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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 145255, 2021 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736367

RESUMEN

Protected areas (PAs) are key conservation areas designed to limit the impacts of human activities on biodiversity. PAs also provide great opportunities for individuals to experience nature complexity, through recreational activities, and can contribute to restore the non-material and intangible services nature provides to people (i.e., cultural ecosystem services). However, recreational activities may negatively affect biodiversity. Identifying the right balance between promoting nature interactions and safeguarding biodiversity in PAs is challenging. Current knowledge gaps on the social value and ecological impacts of recreational activities, such as camping in PAs, hinder our ability to address this challenge. This is particularly true for PAs located in desert ecosystems. In this interdisciplinary study, we surveyed biodiversity and people to assess ecological impacts and social values of campsites in desert PAs in Israel. Ecological surveys included birds, plants, rodents and scorpions in campsites and control plots. We conducted two social surveys: (1) in situ survey of campsite users (N = 280) on satisfaction, motivations and perceptions of campsites and (2) online nation-wide survey (N = 322) on perceptions of campsites and investigation of the attributes individuals prioritize in campsites. Our results demonstrate that when desert campsites are located outside nature-rich areas (i.e. the wadis), they have relatively moderate negative impact on biodiversity for three out of the four taxa studied (birds, scorpions and rodents). Bird communities were dominated by synanthropic species in high intensity campsites. Surprisingly, even when campsites were located in nature-poor areas, users' satisfaction was relatively high. Among the broader population, ecological quality (i.e. vegetation complexity) did not have strong influence on people's preferences of/for campsites, and comfort-related aspects were prioritized over vegetation in campsites. Overall, our results demonstrate that placing desert campsites outside ecologically rich areas can serve as optimal solution to balance impacts on biodiversity and social value of recreation activities in PAs.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Animales , Biodiversidad , Israel , Valores Sociales
2.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 40, 2021 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752689

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This paper critically discusses the use and merits of global indices, in particular, the Global Health Security Index (GHSI; Cameron et al. https://www.ghsindex.org/#l-section--map ) in times of an imminent crisis, such as the current pandemic. This index ranked 195 countries according to their expected preparedness in the case of a pandemic or other biological threat. The coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic provides the background to compare each country's predicted performance from the GHSI with the actual performance. In general, there is an inverted relation between predicted versus actual performance, i.e. the predicted top performers are among those that are the worst hit. Obviously, this reflects poorly on the potential policy uses of this index in imminent crisis management. METHODS: The paper analyses the GHSI and identifies why it may have struggled to predict actual pandemic preparedness as evidenced by the Covid-19 pandemic. The paper also uses two different data sets, one from the Worldmeter on the spread of the Covid-19 pandemics, and the other from the International Network for Government Science Advice (INGSA) Evidence-to-Policy Tracker, to draw comparisons between the actual introduction of pandemic response policies and the corresponding death rate in 29 selected countries. RESULTS: This paper analyses the reasons for the poor match between prediction and reality in the index, and mentions six general observations applying to global indices in this respect. These observations are based on methodological and conceptual analyses. The level of abstraction in these global indices builds uncertainties upon uncertainties and hides implicit value assumptions, which potentially removes them from the policy needs on the ground. CONCLUSIONS: From the analysis, the question is raised if the policy community might have better tools for decision-making in a pandemic. On the basis of data from the INGSA Evidence-to-Policy Tracker, and with backing in studies from social psychology and philosophy of science, some simple heuristics are suggested, which may be more useful than a global index.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones , Planificación en Desastres , Salud Global , Política de Salud , Pandemias , Formulación de Políticas , Personal Administrativo , Predicción , Humanos , Valores Sociales , Confianza , Incertidumbre
3.
Work ; 68(2): 269-283, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522996

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the social environment of most laborers around the world and has profoundly affected people's ontological security and behavior choices. Among them, the migrant workers are one of the groups most affected by the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study explored the mechanism of the impact of the scarcity of ontological security caused by the pandemic on the risk-taking tendency of migrant workers in China through two studies. METHODS: This study adopts two experimental method, with 514 participants in the first study and 357 participants in the second study. RESULTS: The results show that the pandemic-induced scarcity perception of ontological security promotes their risk-taking tendency, and the migrant workers' cognitive reflection ability, sense of unfairness and expected benefits play a significant mediating role in this process. The scarcity perception of ontological security promotes migrant workers' risk-taking tendency by reducing the cognitive reflection ability, triggering the sense of unfairness and overstating expected benefits. CONCLUSIONS: The conclusion of this study can help migrant workers, enterprises and government to avoid potential workplace and social bad behavior.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Empleo , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Seguridad Social/estadística & datos numéricos , Migrantes/psicología , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Lugar de Trabajo , Adulto , /transmisión , China , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Asunción de Riesgos , Valores Sociales
4.
Value Health ; 24(1): 41-49, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431152

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) are based on the value judgment that health outcomes (eg, quantified in quality-adjusted life-years; QALYs) are all equally valuable irrespective of their context. Whereas most published CEAs perform extensive sensitivity analysis on various parameters and assumptions, only rarely is the influence of the QALY-equivalence assumption on cost-effectiveness results investigated. We illustrate how the integration of alternative social value judgments in CEA can be a useful form of sensitivity analysis. METHODS: Because varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccination affects 2 distinct diseases (varicella zoster and herpes zoster) and likely redistributes infections across different age groups, the program has an important equity dimension. We used a cost-effectiveness model and disentangled the share of direct protection and herd immunity within the total projected QALYs resulting from a 50-year childhood VZV program in the UK. We use the UK population's preferences for QALYs in the vaccine context to revalue QALYs accordingly. RESULTS: Revaluing different types of QALYs for different age groups in line with public preferences leads to a 98% change in the projected net impact of the program. The QALYs gained among children through direct varicella protection become more important, whereas the QALYs lost indirectly through zoster in adults diminish in value. Weighting of vaccine-related side effects made a large difference. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that a sensitivity analysis in which alternative social value judgments about the value of health outcomes are integrated into CEA of vaccines is relatively straightforward and provides important additional information for decision makers to interpret cost-effectiveness results.


Asunto(s)
Análisis Costo-Beneficio/métodos , Vacunas contra Herpesvirus/administración & dosificación , Vacunas contra Herpesvirus/economía , Valores Sociales , Infección por el Virus de la Varicela-Zóster/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Vacunas contra Herpesvirus/efectos adversos , Humanos , Inmunidad Colectiva , Lactante , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Económicos , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Infección por el Virus de la Varicela-Zóster/economía , Infección por el Virus de la Varicela-Zóster/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
6.
Am J Ind Med ; 64(2): 73-77, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355943

RESUMEN

Globally, migrant and immigrant workers have borne the brunt of the COVID-19 pandemic as essential workers. They might be a Bulgarian worker at a meat processing plant in Germany, a Central American farmworker in the fields of California, or a Filipino worker at an aged-care facility in Australia. What they have in common is they are all essential workers who have worked throughout the coronavirus pandemic and have been infected with coronavirus at work. COVID-19 has highlighted the inequitable working conditions of these workers. In many instances, they are employed precariously, and so are ineligible for sick leave or social security, or COVID-19 special payments. If these are essential workers, they should get at least the same health and safety benefits of all nonessential workers. Improving the working and living conditions of migrant workers can and should be a positive outcome of the coronavirus pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , /transmisión , Estudios Transversales , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Fuerza Laboral en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Beneficios del Seguro/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Salud del Trabajador/provisión & distribución , Factores de Riesgo , Ausencia por Enfermedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Seguridad Social/estadística & datos numéricos , Valores Sociales , Factores Socioeconómicos
7.
J Homosex ; 68(1): 3-22, 2021 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251701

RESUMEN

The current study integrated prior research demonstrating 1) a mediational process by which the Five-Factor Model personality factor Openness to Experience, transmitted through right-wing authoritarian ideology, predicts sexual prejudice and 2) that the Five-Factor Model personality facet Openness to Values may be the more precise personality root of this process. Participants were 79 college students who completed a comprehensive measure of Five-Factor Model personality factors and facets and other relevant measures. Results supported hypotheses. In particular, facet-level Openness to Values accounted for comparable unique variance in sexual prejudice as factor-level Openness, and analyses of direct and indirect effects and overall model fit supported Openness to Values as the precise source predictor of the mediational pathway. Discussion focuses on preliminary evidence that Openness (and perhaps its facets) may be cultivated, and sexual prejudice reduced, by contact interventions. I emphasize in particular the promise of contact interventions that avoid frustration of the dogmatic personality by enhancing the experiential processing mode, including encouraging mental simulation of alternate social values.


Asunto(s)
Homofobia/psicología , Personalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Autoritarismo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Valores Sociales , Estudiantes , Adulto Joven
8.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 50: 102953, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373879

RESUMEN

This study aimed to identify countries' cultural values associated with the importance given to certain professional nursing values by nursing students from Spain and Colombia. Weis and Schank's Nurses Professional Values Scale-Revised (NPVS-R) in its Spanish version and the Hofstede cultural classification were used for this purpose. The sample was composed of 880 nursing students. Nursing students from both countries showed a greater importance for professional nursing values compared to evidence from other countries. Significant differences were also found in the total score, dimensions, and items, always being higher for Colombian students. Based on regression results, the impact that the academic year had on the importance given to NPVS-R is non-linear (U-inverted). Both groups of students gave the highest importance to the same group of items. Those showing the largest difference in the rankings were associated with country culture differences based on the scores identified by Hofstede. Colombian and Spanish societies present similarities in Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance, as well as differences in the other cultural dimensions.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Profesionalismo , Valores Sociales , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Adulto , Colombia , Comparación Transcultural , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , España , Estudiantes de Enfermería/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Edumecentro ; 12(4): 188-207, oct.-dic. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142857

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Fundamento: los valores son fuentes enriquecedoras de la personalidad de los futuros egresados de los centros de educación médica superior. Es necesario determinar la percepción que tienen los estudiantes de Estomatología sobre los que deben desarrollar para la profesión y como seres sociales. Objetivo: elaborar acciones metodológicas para la capacitación de los docentes sobre la formación y consolidación de los valores que deben caracterizar a los estudiantes, a partir del modelo del profesional desde la gestión sociocultural. Métodos: se realizó una investigación en la Facultad de Estomatología durante el curso 2018-2019. Se emplearon métodos teóricos: análisis-síntesis e inductivo-deductivo y el enfoque sistémico; empíricos: análisis documental, encuesta a estudiantes y la observación. Resultados: el análisis de los métodos aplicados permitió determinar la percepción que tienen los estudiantes de Estomatología sobre los valores que deben desarrollar para la profesión y como seres sociales, las prioridades que otorgan a los valores compartidos y a los deseados enunciados en el Reglamento General de los Servicios Estomatológicos y el modelo del profesional. Las irregularidades identificadas constataron la necesidad de continuar la formación de valores, por lo que se proponen acciones metodológicas para la preparación de los docentes, las que fueron valoradas por criterios de especialistas. Conclusiones: en las acciones propuestas se incluyen la utilización de recursos culturales y los valores inherentes a la personalidad del estomatólogo cubano, para lograr un enfoque humanista novedoso. Fueron valoradas como adecuadas para su aplicación en el contexto para el que fueron creadas.


ABSTRACT Background: values ​​are enriching sources of the personality of future graduates of Higher Medical Education Centers. It is necessary to determine the perception that Dentistry students have about what they must develop for the profession and as social beings. Objective: to develop methodological actions for the training of teachers on the formation and consolidation of the values ​​that must characterize students based on the professional model, through social-cultural management. Methods: an investigation was carried out at the Dentistry Faculty during the 2018-2019 academic year. Theoretical methods were used: analysis-synthesis, inductive-deductive and the systemic approach; empirical: documentary analysis, student survey and observation. Results: the analysis of the applied methods allowed determining the perception that dentistry students have about the values ​​that they must develop for the profession and as social beings; the priorities that they give to shared ​​and desired values ​​set forth in the General Regulation of Dental Services and the professional model. The irregularities identified confirm the need to continue the formation of values, for which methodological actions are proposed for the preparation of teachers, which were evaluated by specialist´s criteria. Conclusions: the proposed actions include the use of cultural resources and the values ​inherent to the personality of the Cuban dentist, to achieve a novel humanistic approach. They were assessed as suitable for their application in the context for which they were created.


Asunto(s)
Valores Sociales , Estudiantes de Odontología , Educación Médica
10.
J Elder Abuse Negl ; 32(5): 471-488, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308081

RESUMEN

Domestic violence (DV) is a worldwide societal problem affecting victims of all ages. While a sizable body of DV literature primarily surrounding young adults exists, research on DV among older individuals has received less attention. Yet, older non-victims and DV victims alike face unique challenges not experienced by younger age groups, such as socialization favoring traditional values, and loved ones who become unable to care for themselves. Less is known, however, about factors that influence older women's attitudes toward traditional values. Using a sample of women age 50 and older, including both victims and non-victims, the current study addressed this gap in research by examining whether age or the women's loved one's ability to care for themselves have an effect on attitudes toward traditional values. A discussion of the findings is provided, as well as policy implications and suggestions for future research.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Cuidadores/psicología , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Violencia Doméstica/psicología , Valores Sociales , Mujeres/psicología , Anciano , Familia , Femenino , Humanos , Matrimonio , Persona de Mediana Edad , Privacidad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1707, 2020 Nov 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198699

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite worldwide calls for precautionary measures to combat COVID-19, the public's preventive intention still varies significantly among different regions. Exploring the influencing factors of the public's preventive intention is very important to curtail the spread of COVID-19. Previous studies have found that fear can effectively improve the public's preventive intention, but they ignore the impact of differences in cultural values. The present study examines the combined effect of fear and collectivism on the public's preventive intention towards COVID-19 through the analysis of social media big data. METHODS: The Sina microblog posts of 108,914 active users from Chinese mainland 31 provinces were downloaded. The data was retrieved from January 11 to February 21, 2020. Afterwards, we conducted a province-level analysis of the contents of downloaded posts. Three lexicons were applied to automatically recognise the scores of fear, collectivism, and preventive intention of 31 provinces. After that, a multiple regression model was established to examine the combined effect of fear and collectivism on the public's preventive intention towards COVID-19. The simple slope test and the Johnson-Neyman technique were used to test the interaction of fear and collectivism on preventive intention. RESULTS: The study reveals that: (a) both fear and collectivism can positively predict people's preventive intention and (b) there is an interaction of fear and collectivism on people's preventive intention, where fear and collectivism reduce each other's positive influence on people's preventive intention. CONCLUSION: The promotion of fear on people's preventive intention may be limited and conditional, and values of collectivism can well compensate for the promotion of fear on preventive intention. These results provide scientific inspiration on how to enhance the public's preventive intention towards COVID-19 effectively.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Miedo/psicología , Intención , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Valores Sociales , Macrodatos , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(45): e22333, 2020 Nov 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157912

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Visually impaired students have been reported to struggle with value system and rash decision making process. This study examined the impact of rational emotive behavioral therapy (REBT) in reducing negative personal value system of visually impaired people. METHOD: A group-randomized trial design was adopted using 56 students with visual impairment. The participants received a value-based rational emotive behavior progamme and were assessed at 3 points using PVS and ABS-2-AV. RESULTS: The result of analysis of covariance showed that there was no significant difference between the treatment and control groups in initial personal value in Nigerian as measured by PVS. At the post-treatment the effect of V-REBP was significant in personal value and follow-up assessment respectively in favour of treatment group. CONCLUSION: We concluded that there is significant impact of rational emotive behavioral therapy on reduction of negative personal value system of students with visual impairment.


Asunto(s)
Psicoterapia Racional-Emotiva , Valores Sociales , Estudiantes/psicología , Personas con Daño Visual/psicología , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigeria , Adulto Joven
13.
Rev. Fund. Educ. Méd. (Ed. impr.) ; 23(5): 287-292, sept.-oct. 2020. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-197073

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: La metodología de aprendizaje-servicio se presenta como una herramienta educativa que permite respon-der integradamente a tres dimensiones: una académica, que posibilita mayores y mejores aprendizajes en los estudiantes; otra, la contribución real a la solución de problemas comunitarios, y finalmente, generar un espacio de formación en valores para los estudiantes. OBJETIVO: El objetivo de la estrategia metodológica de aprendizaje-servicio fue fortalecer los aprendizajes declarados en las trayectorias relacionados con la donación altruista de sangre, junto con instaurar en los estudiantes la responsabilidad social de hacerse donantes y promotores de la donación como futuros profesionales de la salud, en coordinación con un socio comunitario. Sujetos y métodos: La actividad se desarrolló a través de charlas a comunidades objetivo. Los estudiantes contactaron con las comunidades, prepararon el material y desarrollaron la actividad. Se hizo evaluación a través de una encuesta a los estudiantes, con aseveraciones que debían responder de acuerdo con una escala de 1 a 4, siendo 4 el mayor nivel de acuerdo. RESULTADOS: La actividad de aprendizaje-servicio fue evaluada por los estudiantes con un promedio global de 3,69. El criterio mejor evaluado fue la actividad de aprendizaje-servicio potencia el desarrollo de responsabilidad profesional y social', con una media de 3,86. CONCLUSIÓN: Esta metodología de enseñanza mejora la adquisición de saberes pertenecientes a módulos disciplinares y fortalece el compromiso social en los estudiantes


INTRODUCTION: The service-learning methodology is presented as an educational tool that allows to respond integrally to three dimensions: an academic one, which enables greater and better learning in students; another to the real contribution to the solution a community problem; and finally, to generate a space for values training for students. AIM: The objective of the service-learning methodological strategy was to strengthen the declared learning in the trajectories related to altruistic blood donation, along with establishing in students the social responsibility of becoming donors and promoters of donation as future health professionals, in coordination with a community partner. Subjects and methods: The activity was developed through talks to target communities. The students contacted the communities, prepared the material, and developed the activity. Evaluation was made through a survey of students, with statements that they had to answer according to a scale of 1 to 4, with 4 being the highest level of agreement. RESULTS: The service-learning activity was evaluated by the students with a global average of 3.69. The best evaluated criterion was 'the service-learning activity enhances the development of professional and social responsibility', with a 3.86 grade point average. CONCLUSION: This teaching methodology improves the acquisition of knowledge belonging to disciplinary modules, and strengthens social commitment in students


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Aprendizaje , Estrategias , Tecnología Biomédica/estadística & datos numéricos , Responsabilidad Social , Tecnología Biomédica/educación , Valores Sociales , Evaluación Educacional , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Responsabilidad Legal , Donantes de Sangre/ética , Bancos de Sangre/normas
14.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 34(5): 485-492, sept.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-198872

RESUMEN

OBJETIVO: Identificar variables y argumentaciones valóricas que configuran la percepción de la interrupción del embarazo como delito bajo cualquier causal, en una muestra comunitaria de una ciudad al sur de Chile durante el debate de la Ley 21.030. MÉTODO: Estudio mixto, cuantitativo, observacional, de corte transversal correlacional y cualitativo. Una muestra cuantitativa de 289 personas de Temuco (Chile) contestó a un cuestionario sobre categorías sociales y su percepción de la gravedad de 15 conductas como delito. Para la fase cualitativa se realizaron 12 entrevistas semiestandarizadas sometidas a análisis de contenido, incorporando algunos elementos de la teoría fundamentada desde la perspectiva constructivista. RESULTADOS: Con independencia del sexo, más de la mitad de la muestra de estudio consideran el aborto como un delito entre grave y extremadamente grave. Las personas religiosas, sin importar el tipo de religión, políticamente conservadoras y con menor nivel educativo, presentan una percepción del aborto como delito de mayor gravedad. La participación con frecuencia en actos religiosos presenta un efecto mediador. Los resultados cualitativos establecen una perspectiva multidimensional y el dogma de la religión como argumento central para rechazar el aborto. CONCLUSIONES: La religión y una visión política conservadora afectan las construcciones tradicionales de género y maternidad, y por ende se observa una tendencia a rechazar el aborto. Estos resultados hacen hincapié en la necesidad de prestar especial atención a la aceptación de la Ley 21.030 sobre la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo para una aplicación efectiva


OBJECTIVE: To identify the variables and the axiological argumentations that configure the perception of abortion as a crime, in a sample of a city in southern Chile during the debate of law 21.030. METHOD: The design is quantitative, observational correlation cross-sectional followed by a qualitative approach. The quantitative sample of 289 members of the community of Temuco (Chile) answered a questionnaire about social categories, and their perception of the seriousness of 15 behaviours defined in Chile as crimes. For the qualitative phase, we carried out 12 semi-standardized interviews in the same community, subject to content analysis, incorporating some elements of grounded theory from the constructivist perspective. RESULTS: Regardless of sex, more than half of the study sample considers abortion to be between a serious and an extremely serious crime, despite its current decriminalization. Religious people, no matter what kind of religion, political conservatives and people of a lower educational level, perceive abortion as a serious crime. Frequency of participation in religious events has a mediating effect. The qualitative results establish t religious teaching as a very important argument to reject abortion, and that the perception of the severity of abortion as a crime is multidimensional. CONCLUSION: Religion and a conservative political vision affect the traditional constructions of gender and motherhood, and therefore, there is a marked tendency to reject abortion. These results emphasize the need to pay special attention to the acceptance of Law 21.030 on the voluntary termination of pregnancy in regions. This is important for effective application of the Law


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aborto Legal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Valores Sociales , Valor de la Vida , Crimen/ética , Aborto Legal/ética , Religión y Medicina , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Chile/epidemiología
15.
Cuad Bioet ; 31(102): 151-165, 2020.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910669

RESUMEN

The public health crisis caused by COVID-19 disease has bring again to the public arena the old debate of the role in decision-making process of politics and science. In this paper we analyze, in the context of the current pandemics, how politics has left a stellar role for science, either because science has anticipated in its proposals to politics, or because politics has opted for it as a premeditated strategy. The references to the opinion of scientists as a decision-making criterion or, furthermore, their presence as true spokesmen for authority have been so frequent. This means rediscovering science and health as instruments of power, in terms that remind us of what Foucault denounced almost fifty years ago with his Biopolitics.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Política , Ciencia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Toma de Decisiones , Democracia , Teoría Ética , Política de Salud , Prioridades en Salud , Recursos en Salud/provisión & distribución , Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Pandemias/legislación & jurisprudencia , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Poder Psicológico , Salud Pública , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Asignación de Recursos/ética , Rol , Valores Sociales , Sociedades Científicas , España , Vacunas Virales
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238682, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941474

RESUMEN

The appearance of a new coronavirus (Covid-19) and its rapid expansion throughout the world has forced all countries to establish regulations based on social confinement. In the early days of a pandemic, the adherence to regulations is crucial to be able to block its spread. This research aims to analyse the relationship between motivational variables associated with physical distancing and self-interested consumption behaviours in the first 10 days of confinement in Spain. A total of 1,324 people participated throughout the country (mean age 28.92 years). Participants answered an online survey about socio-demographic, motivational variables, which included a) risk information seeking, b) confidence in self- and collective efficacy in coping with the pandemic, and c) the four higher-order personal values ‒conservation (security, conformity, and tradition), self-transcendence (universalism and benevolence), openness (self-direction actions and stimulation), and self-improvement (hedonism and power) ‒ and the aforementioned behaviours in coping with Covid-19. Results showed a positive association between self- and collective efficacy and both coping behaviours analysed: a protective role of conservation values on normative behaviours; and a negative relationship between self-transcendence values and self-interested consumption. Additionally, risk information seeking was positively associated with the development of physical distancing behaviour.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Autoeficacia , Valores Sociales , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/legislación & jurisprudencia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , España/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238683, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936815

RESUMEN

We report and interpret preferences of a sample of the Dutch adult population for different strategies to end the so-called 'intelligent lockdown' which their government had put in place in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a discrete choice experiment, we invited participants to make a series of choices between policy scenarios aimed at relaxing the lockdown, which were specified not in terms of their nature (e.g. whether or not to allow schools to re-open) but in terms of their effects along seven dimensions. These included health-related effects, but also impacts on the economy, education, and personal income. From the observed choices, we were able to infer the implicit trade-offs made by the Dutch between these policy effects. For example, we find that the average citizen, in order to avoid one fatality directly or indirectly related to COVID-19, is willing to accept a lasting lag in the educational performance of 18 children, or a lasting (>3 years) and substantial (>15%) reduction in net income of 77 households. We explore heterogeneity across individuals in terms of these trade-offs by means of latent class analysis. Our results suggest that most citizens are willing to trade-off health-related and other effects of the lockdown, implying a consequentialist ethical perspective. Somewhat surprisingly, we find that the elderly, known to be at relatively high risk of being affected by the virus, are relatively reluctant to sacrifice economic pain and educational disadvantages for the younger generation, to avoid fatalities. We also identify a so-called taboo trade-off aversion amongst a substantial share of our sample, being an aversion to accept morally problematic policies that simultaneously imply higher fatality numbers and lower taxes. We explain various ways in which our results can be of value to policy makers in the context of the COVID-19 and future pandemics.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Política de Salud , Modelos Econométricos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Valor de la Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Altruismo , Conducta de Elección , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/legislación & jurisprudencia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Costo de Enfermedad , Investigación Empírica , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Pandemias/economía , Pandemias/legislación & jurisprudencia , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/economía , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Cuarentena/economía , Cuarentena/legislación & jurisprudencia , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos , Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas , Valores Sociales , Impuestos , Adulto Joven
18.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 330-339, mayo 2020. graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-192070

RESUMEN

En la actualidad, la corrupción constituye uno de los principales problemas psicológicos, sociales, económicos y políticos a nivel mundial. El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar las variables psicológicas asociadas a la corrupción a través de una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones entre 2008 y 2018. Tras realizar una búsqueda en las bases de datos Psycinfo, Web of Science, Scopus, Scielo y Dialnet, se encontraron 44 artículos que cumplían con los criterios de selección propuestos. Los grandes núcleos encontrados fueron la ética organizacional, creencias y valores culturales, moral y normas percibidas, y personalidad y variables relacionadas. En general, los resultados apuntan a que variables organizacionales como la percepción de la conducta de sus dirigentes o las estrategias de justificación están relacionadas con la corrupción. Valores culturales meritocráticos y materialistas también han sido ligados a la conducta corrupta, como ocurre en el caso de la percepción de un entorno corrupto y de las normas sociales. En cuanto a la personalidad, rasgos como el narcisismo y la psicopatía se encuentran íntimamente ligados a este fenómeno. Por otra parte, variables como la percepción del poder o el sexo de los participantes han recibido un sustento empírico ambiguo


Nowadays, corruption is one of the most important psychological, social, economic and political issues worldwide. The present paper aims to analyse psychological variables related to corruption through a systematic review of publications from 2008 to 2018. After carrying out a bibliographic search in scientific databases such as Psycinfo, Web of Science and Dialnet, 41 papers were found to match selection criteria. Core topics haven been organizational ethics, cultural beliefs and values, perceived norms and moral, and personality and related variables. Overall, results have shown that organizational variables such as leaders' behaviour and justification strategies are linked to corruption. Meritocratic and materialist values have also been linked to corrupt behaviour, just like perceiving a corrupt environment and social norms. In regard to personality, features such as narcissism and psychopathy are deeply connected with this phenomenon. On the other side, perception of power and gender have a mixed empirical support


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Corrupción/psicología , Valores Sociales , Normas Sociales , Ética Institucional , Religión , Bases de Datos como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Moral
19.
Sportis (A Coruña) ; 6(3): 533-554, sept. 2020. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-197063

RESUMEN

La práctica deportiva bien orientada puede fomentar al desarrollo valores tales como el respeto, el autocontrol, el esfuerzo, la autonomía y el liderazgo. En este sentido, el objetivo de este estudio fue doble: 1) realizar una revisión sistemática relativa a las investigaciones que examinaban los efectos de alguna intervención sobre el desarrollo del respeto en la formación de jóvenes deportistas; y 2) describir y analizar dichas intervenciones. Para tales fines, se llevó a cabo una revisión sistemática en la que se estudiaron y analizaron diferentes investigaciones sobre el respeto en el ámbito deportivo y de la Educación Física. Para realizar esta revisión sistemática se empleó la Declaración PRISMA. Los resultados más destacados hacen referencia a la aplicación exitosa del Modelo de Responsabilidad Personal y Social de Hellison (TPRS) y de la Educación Deportiva de Siedentop. De esta manera, tanto en el contexto escolar como en el de clubes deportivos, la utilización de intervenciones relacionadas con los Modelos mencionados es aconsejada cuando se pretende fomentar el respeto


The practice of sport can promote the development of values such as respect, self-control, effort, autonomy and leadership. In this sense, the aim of this study was twofold: 1) to carry out a systematic review of research analyzing the effects of any intervention on the development of respect in the training of young athletes; 2) to describe and examine such interventions. To this end, a systematic review was carried out in which different research on respect in the field of sport and physical education was studied and analysed. The PRISMA Statement was used to conduct this systematic review. The most outstanding results refer to the successful application of Hellison's Personal and Social Responsibility Model (TPRS) and Siedentop's Sports Education. Thus, both in the school context and in the sports club context, the use of interventions related to the above-mentioned models is recommended when respect is to be encouraged


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Respeto , Deportes/educación , Valores Sociales , Responsabilidad Social , Educación y Entrenamiento Físico/métodos , Principios Morales
20.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 1): S13-S17, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737227

RESUMEN

Although parents are typically the most appropriate decision-makers for their children, there are limits to this authority. Medical providers may be ethically obligated to seek state intervention against a parental decision if the parent places a child at significant and imminent risk of serious harm. When parents make medical decisions for their children, they assess both the projected benefits and risks of their choices for their family. These assessments are impacted by uncertainty, which is a common feature of neonatal intensive care. The relative presence or absence of uncertainty may impact perceptions of parental decisions and a medical provider's decision to seek state intervention to overrule parents. In this article, we propose a model integrating prognostic uncertainty into pediatric decision-making that may aid providers in such assessments. We will demonstrate how to apply this model to 3 neonatal cases and propose that the presence of greater uncertainty ought to permit parents greater latitude to incorporate family values into their decision-making even if these decisions are contradictory to the recommendations of the medical team.


Asunto(s)
Discusiones Bioéticas , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas/ética , Padres , Incertidumbre , Familia , Femenino , Edad Gestacional , Humanos , Hipoxia-Isquemia Encefálica/etiología , Recién Nacido , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal , Masculino , Cuidados Paliativos , Consentimiento Paterno/ética , Pronóstico , Estenosis de la Válvula Pulmonar/cirugía , Valores Sociales , Privación de Tratamiento/ética
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