccines remain one of the most effective and safest ways to tackle infections. The current coronavirus pandemic is not an exception, and we all hope that ongoing international efforts will succeed in developing a vaccine soon. In this scenario, the present work published in this edition of EMBO Molecular Medicine by Demminger and colleagues (Demminger et al, 2020) is timeliness to exemplify the steps needed to develop effective vaccines.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana , Dependovirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Receptores de IgG
20.
J Med Life ; 13(1): 37-44, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341699

RESUMEN

This study empirically illustrates the mechanism by which epidemiological effect measures and statistical evidence can be misleading in the presence of Simpson's paradox and identify possible alternative methods of analysis to manage the paradox. Three scenarios of observational study designs, including cross-sectional, cohort, and case-control approaches, are simulated. In each scenario, data are generated, and various methods of epidemiological and statistical analyses are undertaken to obtain empirical results that illustrate Simpson's paradox and mislead conclusions. Rational methods of analysis are also performed to illustrate how to avoid pitfalls and obtain valid results. In the presence of Simpson's paradox, results from analyses in overall data contradict the findings from all subgroups of the same data. This paradox occurs when distributions of confounding characteristics are unequal in the groups being compared. Data analysis methods which do not take confounding factor into account, including epidemiological 2×2 table analysis, independent samples t-test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, chi-square test, and univariable regression analysis, cannot manage the problem of Simpson's paradox and mislead research conclusions. Mantel-Haenszel procedure and multivariable regression methods are examples of rational analysis methods leading to valid results. Therefore, Simpson's paradox arises as a consequence of extreme unequal distributions of a specific inherent characteristic in groups being compared. Analytical methods which take control of confounding effect must be applied to manage the paradox and obtain valid research evidence regarding the causal association.


Asunto(s)
Estudios Epidemiológicos , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , Proyectos de Investigación , Estadística como Asunto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Café , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Odontólogos , Femenino , Humanos , Vacunas contra la Influenza/inmunología , Masculino , Análisis Multivariante , Análisis de Regresión
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA