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4.
J Sports Sci ; 38(4): 357-365, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810403

RESUMEN

Basic values, defined as trans-situational goals that vary in importance and act as guiding principles in life, have been linked with unethical cognitions, emotions and actions. Their roles in doping, a form of cheating in sport, have yet to established. College athletes reported doping likelihood in hypothetical scenario-based situations and completed measures of basic values, moral disengagement, and anticipated guilt. Correlation analysis showed that doping likelihood was positively associated with self-enhancement values but negatively associated with self-transcendence values and conservation values. Moral disengagement correlated positively with self-enhancement values and negatively with self-transcendence values, whereas guilt correlated positively conservation values and negatively with self-enhancement values and openness to change values. Regression analyses showed that self-enhancement values positively predicted doping likelihood directly, self-transcendence values negatively predicted doping likelihood indirectly via moral disengagement and guilt, and conservation values negatively predicted doping likelihood indirectly via guilt. In line with theory and evidence concerning the relationship between basic value systems and moral thought and action, we found that the values of athletes are directly (self-enhancement) and indirectly (self-transcendence, conservation) linked with likely use of banned performance enhancing substances, an expression of cheating in sport.


Asunto(s)
Doping en los Deportes/psicología , Valores Sociales , Doping en los Deportes/ética , Femenino , Teoría Fundamentada , Culpa , Humanos , Masculino , Principios Morales , Motivación , Autoimagen
5.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25066, jan.- dez. 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047349

RESUMEN

The aim of this paper is to substantiate the educational potential of sport in PE programs at school and to explore how critical sport pedagogy can contribute to these programs. To this end, the main ideas behind critical-emancipatory movements in Germany over the past 40 years are investigated and outlined. Due to the absence of a holistic approach, the focus of the current concept of educative PE in Germany is twofold: to educate toward sport and to educate through sport. In line with this concept, sport in society needs to be addressed without simply being adopted as a model. Following these core assumptions, this paper puts forward the thesis that sport has the potential to empower children to deal with their increasingly complex and contingent lifeworlds, which is important when facing future challenges such as social issues and, thus, provides pedagogical legitimization of PE as a school subject


O objetivo desse artigo é evidenciar o potencial educacional do esporte em programas de Educação Física na escola e explorar como a pedagogia crítica do esporte pode contribuir para esses programas. Para este fim, as principais ideias pressupostas nos movimentos crítico-emancipatórios de Alemanha, nas últimas quatro décadas, são investigadas e delineadas. Graças à ausência de uma abordagem holística, o propósito atual de Educação Física na Alemanha é duplo: educar para o esporte e educar através do esporte. Segundo esse conceito, o esporte na sociedade precisa ser problematizado sem ser apenas assumido como um modelo. Conforme essas premissas centrais, esse texto trabalha com a tese de que o esporte tem o potencial de empoderar crianças para lidar com seus mundos cada vez mais complexos e contingentes, o que é importante para enfrentar os futuros desafios como uma questão social e, portanto, oferecer a legitimação pedagógica da Educação Física como matéria escolar


El objetivo de este artículo es evidenciar el potencial educacional del deporte en programas de Educación Física en la escuela y explorar como la pedagogía crítica del deporte puede contribuir a estos programas. Para este fin, las principales ideas presupuestas en los movimientos crítico-emancipatórios de Alemania en las últimas cuatro décadas son investigadas y delineadas. Debido a la ausencia de un abordaje holístico, el propósito del actual concepto de Educación Física educativa en Alemania es duplo: educar para el deporte y educar a través del deporte. Según este concepto, el deporte en la sociedad necesita ser problematizado sin ser solamente asumido como un modelo. De acuerdo con esas premisas centrales, este artículo trabaja con la tesis de que el deporte tiene el potencial de empoderar niños para tratar con sus mundos cada vez más complejos y contingentes, lo que es importante para enfrentar los futuros desafíos como una cuestión social y, por lo tanto, ofrecer legitimación pedagógica de la Educación Física como materia escolar


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Educación y Entrenamiento Físico , Valores Sociales , Deportes , Enseñanza/educación
10.
Healthc Q ; 22(2): 13-14, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556373

RESUMEN

The papers that follow are part of an honest, reasonable and serious attempt to build on an existing consensus at the basis of medicare, which guarantees that all Canadians can get medical attention when sick and hospital care when very sick (or injured). Without any exception, reform proposals that run counter to these principles are doomed to failure. However, it becomes harder and harder to ensure that costly and complex healthcare services can be "readily and timely" accessed without a radical shift in approaches. To say things otherwise, to keep what we cherish, we must embrace change, in the form of collaboration, measurement and evidence.


Asunto(s)
Programas Nacionales de Salud/organización & administración , Canadá , Reforma de la Atención de Salud , Humanos , Atención Dirigida al Paciente/organización & administración , Opinión Pública , Valores Sociales
11.
Healthc Q ; 22(2): 68-74, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556383

RESUMEN

The purpose (or mission) of Niagara Health is Extraordinary Caring. Every Person. Every Time. Staff and physicians across the large, multi-site hospital organization are challenged to embrace this purpose in all of their day-to-day interactions. One Niagara Health team with no direct role in patient care (IT) spontaneously and independently created an Acts of Kindness campaign. They set a goal for the number of Acts of Kindness they would do and tracked the results. This simple response inspired 32 additional teams to launch similar initiatives, with more than 30,000 Acts of Kindness recorded and celebrated as of August 2019.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud , Cultura Organizacional , Personal de Hospital/psicología , Empatía , Hospitales Públicos , Humanos , Ontario , Valores Sociales
12.
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 27(4): 20-31, jul.-set. 2019. ilus, tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051430

RESUMEN

A realização da Copa do Mundo de Futebol, em 2014, e dos Jogos Olímpicos e Paraolímpicos, em 2016, trouxeram à tona, no Brasil, a discussão sobre os legados de megaeventos esportivos, em especial sobre como os investimentos públicos nestes eventos reverteriam em prol de projetos sociais esportivos. O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi debater, a partir de seus agentes sociais, como os legados dos egaeventos esportivos se refletem no desenvolvimento das ações do Programa Segundo Tempo (PST), um programa social esportivo de dimensão nacional levado a efeito pelo Governo Federal. A pesquisa, do tipo descritiva, utilizou um questionário fechado. Participaram do estudo 513 agentes do PST, integrantes de 27 convênios situados nas cinco regiões geográficas do Brasil, envolvidos diretamente com as ações administrativas (Coordenador Geral e Coordenador Pedagógico) e interventivas (Coordenador de Núcleo e Monitores). Para a análise das respostas aos questionários, empregou-se a estatística descritiva. Os dados foram organizados em duas categorias definidas a priori: 1) Possíveis legados dos megaeventos esportivos na proposta pedagógica do PST; 2) A contemplação da Educação Olímpica na proposta pedagógica do PST. Os resultados evidenciaram que, na proposta pedagógica do PST, há indicativos de estratégias que favorecem a consolidação dos legados destes megaeventos esportivos. Entretanto, ainda se fazem necessárias ações que reforcem o trabalho com os valores no esporte, centrais na Educação Olímpica. Considerando que o país se encontra em um momento pósmegaevento, os resultados desta pesquisa reiteram o valor dos programas sociais esportivos como uma estratégia governamental para fortalecer e concretizar os legados desses eventos, especialmente os legados sociais...(AU)


The 2014 Football World Cup and the Rio 2016 Olympics and Paralympics brought to the fore in Brazil a discussion about the legacies of mega sport events, especially about how public investments in these events would revert to social sport projects. The aim of the present research is to debate, according to the perspective of its social agents, how the sports mega events legacy reflexes on the development of actions taken of the Programa Segundo Tempo (PST), a social sport program of national dimension carried out by the Brazilian Federal Government. The research, of the descriptive type, used a closed question questionnaire. The participants of the study were 513 PST agents, who integrated 27 covenants from the five geographic regions of Brazil, directly involved with the administrative (General Coordinator and Pedagogical Coordinator) and intervening actions (Core Coordinator and Monitors). For the analysis of the questionnaire's responses, descriptive statistics were sed. The data were organized in two categories defined a priori: 1) Possible legacies of the mega sport events for the pedagogical proposal of the PST; 2) The contemplation of Olympic Education in the pedagogical proposal of the PST. The results showed that, in the pedagogical proposal of the PST, there are indicatives of strategies that favor the consolidation of the legacies of these mega sport events.However, actions are still needed to strengthen the work with values in sport, central elements of the Olympic Education. Considering that the country is now in a post-mega event moment, the results of this research reiterate the value of sport social programs as a governmental strategy for strengthening andconcretizing the legacies of these events, especially the social ones...(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Política Pública , Calidad de Vida , Valores Sociales , Destreza Motora , Educación y Entrenamiento Físico , Instituciones Académicas , Deportes , Proyectos de Inversión Social
13.
Ergonomics ; 62(11): 1485-1494, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390942

RESUMEN

The effective management of sports-related concussion is an on-going problem in amateur sport due to a number of systemic issues. These factors have often been studied in isolation with minimal consideration for the interactions between them, or the overall system in which they occur. The aim of this research was to model the actors, controls, and feedback mechanisms influencing the management of concussion in community rugby union using the Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes (STAMP) method. Findings show that there are currently many inadequate controls, that are directly and indirectly impacting effective concussion management. The practical implications of these findings are discussed (e.g. improved guideline education, mandatory medical presence, rule amendments). Additionally, the model provides a sound framework similar team sports can use to inform research into injury management and prevention (e.g. rugby league, hockey, AFL). Practitioner Summary: Research shows that concussion management in regional sport is inconsistent due to contextual limitations. Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes was applied to identify the systemic factors currently influencing concussion management practices in community sport. Findings show inadequate controls precipitate concussion management gaps. Practical implications of the findings are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Conmoción Encefálica/diagnóstico , Encefalopatía Traumática Crónica/prevención & control , Fútbol Americano/lesiones , Análisis de Sistemas , Adulto , Australia , Conmoción Encefálica/terapia , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Política Organizacional , Equipo de Protección Personal , Valores Sociales
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1048, 2019 Aug 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382931

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Participation of men in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) is crucial for the reduction of infant and maternal mortality. Men may be influential in making health care decisions that may affect their female partner's access to health care services, but also as individuals, whose health status has a significant impact on the health of their partners' and that of their children. However, male involvement is still inadequate due to various reasons. This paper sought to explore the community perspectives towards participation of men in maternal and child health care in Kabale District, Western Uganda. METHODS: The study used a case study approach. Household questionnaires, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, direct field observation and document review were employed to collect data. One hundred and twenty-four respondents completed a household questionnaire, eight key informants took part in semi-structured interviews and thirty-six community members (two men and two women groups) participated in focus group discussions. RESULTS: The participation of men in maternal and child health care was found to be low. Patriarchal community values and norms influencing gender roles hindered male involvement in MCH. More so, sensitisation on the importance of male involvement was inadequate. CONCLUSION: Men's participation in MCH is affected by multiple factors emanating from the community and health institutions. Involving men in MCH is critical, and therefore participatory and comprehensive approaches should be applied to encourage participation. Sensitisation of communities is fundamental for increasing awareness of the significance of male involvement in MCH.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Materno-Infantil , Hombres/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Identidad de Género , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Normas Sociales , Valores Sociales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Uganda , Adulto Joven
15.
J Bioeth Inq ; 16(3): 443-453, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444642

RESUMEN

The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) sets out a detailed description of what its own conception of the "spirit of sport" as employed in the World Anti-Doping Code (WADC) entails. However, controversies as to the significance and meaning to be ascribed to the term abound in the literature. In order to unravel the core of the debates and to move discussions forward, the authors aimed at reviewing understandings of the spirit of sport in the conceptual literature. The main databases were searched using relevant keywords. After the inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, eighteen publications were included in the review. The most striking result to emerge from the data is the multivalence of the concept of spirit of sport. Our thematic analysis generated the contestability of the spirit of sport as the predominant theme in the conceptual literature. There is a need for empirical research to generate data about perspectives on the spirit of sport from other stakeholders especially those of the athletes themselves.


Asunto(s)
Códigos de Ética , Comprensión , Doping en los Deportes/ética , Doping en los Deportes/legislación & jurisprudencia , Valores Sociales , Rendimiento Atlético/ética , Rendimiento Atlético/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adhesión a Directriz , Guías como Asunto , Sustancias para Mejorar el Rendimiento/administración & dosificación
16.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(supp 3): e20190236, 2019 Jul 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365610

RESUMEN

To understand the increasingly tenuous relationship between ourselves and the finite resource base upon which we depend for all sustenance, an exploration of recent history and basic human behavior is warranted. An attempt is made to shed light on how short-term economic demands have come to take priority over nearly all other long-term aspects of our existence. Without full recognition of our historical and cultural trajectories in relation to the modern mass mentality of materialism, consumerism and wealth, there is little possibility to develop or implement truly functional strategies that can be utilized indefinitely.


Asunto(s)
Salud Ambiental , Internacionalidad , Recursos Naturales , Valores Sociales , Humanos
17.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 75: 1-11, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426942

RESUMEN

Throughout much of the 20th century, philosophers of science maintained a position known as the value-free ideal, which holds that non-epistemic (e.g., moral, social, political, or economic) values should not influence the evaluation and acceptance of scientific results. In the last few decades, many philosophers of science have rejected this position by arguing that non-epistemic values can and should play an important role in scientific judgment and decision-making in a variety of contexts, including the evaluation and acceptance of scientific results. Rejecting the value-free ideal creates some new and vexing problems, however. One of these is that relinquishing this philosophical doctrine may undermine the integrity of scientific research if practicing scientists decide to allow non-epistemic values to impact their judgment and decision-making. A number of prominent philosophers of science have sought to show how one can reject the value-free ideal without compromising the integrity of scientific research. In this paper, we examine and critique their views and offer our own proposal for protecting and promoting scientific integrity. We argue that the literature on research ethics and its focus on adherence to norms, rules, policies, and procedures that together promote the aims of science can provide a promising foundation for building an account of scientific integrity. These norms, rules, policies, and procedures provide a level of specificity that is lacking in most philosophical discussions of science and values, and they suggest an important set of tasks for those working in science and values-namely, assessing, justifying, and prioritizing them. Thus, we argue that bringing together the literature on research ethics with the literature on science and values will enrich both areas and generate a more sophisticated and detailed account of scientific integrity.


Asunto(s)
Ética en Investigación , Filosofía , Proyectos de Investigación , Valores Sociales , Conocimiento
18.
Cuad. bioét ; 30(99): 135-147, mayo-ago. 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-185230

RESUMEN

This year marks the 40th anniversary of the Belmont Report that formally ushered in an era of principlism and proceduralism in the field of bioethics, an era which shaped the form of bioethical debate according to the combination of Enlightenment-inspired dualism and Liberal pragmatism characteristic of the United States. While ostensibly seeking to protect the vulnerable in a pluralistic society, in reality, recent critiques have argued, the development of bioethics has been directed at legitimizing the bureaucratization of ethics into a self-referential and isolated instrument for socio-political control. As a result, bioethical proceduralism often subverts the very values it is supposed to defend. These critiques, while valuable, do not reach the heart of the problem, which is rooted in the ontological level. The philosophical heritage of modern bioethics - the ontological presuppositions about human nature, freedom and the supposed "neutrality" towards any claims about the good, among others - must be rectified so bioethics may better achieve its stated goals and uphold its own principles. While recounting the entire ontological vision that would undergird such a renewal is beyond the scope of this paper, reconceiving the presuppositions behind the notions of freedom, consensus, and autonomy through an understanding of the human being as a person-in-community constitutively related to others opens a path through which principles and procedures can be preserved, not subverted, within bioethics today


Este año se cumple el 40º aniversario de la publicación del Informe Belmont que formalmente marcó el inicio de una época de principialismo y procedimentalismo en el campo de la bioética, una época que dio forma al debate bioético marcado tanto por el dualismo inspirado en la Ilustración como el pragmatismo Liberal característico en los Estados Unidos de América. Mientras ostensiblemente se buscaba proteger a los más vulnerables dentro de una sociedad pluralista, en realidad, críticas recientes han sostenido que el desarrollo de la bioética ha pretendido legitimar una burocratización de la ética, convirtiéndola en un instrumento aislado y autorreferencial para el control socio-político. Como consecuencia, el procedimentalismo bioético suele subvertir los mismísimos valores que debería defender. Estas críticas, aun siendo valiosas, no llegan al núcleo del problema, el cual está enraizado a nivel ontológico. La herencia filosófica de la bioética moderna - y los presupuestos ontológicos sobre la naturaleza humana, su libertad, y la su-puesta "neutralidad" hacia toda afirmación sobre el bien, entre otras - deben ser rectificadas para que la bioética pueda lograr mejor sus objetivos declarados y defender sus propios principios. Aunque describir la visión ontológica completa que afianzaría tal renovación supera el alcance de este trabajo, repensar los presupuestos que existen detrás de las nociones de libertad, consenso, y autonomía, a través de una comprensión del ser humano como persona-en-comunidad, relacionada constitutivamente a los demás, nos abre un camino por el cual los principios y procedimientos puedan ser preservados, no subvertidos, en la bioética de hoy


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Consenso , Bioética , Teoría Ética , Diversidad Cultural , Valores Sociales , Ética Basada en Principios , Características Culturales
20.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 38: 153-156, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284218

RESUMEN

Global reports of cultural insensitivity continue despite the growing evidence highlighting the importance of nurturing cultural competence development in nurse education and practice. With the widening sociocultural diversification of the patient population, it is now imperative that nurse educators establish cultural competence as a graduate capability. The recent focus on revisiting and recommitting to core nursing values is welcomed, however further consideration is needed to ensure such values are lived in nurses behaviours, when engaging with culturally diverse patients. Undergraduate nurse education needs to embrace opportunities to engrain values based learning in curriculum design and utilise innovative learning and teaching approaches that ensure cultural competence is more explicitly developed. This paper discusses the importance of providing opportunities for students to critically review approaches to care, whilst ensuring cultural competency is a more visible responsibility of the future registered nurse in delivering quality care. The authors outline some practical approaches to examining core values underpinning nursing practice in the context of cultural competence development.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Cultural/educación , Bachillerato en Enfermería/métodos , Valores Sociales , Estudiantes de Enfermería/psicología , Curriculum/tendencias , Bachillerato en Enfermería/normas , Humanos
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