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1.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 19, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978115

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance and perception of five models of front-of-package nutrition labeling (FOPNL) among Brazilian consumers. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, which applied an online questionnaire to 2,400 individuals, allocated randomly into six study groups: a control group and five others exposed to FOPNL (octagon, triangle, circle, magnifier and traffic light), applied to nine products. We evaluated the understanding of nutritional content, the perception of healthiness, the purchase intention and the perception of Brazilian consumers on the models. RESULTS: All FOPNL models increased the understanding of the nutritional content and reduced the perception of healthiness and purchase intention, when compared with the control group (41.3%). FOPNL warning models - octagon (62.4%), triangle (61.9%) and circle (61.8%) - performed significantly better than the traffic light (55.0%) regarding the understanding of the nutritional content. The performance of the magnifier (59.5%) was similar to the other four tested models, including the traffic light (55.0%), for understanding nutritional content. The individual analysis of the products suggests a better performance of warnings in relation to the magnifier and the traffic light for the perception of healthiness and purchase intention. Consumers were favorable to the presence of FOPNL, perceiving it as reliable to increase the understanding to nutritional information. CONCLUSION: FOPNL must be implemented on food labels in Brazil, considering that it increases the nutritional understanding, reduces the perception of healthiness and the purchase intention of products with critical nutrients. Warnings showed a better performance when compared with other models.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Elección , Preferencias Alimentarias , Brasil , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Estudios Transversales , Etiquetado de Alimentos , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Percepción
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809449

RESUMEN

The Asteraceae family is one of the largest flowering plant families, with over 1600 genera and 2500 species worldwide. Some of its most well-known taxa are lettuce, chicory, artichoke, daisy and dandelion. The members of the Asteraceae have been used in the diet and for medicine for centuries. Despite their wide diversity, most family members share a similar chemical composition: for example, all species are good sources of inulin, a natural polysaccharide with strong prebiotic properties. They also demonstrate strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity, as well as diuretic and wound healing properties. Their pharmacological effects can be attributed to their range of phytochemical compounds, including polyphenols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, acetylenes and triterpenes. One such example is arctiin: a ligand with numerous antioxidant, antiproliferative and desmutagenic activities. The family is also a source of sesquiterpene lactones: the secondary metabolites responsible for the bitter taste of many plants. This mini review examines the current state of literature regarding the positive effect of the Asteraceae family on human health.


Asunto(s)
Asteraceae/química , Salud , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Fitoquímicos/química , Verduras/química
3.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 29(1): 76-79, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831290

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Front-of-package nutrition labels are intended to easily convey to consumers comprehensible information about the nutritional composition of pre-packaged food and are thus a tool in the combat against the growing prevalence of nutrition-related disorders, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some types of cancer. The objective of the present narrative review was first to describe Nutri-Score and then to synthesize some of the international scientific evidence for its effectiveness. Guided by scientific data and collective expertise, France formally adopted labelling of pre-packaged food with the 5-colour Nutri-Score label in October 2017 and that move was later followed by Belgium, Spain, Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. METHODS: This article synthesizes evidence from several countries regarding the effectiveness of Nutri-Score and the associated individual-level diet quality index in terms of attitude/behaviour- and health-related outcomes. It also addresses criticism levied at the label. RESULTS: The effectiveness of Nutri-Score has been demonstrated in terms of consumer ability to correctly classify food according to its nutritional quality, the nutritional quality of actual and intended food purchases, and portion size choices. In addition, consumption of foods that are less favourably rated on the Nutri-Score scale has been prospectively associated with chronic disease risk (cancer, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, etc.). CONCLUSION: The adoption and implementation of a uniform front-of-package label such as the scientifically validated Nutri-Score on pre-packaged foods/beverages across Europe could be beneficial to consumers at the point of purchase and could help reduce the incidence of diet-related chronic diseases by means of improvement in diet quality.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Europa (Continente) , Etiquetado de Alimentos , Francia , Alemania , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , España
4.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805649

RESUMEN

Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs), worldwide appreciated and used as condiments, dyes, and preservatives, possess several biological properties that justify their continuous application in the food industry. In the present study, the nutritional and chemical profiles, as well as the bioactive properties of four combinations of condiments, sold for seasoning poultry, meat, fish, and salads, were evaluated. Twenty-five phenolic compounds (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS) were identified, with apigenin-O-malonyl-pentoside-hexoside as the major compound detected in all extracts. Oxalic and citric acids were identified in all mixtures (UFLC-PDA), as well as all the four tocopherol isoforms (HPLC-fluorescence). Regarding bioactivities, the mixtures for meat and salads (TBARS) and meat and poultry (OxHLIA) stood out for their antioxidant potential, whereas for the anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties, the mixtures revealing the greatest results were those for poultry and salad, respectively. In terms of antimicrobial activity, all the mixtures revealed the capacity to inhibit the growth of some bacterial strains. In brief, condiment mixtures showed to be a good source of bioactive compounds, as they confer health benefits, validating the importance of their inclusion in the human diet as a good dietary practice.


Asunto(s)
Condimentos/análisis , Plantas Comestibles/química , Plantas Medicinales/química , Animales , Antiinfecciosos/química , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Línea Celular Tumoral , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Fenoles/química , Extractos Vegetales/análisis
5.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 163: 87-94, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823360

RESUMEN

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), have been commonly used in agriculture, and have attracted more attention for researchers. In this study, a 2-year experiment was conducted involving two Zn types (ZnO NPs and ZnSO4), two concentrations of Zn (25 and 100 mg kg-1), and three Zn application stages (basal stage, tillering stage, and panicle stage). This study comprehensively evaluated the effects of ZnO NPs on rice yield, nutrient uptake, Zn biofortification and grain nutritional quality. Our results showed that both ZnO NPs and Zn salt increased grain yield, NPK uptake, and grain Zn concentration. ZnO NPs application enhanced NPK content in rice, with subsequence increasing panicle number (3.8-10.3%), spikelet number per panicle (2.2-4.7%), and total biomass (6.8-7.6%), thereby promoting the rice yield. Compared with conventional fertilization, ZnO NPs enhanced Zn concentration of brown rice by 13.5-39.4%, this had no negative impact on human health. ZnO NPs application at panicle stage have a higher effectiveness in improving Zn concentration of brown rice than at basal and tillering stage. Furthermore, the application of ZnO NPs at panicle stage was more efficient in increasing Zn concentration of brown rice than for Zn salt. ZnO NPs application slightly altered the amino acids content of rice grains, but had no significant impact on total amino acids content. This study highlights that ZnO NPs could be used as a high performance and safe Zn fertilizer in rice production ecosystem.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas , Oryza , Óxido de Zinc , Animales , Biofortificación , Ecosistema , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida , Valor Nutritivo , Zinc/análisis
6.
Food Chem ; 355: 129638, 2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799242

RESUMEN

Exopolysaccharides produced in situ by lactic acid bacteria during sourdough fermentation are recognized as bread texture improvers. In this study, the suitability of whole and sprouted lentil flours, added with 25% on flour weight sucrose for dextran formation by selected strains during sourdough fermentation, was evaluated. The dextran synthesized in situ by Weissella confusa SLA4 was 9.2 and 9.7% w/w flour weight in lentil and sprouted lentil sourdoughs, respectively. Wheat bread supplemented with 30% w/w sourdough showed increased specific volume and decreased crumb hardness and staling rate, compared to the control wheat bread. Incorporation of sourdoughs improved the nutritional value of wheat bread, leading to increased total and soluble fibers content, and the aroma profile. The integrated biotechnological approach, based on sourdough fermentation and germination, is a potential clean-label strategy to obtain high-fibers content foods with tailored texture, and it can further enhance the use of legumes in novel foods.


Asunto(s)
Pan/microbiología , Dextranos/metabolismo , Fermentación , Harina/microbiología , Lens (Planta)/química , Weissella/metabolismo , Pan/análisis , Harina/análisis , Microbiología de Alimentos , Lens (Planta)/microbiología , Valor Nutritivo , Sacarosa/metabolismo
7.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802024

RESUMEN

Dietary risk factors, including excess added sugar intake, are leading contributors to Australia's burden of disease. An objective of the Australian Health Star Rating (HSR) system is to encourage the reformulation of packaged foods. Manufacturers may improve a product's HSR by replacing added sugar with non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS). Concerns have been raised regarding the potential substitution effects of ultra-processed foods containing NNS for whole foods, and the long-term impact this may have on population health. The aim of this study was to determine whether the implementation of the HSR system has impacted the use of added sugars and NNS in the food supply. Four product categories were used: products with no added sweetener, products containing added sugar only, products containing NNS only, and products containing a combination of added sugar and NNS. Of 6477 newly released products analyzed displaying a HSR in Australia between 2014-2020, 63% contained added sugars. The proportion of new products sweetened with added sugars increased over time, while NNS use did not, despite a higher average and median HSR for products sweetened with NNS. These findings suggest that at the current time, the HSR system may not discourage the use of added sugars in new products or incentivize the reformulation of added sugar with NNS. As the health risks of NNS are questioned, increased reformulation of products with NNS to reduce the presence of added sugar in the food supply may not address broader health concerns. Instead, supporting the promotion of whole foods and drinks should be prioritized, as well as policy actions that reduce the proliferation and availability of UPFs.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Azúcares de la Dieta , Aditivos Alimentarios , Etiquetado de Alimentos , Edulcorantes no Nutritivos , Edulcorantes , Australia , Comida Rápida , Embalaje de Alimentos , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo
8.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802115

RESUMEN

Front of pack food labels (FOPLs) provide accessible nutritional information to guide consumer choice. Using an online experiment with a large representative British sample, we aimed to examine whether FOPLs improve participants' ability to identify the healthiness of foods and drinks. The primary aim was to compare ability to rank between FOPL groups and a no label control. Adults (≥18 years), recruited from the NatCen panel, were randomised to one of five experimental groups (Multiple Traffic Light, MTL; Nutri-Score, N-S; Warning Label, WL; Positive Choice tick, PC; no label control). Stratification variables were year of recruitment to panel, sex, age, government office region, and household income. Packaging images were created for three versions, varying in healthiness, of six food and drink products (pizza, drinks, cakes, crisps, yoghurts, breakfast cereals). Participants were asked to rank the three product images in order of healthiness. Ranking was completed on a single occasion and comprised a baseline measure (with no FOPL), and a follow-up measure including the FOPL as per each participant's experimental group. The primary outcome was the ability to accurately rank product healthiness (all products ranked correctly vs. any incorrect). In 2020, 4504 participants had complete data and were included in the analysis. The probability of correct ranking at follow-up, and improving between baseline and follow-up, was significantly greater across all products for the N-S, MTL and WL groups, compared to control. This was seen for only some of the products for the PC group. The largest effects were seen for N-S, followed by MTL. These analyses were adjusted for stratification variables, ethnicity, education, household composition, food shopping responsibility, and current FOPL use. Exploratory analyses showed a tendency for participants with higher compared to lower education to rank products more accurately. Conclusions: All FOPLs were effective at improving participants' ability to correctly rank products according to healthiness in this large representative British sample, with the largest effects seen for N-S, followed by MTL.


Asunto(s)
Comportamiento del Consumidor , Etiquetado de Alimentos , Calidad de los Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Adulto , Anciano , Escolaridad , Femenino , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reino Unido , Adulto Joven
9.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803168

RESUMEN

Light is a key factor that affects phytochemical synthesis and accumulation in plants. Due to limitations of the environment or cultivated land, there is an urgent need to develop indoor cultivation systems to obtain higher yields with increased phytochemical concentrations using convenient light sources. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have several advantages, including consumption of lesser power, longer half-life, higher efficacy, and wider variation in the spectral wavelength than traditional light sources; therefore, these devices are preferred for in vitro culture and indoor plant growth. Moreover, LED irradiation of seedlings enhances plant biomass, nutrient and secondary metabolite levels, and antioxidant properties. Specifically, red and blue LED irradiation exerts strong effects on photosynthesis, stomatal functioning, phototropism, photomorphogenesis, and photosynthetic pigment levels. Additionally, ex vitro plantlet development and acclimatization can be enhanced by regulating the spectral properties of LEDs. Applying an appropriate LED spectral wavelength significantly increases antioxidant enzyme activity in plants, thereby enhancing the cell defense system and providing protection from oxidative damage. Since different plant species respond differently to lighting in the cultivation environment, it is necessary to evaluate specific wavebands before large-scale LED application for controlled in vitro plant growth. This review focuses on the most recent advances and applications of LEDs for in vitro culture organogenesis. The mechanisms underlying the production of different phytochemicals, including phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, anthocyanins, and antioxidant enzymes, have also been discussed.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/métodos , Fotosíntesis/efectos de la radiación , Fitoquímicos/efectos de la radiación , Antocianinas , Antioxidantes , Biomasa , Carotenoides , Productos Agrícolas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Flavonoides , Luminiscencia , Valor Nutritivo/fisiología , Fenoles , Desarrollo de la Planta/fisiología , Plantas Medicinales
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804597

RESUMEN

The aim of our study was to analyse vegetables, potatoes and their products as sources of energy and nutrients in the average diet in Poland. Representative data of the 2016 Household Budget Survey from 36,886 households were used. This is the largest study sample in Poland, so we generalized the conclusions to the whole population using the statement 'average diet'. We analysed three main product groups: vegetables, vegetable products, and potatoes and potatoes products, dividing them into 14 subgroups (e.g., tomatoes, cabbage, carrots, other vegetables, and mushrooms). The percentages of energy, protein, carbohydrates, total fat, nine vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin D, and vitamin E), seven minerals (calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, iron, magnesium and zinc), and fibre from the analysed food subgroups are presented. Additionally, the influence of household characteristics on the supply of energy and nutrients from each subgroup of vegetables, potatoes, and their products was evaluated using cluster analysis. In the analysis, R programme and Kohonen neural networks were applied. Our study showed that vegetables, potatoes, and their products provide 7.3% of daily dietary energy supply. Vegetables contribute more than 20% of the supply of six nutrients: vitamin C (51.8%), potassium (32.5%), folate (31.0%), vitamin A (30.6%), vitamin B6 (27.8%), and magnesium (20.2%), as well as fibre (31.8%). Cluster analysis distinguished three clusters that differed in nutritional supply from vegetables, potatoes, and their products. Educational level, income measured by quintile groups, village size, socio-economic characteristics, urbanization degree, and land use were the most important factors determining differences between clusters.


Asunto(s)
Solanum tuberosum , Verduras , Dieta , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Ingestión de Energía , Humanos , Nutrientes , Valor Nutritivo , Polonia
11.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799532

RESUMEN

Online food delivery (OFD) platforms have changed how consumers purchase food prepared outside of home by capitalising on convenience and smartphone technology. Independent food outlets encompass a substantial proportion of partnering outlets, but their offerings' nutritional quality is understudied. Little is also known as to how OFD platforms influence consumer choice. This study evaluated the nutritional quality and marketing attributes of offerings from independent takeaway outlets available on Sydney's market-leading OFD platform (UberEats®). Complete menus and marketing attributes from 202 popular outlets were collected using web scraping. All 13841 menu items were classified into 38 food and beverage categories based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines. Of complete menus, 80.5% (11,139/13,841) were discretionary and 42.3% (5849/13,841) were discretionary cereal-based mixed meals, the largest of the 38 categories. Discretionary menu items were more likely to be categorised as most popular (OR: 2.5, 95% CI 1.9-3.2), accompanied by an image (OR: 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.5) and offered as a value bundle (OR: 6.5, 95% CI 4.8-8.9). Two of the three discretionary food categories were more expensive than their healthier Five Food Group counterparts (p < 0.02). The ubiquity of discretionary choices offered by independent takeaways and the marketing attributes employed by OFD platforms has implications for public health policy. Further research on the contribution of discretionary choices and marketing attributes to nutritional intakes is warranted.


Asunto(s)
Comportamiento del Consumidor , Comida Rápida , Alimentos , Comidas , Valor Nutritivo , Restaurantes , Australia , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Estudios Transversales , Comida Rápida/economía , Alimentos/economía , Etiquetado de Alimentos , Humanos
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(1): e20181384, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886698

RESUMEN

Organic manures are more preferred and environmentally friendly than chemical fertilizers for minimally contaminating soil, water and environmental resources, but the determination of right source of organic manures continues to remain an unexplored aspect. Considering the important issue, a multi-year field trial was carried out to determine the response of forage soybean to four sources of nutrients such as chemical fertilizers (IF), poultry litter (PL), bovine's farm yard slurry (BFYS) and sewage sludge (SS) and their seven binary combinations (PL+BFYS, PL+SS, PL+IF, BFYS+SS, BFYS+IF, SS+IF and PL+BFYS+SS). Supplementation of organic manures with mineral fertilizers remained superior to their sole application, particularly BFYS + IF was found significantly (p≤0.05) superior for yielding the highest fresh biomass (23.9, 26.4 and 25.7 t ha-1) with improved nutritional quality. The same combination of integrated fertilizer management also recorded higher sustainability as per sustainable forage yield index along with the highest net income and the benefit-cost ratio. PL and SS applied in conjunction with IF performed better than sole or binary application of organic manures. Therefore, BFYS + IF may be recommended for adoption to produce comparable forage yield and nutritional quality of soybean along with reducing dependency on chemical fertilizers.


Asunto(s)
Estiércol , Soja , Agricultura , Animales , Bovinos , Fertilizantes , Valor Nutritivo , Suelo
13.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923258

RESUMEN

In Spain, the health crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic led to the declaration of a state of alarm in the whole country in 2020; in this context, a nationwide lockdown was implemented, potentially altering the dietary habits of the population. The aims of this study were to describe the diet and its nutritional quality in Spanish households during the first COVID-19 epidemic wave and to compare them with the same period in 2019. Data on monthly foods and beverages household purchases in 2019 and 2020 were obtained from the nationwide Food Consumption Surveys. In April, there was an average increase, compared with 2019, of more than 40% for all food groups, with significant peaks in: alcoholic beverages (75%), appetizers (60%), eggs (59%), sugar and sweets (52%), and vegetables (50%). In March, the greatest peak was for pulses, with a 63% increment. The mean energy value of purchased foods in April was 2801 kcal/person/day, corresponding to an increase of 771 kcal/person/day (+38%), compared to the same month of 2019 (March and May: +520 kcal (+26%), June: +343 kcal (+18%)). Regarding nutrient density, there was a reduction in calcium, iodine, zinc, selenium, riboflavin, vitamins B12, D, A, especially retinol, and an increase in fibre, sodium, folic acid, carotenes and vitamin E. Alcohol content per 1000 kcal increased by more than 20% from April to July. Food purchase patterns in Spanish households changed during lockdown and after it, with no appreciable improvement in the quality of the diet.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Dieta/métodos , Conducta Alimentaria , Valor Nutritivo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Bebidas , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Comportamiento del Consumidor/estadística & datos numéricos , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Ingestión de Energía , Composición Familiar , Humanos , Pandemias , España/epidemiología , Verduras
14.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 162: 378-387, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735742

RESUMEN

Dietary zinc (Zn) deficiency is widespread globally, and is particularly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is consumed widely in LMICs due to its high protein content, and has potential for use in agronomic biofortification strategies using Zn. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zn biofortification on grain nutritional quality of 29 cowpea genotypes. Zn application did not increase cowpea yield. In 11 genotypes sucrose concentration, in 12 genotypes total sugar concentration, and in 27 genotypes storage protein concentration increased in response to Zn supply. Fifteen genotypes had lower concentrations of amino acids under Zn application, which are likely to have been converted into storage proteins, mostly comprised of albumin. Phytic acid (PA) concentration and PA/Zn molar ratio were decreased under Zn application. Six genotypes increased shoot ureides concentration in response to Zn fertilization, indicating potential improvements to biological nitrogen fixation. This study provides valuable information on the potential for Zn application to increase cowpea grain nutritional quality by increasing Zn and soluble storage protein and decreasing PA concentration. These results might be useful for future breeding programs aiming to increase cowpea grain Zn concentrations through biofortification.


Asunto(s)
Biofortificación , Vigna , Genotipo , Valor Nutritivo , Fitomejoramiento , Vigna/genética , Zinc/análisis
15.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670110

RESUMEN

Consumer interest in foods with enhanced nutritional quality has increased in recent years. The nutritional and bioactive characterization of fruits and their byproducts, as well as their use in the formulation of new food products, is advisable, contributing to decrease the global concerns related to food waste and food security. Moreover, the compounds present in these raw materials and the study of their biological properties can promote health and help to prevent some chronic diseases. Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (prickly pear) is a plant that grows wild in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world, being a food source for ones and a potential for others, but not properly valued. This paper carries out an exhaustive review of the scientific literature on the nutritional composition and bioactive compounds of prickly pear and its constituents, as well as its main biological activities and applications. It is a good source of dietary fiber, vitamins and bioactive compounds. Many of its natural compounds have interesting biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and antimicrobial. The antioxidant power of prickly pear makes it a good candidate as an ingredient of new food products with fascinating properties for health promotion and/or to be used as natural extracts for food, pharmaceutic or cosmetic applications. In addition, it could be a key player in food security in many arid and semi-arid regions of the world, where there are often no more plants.


Asunto(s)
Fibras de la Dieta/uso terapéutico , Frutas/química , Opuntia/química , Enfermedad Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Opuntia/crecimiento & desarrollo , Fitoquímicos/química , Fitoquímicos/uso terapéutico , Vitaminas/química , Vitaminas/uso terapéutico
16.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672127

RESUMEN

Cricket powder, described in the literature as a source of nutrients, can be a valuable ingredient to supplement deficiencies in various food products. Work continues on the implementation of cricket powder in products that are widely consumed. The aim of this study was to obtain gluten-free bread with a superior nutritional profile by means of insect powder addition. Gluten-free breads enriched with 2%, 6%, and 10% of cricket (Acheta domesticus) powder were formulated and extensively characterized. The nutritional value, as well as antioxidant and ß-glucuronidase activities, were assessed after simulated in vitro digestion. Addition of cricket powder significantly increased the nutritional value, both in terms of the protein content (exceeding two-, four-, and seven-fold the reference bread (RB), respectively) and above all mineral compounds. The most significant changes were observed for Cu, P, and Zn. A significant increase in the content of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in the enriched bread was also demonstrated; moreover, both values additionally increased after the digestion process. The total polyphenolic compounds content increased about five-fold from RB to bread with 10% CP (BCP10), and respectively about three-fold after digestion. Similarly, the total antioxidant capacity before digestion increased about four-fold, and after digestion about six-fold. The use of CP also reduced the undesirable activity of ß-glucuronidase by 65.9% (RB vs. BCP10) in the small intestine, down to 78.9% in the large intestine. The influence of bread on the intestinal microflora was also evaluated, and no inhibitory effect on the growth of microflora was demonstrated, both beneficial (Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus) and pathogenic (Enterococcus and Escherichia coli). Our results underscore the benefits of using cricket powder to increase the nutritional value and biological activity of gluten-free food products.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/análisis , Pan/análisis , Dieta Sin Gluten , Análisis de los Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Polvos/análisis , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Polvos/metabolismo
17.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670442

RESUMEN

There has been an important shift in the New Zealand infant food market over the past decade, with the majority of complementary foods now sold in "pouches". Along with the increasing market share of commercial infant food pouches internationally, there have been growing concerns about their nutritional quality. However, research examining the nutritional quality of these pouches compared to other forms of commercial infant foods in New Zealand has not been undertaken. Nor have any studies reported the free sugars or added sugars content of these foods. To address this knowledge gap, a cross-sectional survey of infant foods sold in New Zealand supermarkets was conducted in 2019-2020. Recipes and nutrient lines were developed for the 266 foods identified (133 food pouches). The energy, iron, vitamin B12, total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars content of infant food pouches and other forms of commercial infant foods per 100 g were compared, both within food groups and by age group. Infant food pouches contained similar median amounts of energy, iron, and vitamin B12 to other forms of commercial infant foods but contained considerably more total sugars (8.4 g/100 g vs. 2.3 g/100 g). However, median free sugars and added sugars content was very low across all food groups except for "dairy" and "sweet snacks". All "dry cereals" were fortified with iron whereas none of the infant food pouches were. Therefore, consuming food pouches to the exclusion of other commercial infant foods may place infants at risk of iron deficiency if they do not receive sufficient iron from other sources.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/tendencias , Industria de Alimentos/tendencias , Alimentos Infantiles/análisis , Valor Nutritivo , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/análisis , Azúcares de la Dieta/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante , Hierro en la Dieta/análisis , Masculino , Nueva Zelanda , Vitamina B 12/análisis
18.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672720

RESUMEN

The present study aims to describe ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption in a representative sample of French adults and to evaluate the association between UPF consumption and socioeconomic characteristics and nutritional profile of the diet. This is a cross-sectional study using food consumption data from the Étude Nationale Nutrition Santé (ENNS), conducted with 2642 participants (18-74 years old), between February 2006 and March 2007 in France. Dietary data were collected through three 24-h dietary recalls. All food and beverages were classified according to the NOVA classification. The energy contribution of NOVA food groups to total energy intake was presented by categories of sociodemographic characteristics. Linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between the percentage of UPF in the diet with nutritional indicators. The mean daily energy consumption of the adult French population was 2111 kcal, of which 31.1% came from UPF. This percentage was higher among younger individuals, and in the urban area, and lower among individuals with incomplete high school and individuals who were retired. The consumption of UPF was positively associated with the dietary energy density and the dietary contents of total carbohydrates, free sugar, and total and saturated fat, as well as with inadequate dietary energy density, saturated fat, free sugar, and fiber intakes.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Comida Rápida/estadística & datos numéricos , Manipulación de Alimentos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Escolaridad , Empleo , Ingestión de Energía , Femenino , Francia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Nutritivo , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 776: 146029, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652312

RESUMEN

To explore the potential association between the diversity of endophytic microorganisms and modifications of grain quality in wheat exposed to multi-generational elevated CO2 concentration, the grain quality attributes and microbial diversity were tested after five generations successively grown in ambient CO2 concentration (F5_A, 400 µmol L-1) and elevated CO2 concentration (F5_E, 800 µmol L-1). Elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased the grain number and starch concentration, while decreased the grain protein concentration. Multi-generational exposure to elevated CO2 concentration also led to significant changes in grain amino acid concentration. In response to the elevated CO2 concentration, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Ralstonia, and Klebsiella were the dominant bacterial genera, while Penicillium, Cutaneotrichosporon, Fusarium, Sarocladium, Acremonium and Aspergillus were the dominant fungal genera in wheat grain. A significantly positive correlation was found between Pseudomonas, Penicillium and ratio of starch to protein concentration, implying that the multi-generational CO2 elevation induced modifications in grain quality might be associated with the changes in grain microbial diversity. The results of this study suggest that the endophytic microbes may play an important role in modulating the grain nutritional quality in wheat under multi-generational e[CO2] exposure, through regulating starch and N metabolism and production of secondary metabolites.


Asunto(s)
Fusarium , Triticum , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Grano Comestible/química , Valor Nutritivo
20.
Animal ; 15(3): 100136, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785184

RESUMEN

Intramuscular fat (IMF) content affects eating and nutritional quality of lamb meat. Muscle density measured by computer tomography is an in vivo proxy measure of IMF content that affects eating and nutritional quality of lamb meat. Lambs sired by high muscle density (HMD) or low muscle density (LMD) rams, selected for slaughter on commercial criteria were measured for meat quality and nutritional traits. A restricted maximum likelihood model was used to compare lamb traits. Additionally, regression analysis of sire estimated breeding value (EBV) for muscle density was performed for each meat quality trait. Muscle density EBV had a negative regression with IMF content (P < 0.001). For each unit increase in muscle density EBV, there was a significant decrease in loin (-1.69 mg/100 g fresh weight) and topside IMF (-0.03 mg/100 g fresh weight). Muscle density EBV had a negative regression with grouped saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids concentration (and monounsaturated proportion P < 0.001). Muscle density EBV had a negative regression with loin sensory traits tenderness, juiciness and overall liking and many novel tenderness sensory traits measured (P < 0.05). Selecting for LMD EBV increased IMF content and favourable meat eating quality traits. In contrast, sire muscle density EBV had a positive regression with loin polyunsaturated:saturated fat ratio and grouped polyunsaturated proportion traits (including total polyunsaturated proportion, total omega-6 (n-6) and total omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (P < 0.001). This is explained by the fact that as sire muscle density EBV increases, polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion increases and the proportion of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid content decreases. Muscle density EBV had a positive regression with shear force and the novel toughness sensory traits (P < 0.05). Selection for HMD EBV's increased shear force and toughness traits, which is unfavourable for the consumer. Low muscle density sired meat had higher meat colour traits chroma/saturation (+0.64, SD 2.30, P = 0.012), redness (+0.52, SD 1.91, P = 0.012) and yellowness (+0.31, SD 1.49, P = 0.08) compared to HMD sired meat. Selection for LMD could be used within a breeding programme to increase IMF content and enhance both meat colour and improve eating quality parameters.


Asunto(s)
Carne , Músculo Esquelético , Tejido Adiposo , Animales , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados , Masculino , Carne/análisis , Valor Nutritivo , Ovinos , Oveja Doméstica
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