Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.707
Filtrar
2.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246951, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596271

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The global abrupt progression of the COVID-19 pandemic may disrupt critical life-saving services such as routine immunization (RI), thus increasing the susceptibility of countries to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Being endemic to several infectious diseases, Lebanon might be at increased risk of outbreaks as the utilization of RI services might have deteriorated due to the pandemic and the country's political unrest following the October 2019 uprising. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in the utilization of RI services in both the public and private sectors following the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A self-administered cross-sectional survey was completed electronically, in April 2020, by 345 private pediatricians who are registered in professional associations of physicians in Lebanon and provide immunization services at their clinics. Means of the reported percentages of decrease in the utilization of vaccination services by pediatricians were calculated. As for the public sector, an examination of the monthly differences in the number of administered vaccine doses in addition to their respective percentages of change was performed. Adjustment for the distribution of RI services between the sectors was performed to calculate the national decrease rate. RESULTS: The utilization of vaccination services at the national level decreased by 31%. In the private sector, immunization services provision diminished by 46.9% mainly between February and April 2020. The highest decrease rates were observed for oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and hepatitis A, followed by measles and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. The number of vaccine doses administered in the public sector decreased by 20%. The most prominent reductions were detected for the OPV and measles vaccines, and during October 2019 and March 2020. CONCLUSION: The substantial decrease in the utilization of RI as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic requires public health interventions to prevent future outbreaks of VPDs.


Asunto(s)
Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , /inmunología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunización/métodos , Inmunización/psicología , Programas de Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos , Esquemas de Inmunización , Lactante , Líbano/epidemiología , Masculino , Pandemias , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , /patogenicidad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Cobertura de Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunas/administración & dosificación
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(7): 245-249, 2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600384

RESUMEN

On March 13, 2020, the United States declared a national emergency concerning the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak (1). In response, many state and local governments issued shelter-in-place or stay-at-home orders, restricting nonessential activities outside residents' homes (2). CDC initially issued guidance recommending postponing routine adult vaccinations, which was later revised to recommend continuing to administer routine adult vaccines (3). In addition, factors such as disrupted operations of health care facilities and safety concerns regarding exposure to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, resulted in delay or avoidance of routine medical care (4), likely further affecting delivery of routine adult vaccinations. Medicare enrollment and claims data of Parts A (hospital insurance), B (medical insurance), and D (prescription drug insurance) were examined to assess the change in receipt of routine adult vaccines during the pandemic. Weekly receipt of four vaccines (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [PCV13], 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine [PPSV23], tetanus-diphtheria or tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine [Td/Tdap], and recombinant zoster vaccine [RZV]) by Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥65 years during January 5-July 18, 2020, was compared with that during January 6-July 20, 2019, for the total study sample and by race and ethnicity. Overall, weekly administration rates of the four examined vaccines declined by up to 89% after the national emergency declaration in mid-March (1) compared with those during the corresponding period in 2019. During the first week following the national emergency declaration, the weekly vaccination rates were 25%-62% lower than those during the corresponding week in 2019. After reaching their nadirs of 70%-89% below 2019 rates in the second to third week of April 2020, weekly vaccination rates gradually began to recover through mid-July, but by the last study week were still lower than were those during the corresponding period in 2019, with the exception of PPSV23. Vaccination declined sharply for all vaccines studied, overall and across all racial and ethnic groups. While the pandemic continues, vaccination providers should emphasize to patients the importance of continuing to receive routine vaccinations and provide reassurance by explaining the procedures in place to ensure patient safety (3).


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Medicare/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunas/administración & dosificación , Anciano , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(6): 189-192, 2021 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571172

RESUMEN

At its October 2020 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices* (ACIP) approved the 2021 Recommended Child and Adolescent Immunization Schedule for Ages 18 Years or Younger. After Emergency Use Authorization of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), ACIP issued an interim recommendation for use of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in persons aged ≥16 years at its December 12, 2020, meeting (1). In addition, ACIP approved an amendment to include COVID-19 vaccine recommendations in the child and adolescent immunization schedule. After Emergency Use Authorization of Moderna COVID-19 vaccine by FDA, ACIP issued an interim recommendation for use of Moderna COVID-19 vaccine in persons aged ≥18 years at its December 19, 2020, emergency meeting (2).


Asunto(s)
Inmunización/normas , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Vacunas/administración & dosificación , Adolescente , Comités Consultivos , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Esquemas de Inmunización , Lactante , Estados Unidos
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(6): 193-196, 2021 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571173

RESUMEN

At its October 2020 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)* approved the Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years or Older, United States, 2021. After the Emergency Use Authorization of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine by the Food and Drug Administration, ACIP issued an interim recommendation for use of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in persons aged ≥16 years at its December 12, 2020, emergency meeting (1). In addition, ACIP approved an amendment to include COVID-19 vaccine recommendations in the child and adolescent and adult immunization schedules. After Emergency Use Authorization of Moderna COVID-19 vaccine by the Food and Drug Administration, ACIP issued an interim recommendation for use of Moderna COVID-19 vaccine in persons aged ≥18 years at its December 19, 2020, emergency meeting (2).


Asunto(s)
Inmunización/normas , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Vacunas/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Comités Consultivos , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humanos , Esquemas de Inmunización , Estados Unidos
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2183: 499-511, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959263

RESUMEN

Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) enables visualizing the physicochemical structure of nanocarriers in solution. Here, we demonstrate the typical applications of Cryo-TEM in characterizing archaeosome-based vesicles as antigen carriers, including the morphology and size of vaccine carriers. Cryo-TEM tomography, incorporated with immunogold labeling for identifying and localizing the antigens, reveals the antigen distribution within archaeosomes in three dimensions (3D).


Asunto(s)
Microscopía por Crioelectrón , Portadores de Fármacos , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión , Vacunas/administración & dosificación , Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión/métodos , Programas Informáticos , Vacunas de Partículas Similares a Virus
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2183: 513-524, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959264

RESUMEN

An effective vaccine depends on the stimulation of the immune system to generate effective antigen-specific immune responses capable of neutralizing mediators of disease long after vaccination. However, the ability of the vaccine to enhance immune parameters such as cell activation, cell recruitment and antigen uptake shortly following administration contributes to the development of long-term responses directed toward the antigen. Here, we describe a flow cytometry-based method to identify changes in immune cell profile and assess cellular uptake and distribution of antigen following vaccination.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos/inmunología , Vacunas/administración & dosificación , Vacunas/inmunología , Animales , Citometría de Flujo , Inmunidad , Inmunización , Inyecciones Intramusculares , Ganglios Linfáticos/inmunología , Ganglios Linfáticos/metabolismo , Ratones , Vacunación/métodos , Vacunas/química
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2183: 423-435, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959257

RESUMEN

It is still a challenge to develop needle-free mucosal vaccines. Despite progress in the development of the influenza vaccine, it must be reformulated annually because of antigenic changes in circulating influenza viral strains. Due to seasonal drift and shift of circulating strains, the influenza vaccine does not always match the circulating strains, and included adjuvants are not sufficient to induce a protective effect with long-lived memory cells. The adjuvants play a major role in the immune responses to a vaccine. Interestingly, the Bacillus anthracis detoxified anthrax edema toxin, which composes of protective antigen PA and N-fragment of edema factor (EFn), has shown improved effects for humoral and cellular immune responses. Here we describe the design of a universal influenza vaccine construct that consists of three tandem M2e repeats of the influenza antigen plus HA2 and detoxified toxin EFn, which is associated with the PA component, as well as the techniques used to corroborate protection. We present two major parts of description to demonstrate the vaccine strategy, using detoxified anthrax toxin for intranasal delivery of influenza antigen: (1) vaccine candidate design, production, and purification; (2) influenza virus microneutralization assay and cellular responses and lethal challenge with influenza viruses and B. anthracis Sterne spores. In the methods detailed here, we used different versions of the M2e-HA2 proteins.


Asunto(s)
Toxinas Bacterianas , Proteínas Portadoras , Vacunas/administración & dosificación , Adyuvantes Inmunológicos , Animales , Anticuerpos Antibacterianos/inmunología , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Toxinas Bacterianas/química , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Proteínas Portadoras/química , Proteínas Portadoras/metabolismo , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Inmunización , Vacunas contra la Influenza/inmunología , Ratones , Pruebas de Neutralización , Linfocitos T/inmunología , Linfocitos T/metabolismo , Vacunación
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2183: 437-446, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959258

RESUMEN

Injections of drugs or vaccines have become an indispensable part of living systems. Introduction to injections begins from the vaccination regimen at the neonatal stage and continues throughout the life span of an individual. Conventionally, injections are administered using hypodermic needles and syringes. These usually inject the liquid in the muscle, thus making intramuscular injections the most common form of administration. Although hypodermic syringes have been a clinician's tool in global vaccination efforts, they also have a set of undesirable characteristics. Pathogen transmission in case of HIV and HBV is one of the deadliest disadvantages of the needle-based injection system. Generation of plastic wastes in clinics, needlestick injury, and most importantly, pain associated with needle-based injections are a few more reasons of concern. In light of these issues, developing needle-free injection systems has excited researchers across the globe since the 1950s. Significant advancement has been reported in this field and various needle-free injection systems have been developed and are in clinical practice. This article briefly describes the history of needle-free injection systems and provides a detailed account of a few well-known methods of needle-less injections available.


Asunto(s)
Vacunación/métodos , Vacunas/administración & dosificación , Administración Tópica , Animales , Ondas de Choque de Alta Energía , Humanos , Inyecciones Intramusculares , Inyecciones Subcutáneas , Ratones , Microinyecciones , Modelos Animales , Vacunas/inmunología
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2197: 51-85, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827132

RESUMEN

CpG Oligonucleotides (ODN) are immunomodulatory synthetic oligonucleotides specifically designed to stimulate Toll-like receptor 9. TLR9 is expressed on human plasmacytoid dendritic cells and B cells and triggers an innate immune response characterized by the production of Th1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines. This chapter reviews recent progress in understanding the mechanism of action of CpG ODN and provides an overview of human clinical trial results using CpG ODN to improve vaccines for the prevention/treatment of cancer, allergy, and infectious disease.


Asunto(s)
Adyuvantes Inmunológicos , Oligodesoxirribonucleótidos , Vacunas/inmunología , Alérgenos/inmunología , Animales , Biomarcadores , Estudios Clínicos como Asunto , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/inmunología , Humanos , Inmunidad , Transducción de Señal , Receptor Toll-Like 9/metabolismo , Vacunas/administración & dosificación , Vacunas de ADN/genética , Vacunas de ADN/inmunología
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2183: 1-8, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959236

RESUMEN

In this opening chapter, we outline the basics of vaccine delivery and subsequent immune reactivity. Vaccine delivery is an augmentation to immunization more generally in that a delivery reagent is harnessed to improve administration of the key ingredient (i.e., the antigen) needed to provoke an immune response. In this chapter, we discuss the evolution of vaccine design and how such efforts evolved into targeted administration/delivery of key antigens. We then provide overview descriptions of vaccine immune responses and methods for assessment. More generally, the chapter sets the tone for the remainder of this book, which will focus upon each step of the vaccine process with a special emphasis on how vaccine delivery contributes to overall health outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/inmunología , Inmunidad , Vacunación , Vacunas/administración & dosificación , Vacunas/inmunología , Adyuvantes Inmunológicos , Animales , Presentación de Antígeno , Células Presentadoras de Antígenos/inmunología , Células Presentadoras de Antígenos/metabolismo , Antígenos/inmunología , Humanos , Inmunidad Celular , Inmunidad Humoral , Inmunogenicidad Vacunal , Vacunación/métodos
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 12, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33343791

RESUMEN

Introduction: following the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic on 11 March 2020, countries started implementing strict control measures, health workers were re-deployed and health facilities re-purposed to assist COVID-19 control efforts. These measures, along with the public concerns of getting COVID-19, led to a decline in the utilization of regular health services including immunization. Methods: we reviewed the administrative routine immunization data from 15 African countries for the period from January 2018 to June 2020 to analyze the trends in the monthly number of children vaccinated with specific antigens, and compare the changes in the first three months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: thirteen of the 15 countries showed a decline in the monthly average number of vaccine doses provided, with 6 countries having more than 10% decline. Nine countries had a lower monthly mean of recipients of first dose measles vaccination in the second quarter of 2020 as compared to the first quarter. Guinea, Nigeria, Ghana, Angola, Gabon, and South Sudan experienced a drop in the monthly number of children vaccinated for DPT3 and/or MCV1 of greater than 2 standard deviations at some point in the second quarter of 2020 as compared to the mean for the months January-June of 2018 and 2019. Conclusion: countries with lower immunization coverage in the pre-COVID period experienced larger declines in the number of children vaccinated immediately after the COVID-19 pandemic was declared. Prolonged and significant reduction in the number of children vaccinated poses a serious risk for outbreaks such as measles. Countries should monitor coverage trends at national and subnational levels, and undertake catch-up vaccination activities to ensure that children who have missed scheduled vaccines receive them at the earliest possible time.


Asunto(s)
Cobertura de Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunas/administración & dosificación , África , Niño , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Humanos , Esquemas de Inmunización
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(42): 1505-1511, 2020 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090985

RESUMEN

Immunization has been described as a "global health and development success story," and worldwide is estimated to prevent 2-3 million deaths annually.* In the United States, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) currently recommends vaccination against 14 potentially serious illnesses by the time a child reaches age 24 months (1). CDC monitors coverage with ACIP-recommended vaccines through the National Immunization Survey-Child (NIS-Child); data from the survey were used to estimate vaccination coverage at the national, regional, state, territorial, and selected local area levels† among children born in 2016 and 2017. National coverage by age 24 months was ≥90% for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine, ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (VAR); national coverage was ≥90% for ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR), although MMR coverage was <90% in 14 states. Coverage with ≥2 doses of influenza vaccine was higher for children born during 2016-2017 (58.1%) than for those born during 2014-2015 (53.8%) but was the lowest among all vaccines studied. Only 1.2% of children had received no vaccinations by age 24 months. Vaccination coverage among children enrolled in Medicaid or with no health insurance was lower than that among children who were privately insured. The prevalence of being completely unvaccinated was highest among uninsured children (4.1%), lower among those enrolled in Medicaid (1.3%), and lowest among those with private insurance (0.8%). The largest disparities on the basis of health insurance status occurred for ≥2 doses of influenza vaccine and for completion of the rotavirus vaccination series. Considering the disruptions to health care provider operations caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, extra effort will be required to achieve and maintain high levels of coverage with routine childhood vaccinations. Providers, health care entities, and public health authorities can communicate with families about how children can be vaccinated safely during the pandemic, remind parents of vaccinations that are due for their children, and provide all recommended vaccinations to children during clinic visits. This will be especially important for 2020-21 seasonal influenza vaccination to mitigate the effect of two potentially serious respiratory viruses circulating in the community simultaneously.


Asunto(s)
Cobertura de Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunas/administración & dosificación , Preescolar , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud , Humanos , Esquemas de Inmunización , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Estados Unidos
19.
Trials ; 21(1): 853, 2020 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059771

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of two doses of the adsorbed vaccine COVID-19 (inactivated) produced by Sinovac in symptomatic individuals, with virological confirmation of COVID-19, two weeks after the completion of the two-dose vaccination regimen, aged 18 years or older who work as health professionals providing care to patients with possible or confirmed COVID-19. To describe the occurrence of adverse reactions associated with the administration of each of two doses of the adsorbed vaccine COVID-19 (inactivated) produced by Sinovac up to one week after vaccination in Adults (18-59 years of age) and Elderly (60 years of age or more). TRIAL DESIGN: This is a Phase III, randomized, multicenter, endpoint driven, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of the adsorbed vaccine COVID-19 (inactivated) produced by Sinovac. The adsorbed vaccine COVID-19 (inactivated) produced by Sinovac (product under investigation) will be compared to placebo. Voluntary participants will be randomized to receive two intramuscular doses of the investigational product or the placebo, in a 1: 1 ratio, stratified by age group (18 to 59 years and 60 years or more) and will be monitored for one year by active surveillance of COVID-19. Two databases will be established according to the age groups: one for adults (18-59 years) and one for the elderly (60 years of age or older). The threshold to consider the vaccine efficacious will be to reach a protection level of at least 50%, as proposed by the World Health Organization and the FDA. Success in this criterion will be defined by sequential monitoring with adjustment of the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval above 30% for the primary efficacy endpoint. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy participants and / or participants with clinically controlled disease, of both genders, 18 years of age or older, working as health professionals performing care in units specialized in direct contact with people with possible or confirmed cases of COVID-19. Participation of pregnant women and those who are breastfeeding, as well as those intending to become pregnant within three months after vaccination will not be allowed. Participants will only be included after signing the voluntary Informed Consent Form and ensuring they undergo screening evaluation and conform to all the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the clinical sites are located in Brazil. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Experimental intervention: The vaccine was manufactured by Sinovac Life Sciences (Beijing, China) and contains 3 µg/0.5 mL (equivalent to 600 SU per dose) of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus, and aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant. Control comparator: The placebo contains aluminium hydroxide in a 0.5 mL solution The schedule of both, experimental intervention and placebo is two 0.5 mL doses IM (deltoid) with a two week interval. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary efficacy endpoint is the incidence of symptomatic cases of virologically confirmed COVID-19 two weeks after the second vaccination. The virological diagnosis will be confirmed by detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in a clinical sample. The primary safety endpoint is the frequency of solicited and unsolicited local and systemic adverse reactions during the period of one week after vaccination according to age group in adult (18-59 years old) and elder (60 years of age or older) subjects. Adverse reactions are defined as adverse events that have a reasonable causal relationship to vaccination. RANDOMISATION: There will be two randomization lists, one for each age group, based on the investigational products to be administered, i.e., vaccine or placebo at a 1: 1 ratio. Each randomization list will be made to include up to 11,800 (18-59 year-old) adults, and 1,260 elderly (60 y-o and older) participants, the maximum number of participants needed per age group. An electronic central randomization system will be used to designate the investigational product that each participant must receive. BLINDING (MASKING): This trial is designed as a double-blind study to avoid introducing bias in the evaluation of efficacy, safety and immunogenicity. The clinical care team, the professionals responsible for the vaccination and the participants will not know which investigational product will be administered. Only pharmacists or nurses in the study who are responsible for the randomization, separation and blinding of the investigational product will have access to unblinded information. The sponsor's operational team will also remain blind. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The total number of participants needed to evaluate efficacy, 13,060 participants, satisfies the needed sample size calculated to evaluate safety. Therefore, the total number obtained for efficacy will be the number retained for the study. Up to 13,060 participants are expected to enter the study, with up to 11,800 participants aged 18 to 59 years and 1,260 elderly participants aged 60 and over. Half of the participants of each group will receive the experimental vaccine and half of them will receive the placebo. The recruitment of participants may be modified as recommended by the Data Safety Monitoring Committee at time of the interim unblinded analysis or blind assessment of the COVID-19 attack rate during the study. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 2.0 - 24-Aug-2020. Recruitment started on July 21st, 2020. The recruitment is expected to conclude in October 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT0445659 . Registry on 2 July 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vacunación/métodos , Vacunas/uso terapéutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Manejo de Datos , Método Doble Ciego , Femenino , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Incidencia , Consentimiento Informado/ética , Inyecciones Intramusculares , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Placebos/administración & dosificación , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Seguridad , Terapias en Investigación/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Vacunas/administración & dosificación , Vacunas/efectos adversos , Adulto Joven
20.
Z Rheumatol ; 79(9): 855-864, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955610

RESUMEN

For a long time, most of the infectious diseases seemed to have become under control. In particular, vaccinations have contributed to this development. In recent years newly occurring bacterial infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens and viral infections, such as the chikungunya virus, influenza epidemics and currently the COVID-19 pandemic, are endangering the world population. This specifically affects patients with rheumatological diseases, who often require immunosuppressive therapy and are thus at risk for infections. Vaccinations can protect those affected, both individually and by generating herd immunity, and are thus an important instrument to reduce morbidity and mortality from infections. Knowledge of the indications and application of the individual vaccinations is particularly important for consistent implementation of the current recommendations.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Reumáticas , Vacunación , Vacunas/administración & dosificación , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Humanos , Inmunidad Colectiva , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...