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2.
Urologiia ; (4): 61-67, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486276

RESUMEN

AIM: To evaluate the normal numerical and graphic values of nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) test using Androscan MIT in healthy males in order to use the collected data as reference standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NPT monitoring was carried out in 38 healthy male volunteers by fixing a sensor designed for 20 measurements on their penis. During the NPT test the following parameters were recorded: 1) total sleep time; 2) minimal penis diameter (PD) in the flaccid state recorded by the apparatus; 3) maximum PD during effective penile tumescence; 4) absolute PD increase during effective erections; 5) increase in PD in %; 6) the overall time of the rigid-erection phase; 7) the number of penile rigidity episodes; 8) the average duration of each effective erection; 9) the percentage of rigid erections during the whole monitoring period. RESULTS: Based on the data collected by Androscan MIT, we have specified the numerical values which characterize normal physiological NPT indices in healthy male volunteers. The number of tests performed and similar inclusion criteria contribute to the objectiveness of the presented data. Normal sleep time was from 7.3 to 9.5 hours. Monitoring during sleeping reflected the upper and lower limits of the minimal PD value recorded by Androscan MIT, which was from 23.5 mm to 30.2 mm. The maximum PD increase during the most effective erection varied from 35.3 mm to 44.3 mm. Total PD increase was from 10.6 mm to 15.4 mm (from 35.6% to 59.2%). In all cases a significant difference in PD increase between flaccid state and effective erection during sleeping was seen. The number of penile rigidity episodes varied from 3 to 7 a night. The overall time of effective erections was from 62.3 to 206.7 minutes, while the minimum duration of a single erection episode was 16.4 minutes and the maximum duration reached 35.8 minutes. The ratio of effective NPT to the total sleep time (the percentage of penile rigidity episodes) varied from 11.9% to 41.3%. CONCLUSION: Our results allowed to define reference qualitative and quantitative values of NPT in healthy male volunteers recorded by Androscan MIT which can be considered as normal and physiological and used for differential diagnostics of erectile dysfunction.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Eréctil , Erección Peniana , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pene , Valores de Referencia
3.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 253-264, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-202549

RESUMEN

Ambivalent sexism is a multidimensional construct composed of two elements: hostile sexism and benevolent sexism. The main aim of this study is to analyse the acceptance of ambivalent sexist attitudes in a sample of future teachers from Spain and Latin America. The research is based on a quantitative methodological strategy. The sample is composed of 2798 trainee teachers, and their mean age is 22.62 years (SD = 6.23), they were residing in seven countries: Spain, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Colombia, Chile, Argentina and Mexico. The data collection technique was the structured questionnaire. The results show that ambivalent sexist attitudes exist to a varying degree in future teachers of every country. The assumption of sexism varies significantly between men and women and among countries. There seems to be a relationship between levels of sexism with indices of gender inequality and human development. Education institutions are not exempt from obstacles and gender bias that impede the attainment of equality between women and men. Sexist attitudes of teachers can be transmitted through the education system and the socialization process, so including gender issues in initial and in service teacher training plans is essential


El sexismo ambivalente es un constructo multidimensional compuesto por dos componentes: el sexismo hostil y el sexismo benévolo. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido analizar la aceptación de las actitudes sexistas ambivalentes en una muestra de futuros y futuras docentes de España y Latinoamérica. En la investigación participaron 2798 docentes en formación con una edad media de 22.62 años (DE = 6.23) que residían en siete países: España, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Colombia, Chile, Argentina y México. Los resultados muestran que las actitudes sexistas están presentes, con diferentes grados de aceptación, en el profesorado en formación de todos los países. La aceptación del sexismo varía significativamente entre hombres y mujeres y entre los países de la muestra. Parece existir una relación entre los niveles de sexismo y los índices de desigualdad de género y desarrollo humano. Las actitudes sexistas del profesorado pueden transmitirse a través del sistema educativo y de los procesos de socialización, por lo que es fundamental incluir la perspectiva de género en los planes de formación inicial y continua del profesorado


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Maestros/estadística & datos numéricos , Formación del Profesorado , Sexismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores Sexuales , Sexismo/psicología , Maestros/psicología , Valores de Referencia , Hostilidad , Empatía , España , América Latina
4.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 276-286, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-202551

RESUMEN

The research objective was to establish relationships of association, interdependence and structural prediction between the variables of test anxiety, self-regulation and stress coping strategies. The theoretical framework of reference was the Competence for Studying, Learning and Performing under Stress (CSLPS) model. Participating were 142 students who were preparing for professional examinations to attain a post as public school teacher (primary education), enrolled at academies in Almería (Spain) for this purpose. Previously validated questionnaires were administered for data collection. The study design was linear ex post-facto, with bivariate, inferential analyses of association (ANOVAs and MANOVAs) and of structural prediction. Results showed a negative relationship between test anxiety self-regulation, especially in students with high emotionality, and a negative impact on decision making. Positive relationships were found between test anxiety and strategies for coping with stress. Finally, a positive predictive relationship was verified between self-regulation and coping strategies, while associative and inferential analyses highlighted the role of goals as determining factors in strategies used for coping with stress, especially strategies that focuson problem solving. Results are discussed and implications for improving these processes in professional examination candidates are established


El objetivo de la investigación fue establecer relaciones de asociación, interdependencia y predicción estructural entre las variables ansiedad evaluativa, authorregulación y estrategias de afrontamiento del estrés. El marco teórico de referencia fue el modelo de la competencia de Studying, Learning, and Performing under Stress (SLPS). Participaron 142 estudiantes, que se estaban preparando en academias de Almería (España) para obtener plaza como maestros en centros públicos. Para la recogida de datos se administraron cuestionarios escritos previamente validados. El diseño fue ex post-facto lineal, con análisis de asociación bivariada, inferenciales (ANOVAs y MANOVAs) y de predicción estructural. Los resultados mostraron una relación negativa entre la ansiedad evaluativa y la autorregulación, especialmente en los estudiantes con alta emocionalidad, con un impacto negativo para la toma de decisiones. También se encontraron relaciones positivas entre la ansiedad evaluativa y las estrategias de afrontamiento del estrés. Por último, se constató la relación de predicción positiva entre la autorregulación y las estrategias de afrontamiento, a la vez que los análisis asociativos e inferenciales destacaron el papel de las metas como determinantes de las estrategias usadas para afrontar el estrés, especialmente, las referidas a la focalización en la resolución de problemas. Se discuten los resultados y se establecen implicaciones para las mejoras de estos procesos en los estudiantes opositores


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ansiedad de Desempeño/psicología , Autocontrol/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Maestros/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Escala de Ansiedad ante Pruebas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Valores de Referencia , Aprendizaje
5.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 287-297, mayo-sept. 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-202552

RESUMEN

Actualmente, el engagement educativo se considera uno de los factores más importantes a la hora de predecir un buen aprendizaje por parte de los estudiantes, así como su éxito educativo. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los instrumentos descritos, no incluyen todos los factores clave vinculados al engagement académico: motivaciones, valores, contextos de aprendizaje, estado emocional y estrategias de gestión. El objetivo de este estudio es desarrollar una escala para valorar el nivel de engagement educativo de los estudiantes en Educación Superior (EMMEE) que supere esta limitación. MÉTODO: Se realizan análisis factoriales exploratorio y confirmatorio, así como un estudio de la consistencia interna, validez convergente y discriminante en una muestra de 764 estudiantes de la Universidad de Sevilla (España), perteneciente a todas las áreas de saber y los diferentes cursos de grados. RESULTADOS: Se explora y se confirma con muy buen nivel de ajuste una estructura multifactorial de engagement educativo de cinco factores que explican una varianza cercana al 65.78%, con una excelente consistencia interna (α = .91) y con indicios significativos de validez convergente y discriminante. CONCLUSIONES: Se concluye que la EMMEE es un instrumento válido y fiable para medir el nivel de engagement de las aulas, así como mejorar el entendimiento del constructo a través de sus factores


Today, educational engagement is considered one of the most important factors in predicting good student learning and educational success. However, most of the instruments described do not include all the key factors linked to academic engagement: motivations, values, learning contexts, emotional state and management strategies. The aim of this study is to develop a scale to assess the level of educational engagement in High-er Education students (MMSEE) that overcomes this limitation. METHODS: Exploratory and confirmatory factorial analyses, as well as a study of internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, were carried out on a sample of 764 students from the University of Seville (Spain), belonging to all areas of knowledge and different degree courses. RESULTS: A multifactorial structure of educational engagement with five factors that explain a variance close to 65.78%, with an excellent internal consistency (α = .91) and with significant indicators of convergent and discriminant validity is explored and confirmed with a very good level of adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that MMSEE is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the level of engagement of classrooms, as well as to improve the under-standing of the construct through its factors


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Aprendizaje , Motivación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Evaluación Educacional/normas , Análisis Factorial , Emociones , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Valores de Referencia
6.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 311-322, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-202554

RESUMEN

Desde la teoría del liderazgo transformacional, este estudio tenía como objetivo analizar las propiedades psicométricas de una versión adaptada al ámbito educativo del Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5X). Un total de 1551 estudiantes españoles (M = 15,47 años ± 0,72; 679 chicos y 872 chicas) de 31 centros de enseñanza secundaria participaron en el estudio. El análisis factorial confirmatorio de la estructura inicial de nueve factores de la escala determinó la necesidad de eliminar dos ítems del factor dirección por excepción pasiva, agrupando en un solo factor el liderazgo pasivo. En un segundo modelo de ocho factores, se hallaron altas correlaciones entre los factores del liderazgo transformacional, señalando la necesidad de establecer un factor de primer orden. Finalmente, se testó un tercer modelo que obtuvo valores adecuados de validez y fiabilidad, que estaba compuesto por 34 ítems distribuidos en 4 factores principales (liderazgo transformacional, recompensa contingente, dirección por excepción activa y liderazgo pasivo) y 5 factores secundarios para el liderazgo transformacional (influencia idealizada conducta, influencia idealizada atribuida, motivación inspiracional, estimulación intelectual y consideración individualizada. Por tanto, la versión española del MLQ-5X en el ámbito educativo puede ser utilizada para evaluar el liderazgo transformacional de los docentes desde la percepción del alumnado


Drawing on the transformational leadership theory, this study aimed to analyze the psychometric properties of a version adapted to the educational environment of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5X). A total of 1551 Spanish students (M = 15.47 years ± 0.72; 679 boys and 872 girls) from 31 secondary schools participated in the study. The confirmatory factor analysis of the initial nine-factor structure of the scale determined the need to eliminate two items of the passive exception management factor, grouping passive leadership into a single factor. A second eight-factor model found high correlations between the factors of transformational leadership, revealing the need to establish a first-order factor. Finally, a third model, which obtained adequate values of validity and reliability, was composed of 34 items distributed in 4 main factors (transformational leadership, contingent reward, leadership by active exception, and passive leadership) and 5 secondary factors for transformational leadership (idealized influence behavior, attributed idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration). The Spanish version of the MLQ-5X in the educational field can be used to assess the students' perception of teacher leadership


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Liderazgo , Estudiantes/psicología , Educación Primaria y Secundaria , Análisis Factorial , Valores de Referencia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores Sexuales , España
7.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 323-333, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-202555

RESUMEN

Este estudio tiene dos objetivos. Primero, estudiar la validez del modelo de clima motivacional de la familia como indicador de implicación parental, cuando se evalúa con el cuestionario de Clima Motivacional de la Familia para padres (CMF/P). Y, segundo, hacerlo en población española y cubana con el fin de determinar las diferencias en la percepción del CMF de los padres de ambos países. Participaron 892 padres, 400 españoles y 492 cubanos. Se realizaron análisis factoriales confirmatorios, de validez cruzada y multigrupo, y análisis de fiabilidad. Los resultados muestran, tanto en España como en Cuba, la validez del Modelo teórico que subyace al cuestionario. Las ayudas que ofrecen los padres sirviendo como ejemplo a sus hijos y la estructuración del trabajo escolar en casa por parte de los padres son los factores de mayor peso en la definición del CMF. Sin embargo, la cultura moderó la configuración del CMF en varios indicadores del Modelo, mostrando diferentes maneras de actuar entre padres españoles y cubanos en la configuración de un clima familiar motivador


This study has two objectives. First, to study the validity of the family motivational climate model as an indicator of parental involvement, when it is evaluated with the Family Motivational Climate questionnaire for Parents (CMF / P). Second, to do it in the Spanish and Cuban population in order to determine the differences in the CMF perception of the parents of both countries. A total of 892 parents participated in the study, 400 from Spain and 492 from Cuba. Confirmatory factor analyses, cross-validation and multi-group analyses performed, as well as reliability analysis. The results show, both in Spain and in Cuba, the validity of the theoretical model that underlies the questionnaire. The help offered by parents serving as an example to their children, and the way in which parents structure the schoolwork at home are the most important factors in the definition of the CMF. However, culture moderated the configuration of the CMF in several indicators of the Model, showing different ways of acting between Spanish and Cuban parents in the configuration of a family motivating climate


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Comparación Transcultural , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Motivación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Análisis Factorial , Percepción , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Valores de Referencia , Cuba , España
8.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 334-340, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-202556

RESUMEN

El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar si la curiosidad es una variable moderadora entre la Impulsividad y la Orientación Emprendedora. Se utiliza una muestra multiocupacional de 883 empleados españoles (49 % hombres, 51 % mujeres), obtenidos mediante un muestreo no probabilístico. Se ha utilizado el programa SPSS 23.0. Se encontraron correlaciones estadísticamente significativas entre todas las variables de la investigación a excepcion de la impulsividad Funcional. Finalmente, la evidencia empírica indica que la Curiosidad-D tiene un papel moderador entre la impulsividad Disfuncional y la Orientación Emprendedora mostrada, en el sentido de que la Curiosidad-D (entendida como una variable cuantitativa) afecta la intensidad de la relación entre la Impulsividad Disfuncional (variable predictora) y la Orientación Emprendedora (variable de criterio)


The objective of the present study is to analyze whether the variable Curiosity is a moderating variable between Impulsivity and Entrepreneurial Orientation. The multi-occupational sample of 883 Spanish and Colombian employees (49% men, 51% women) was obtained through non-probabilistic sampling. The data collected were processed with the SPSS 23.0 program. Statistically significant correlations were found among all the research variables except for Functional Impulsivity. Finally, empirical evidence indicates that Curiosity-D plays a moderating role between Dysfunctional Impulsivity and Entrepreneurial Orientation in the sense that Curiosity-D (understood as a quantitative variable) affects the intensity of the relationship between Dysfunctional Impulsivity (predictor variable) and Entrepreneurial Orientation (criterion variable)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Conducta Exploratoria , Impulso (Psicología) , Emprendimiento , Conducta Impulsiva , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Inventario de Personalidad , Análisis de Regresión , Valores de Referencia , España , Colombia
9.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 361-370, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-202559

RESUMEN

El enfoque psicológico en torno a la actividad emprendedora contribuye a explicar por qué las personas deciden o no emprender. El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar diferentes perfiles de personalidad emprendedora, así como identificar las variables de personalidad que puedan explicar el convertirse en trabajador por cuenta propia. Empleando una muestra de 586 participantes (Medad= 39,31; DTedad = 14,66), se analizaron diferentes perfiles de personalidad emprendedora mediante técnicas de análisis de perfiles latentes. Además, se analizó si había diferencias en otras variables psicológicas en función del perfil de personalidad emprendedora. Finalmente, se estudió, mediante un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales, si la responsabilidad, el autocontrol, el grit y la personalidad emprendedora ayudan a explicar que las personas se conviertan en trabajadores por cuenta propia. Los resultados apoyan la existencia de tres perfiles latentes de personalidad emprendedora (baja, media y alta), siendo el perfil alta personalidad emprendedora el que muestra mayores puntuaciones en otras variables psicológicas, así como mayor proporción de trabajadores por cuenta propia. El modelo de ecuaciones estructurales planteado explica un 2,6% de la varianza de la variable ser trabajador autónomo, por lo que las variables de personalidad ayudan a explicar una pequeña parte de la actividad emprendedora


The psychological approach to entrepreneurial activity helps to explain why people decide or not to undertake. The objective of this study is to analyze different entrepreneurial personality profiles, as well as to identify the personality variables that can explain becoming a self-employed. Using a sample of 586 participants (Mage = 39.31; SDage = 14.66), different entrepreneurial personality profiles were analyzed using la-tent profile analysis techniques. In addition, it was analyzed whether there were differences in other psychological variables based on the entrepreneurial personality profile. Finally, it was studied, using a structural equation model, if conscientiousness, self-control, grit and entrepreneurial personality help to explain why people become self-employed. The results support the existence of three latent profiles of entrepreneurial personality (low, medium and high), being high entrepreneurial personality the one profile that shows higher scores in other psychological variables, as well as a higher proportion of self-employed. The proposed structural equation model explains 2.6% of the variance of the variable being self-employed, so the personality variables help to explain a small part of entrepreneurial activity


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Emprendimiento , Concienciación , Autocontrol/psicología , Motivación , Empleo/psicología , Inventario de Personalidad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Valores de Referencia
10.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 393-402, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-202562

RESUMEN

Professional drivers often have problems sleeping or resting properly. This may be due to various factors, both personal and specific to their working conditions. In this study, we set out to develop a predictive model for the quality of sleep in professional drivers using the following indicators: Age, Gender, Seat Comfort, Seat Suspension, Adjustable Lum-bar Support of the Driver's Seat, Driving Hours, Musculoskeletal Problems, Driver Stress, Irritation, Resistant Personality, Burnout, Safety Behaviors and Impulsivity. METHOD: The participants were 369 professional drivers from different transport sectors, obtained through non-probabilistic sampling. The SPSS 25.0 program was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The predictive capacity of certain variables that affect drivers' sleep quality is determined. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep quality can be predicted by means of certain variables, the best predictor of which is Exhaustion (Burnout). This research contributes to the body of knowledge on sleep quality and on improving the health of professional drivers


Los conductores profesionales suelen padecer problemas para dormir o descansar correctamente. Esto puede deberse a diversos factores tanto personales como específicos de las condiciones laborales. En el presente trabajo nos hemos planteado desarrollar un modelo predictivo sobre la calidad del sueño en conductores profesionales utilizando los indicadores siguientes: Edad, Género, Confort del asiento, suspensión del asiento, Soporte lumbar ajustable del asiento del conductor, Horas de conducción, Problemas musculoesqueléticos, Drivers Stress, Irritación, Personalidad resistente, Burnout, conductas de seguridad e Impulsividad. MÉTODO: Los participantes han sido 369 conductores profesionales, de distintos sectores del transporte, obtenidos mediante un muestreo no probabilístico. Se han utilizado el programa SPSS 25.0. RESULTADOS: Se determina la capacidad predictiva de algunas variables que afectan a los conductores sobre la calidad del sueño. CONCLUSIONES: La calidad del sueño se puede predecir a través de determinadas variables, siendo la mejor predictora Exhaustion (Burnout). Esta investigación contribuye a un mayor conocimiento de la calidad del sueño y a la mejora de la salud de los conductores profesionales


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Conducción de Automóvil/psicología , Sueño/fisiología , Salud Laboral , Agotamiento Profesional/psicología , Conducta Impulsiva , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Valores de Referencia , Análisis de Regresión , Factores Sexuales , Factores de Edad , Condiciones de Trabajo , Factores de Tiempo
11.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(3): 351-357, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés, Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379904

RESUMEN

Abstract: Objective To study the correlation between the abdominal wall subcutaneous fat thickness and heart weight, so as to provide reference for prediction methods of normal range of heart weight that is suitable for autopsy in China. Methods The forensic pathology autopsy cases accepted by Center for Medicolegal Expertise of Sun Yat-sen University from 1998 to 2017 were collected. Then the exclusion criteria were determined, and according to them the total case group was selected, and the 6 disease groups and the normal group were further selected from the total case group. The rank sum test was used to compare the heart weight of the normal group and the disease groups to determine the influence of diseases on heart weight. Then the Spearman rank correlation analysis of abdominal wall subcutaneous fat thickness and heart weight in different genders and different ages in the total case group and the normal group was conducted to get the correlation coefficient (rs). Results In the total case group, correlation between abdominal wall subcutaneous fat thickness and heart weight was shown in males of all ages (P<0.05); while in females, the correlation had no statistical significance (P>0.05) in 15-<20 age and 50-<60 age, but was statistically significant (P<0.05) in other age groups. For the males in the normal group, rs was respectively 0.411, 0.541 and 0.683 in the 15-<40 age, the 40-<60 age, and the ≥60 age. For the females, rs was respectively 0.249 and 0.317 in the 15-<40 age and the 40-<60 age. The correlation in the ≥60 age had no statistical significance(P>0.05). Conclusion In the general population and the normal population, abdominal wall subcutaneous fat thickness is correlated with the heart weight of males. It is of significance to include the abdominal wall subcutaneous fat thickness in the prediction of normal range of heart weight for males in China.


Asunto(s)
Pared Abdominal , Pared Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagen , China , Femenino , Corazón/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valores de Referencia , Grasa Subcutánea/diagnóstico por imagen
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 51, 2021.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422174

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to compare the unadjusted EPOPé M0 curve with the customized Gardosi curve in the diagnosis of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses in a sub-Saharan population. We compared the Gardosi et al. and EPOPé M0 classifications. Classification differences were analyzed according to patient characteristics and obstetric conditions. Data collected from FileMaker software were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 and R Studio software. The statistical tests were carried out according to applicability conditions. Alpha risk was set at 0.05. The Gardosi curve showed that the rate of SGA newborns was higher (31.4% versus 28.9%) and did not differ between overweight and normal-weight women. The rate of severe SGA in preterm infants was also higher (23.6 versus 19.7%). Diseases were more frequent in newborns classified as severe SGA by the customized growth curve. The customized curve is recommended for the sub-Saharan Africa population.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Fetal/fisiología , Retardo del Crecimiento Fetal/diagnóstico , Recien Nacido Prematuro/crecimiento & desarrollo , Adulto , África del Sur del Sahara , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Retardo del Crecimiento Fetal/clasificación , Edad Gestacional , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Embarazo , Valores de Referencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Adulto Joven
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112580, 2021 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352578

RESUMEN

The relevance of a biomarker for biomonitoring programs was influenced both by the knowledge on biomarker natural inter-individual and site variabilities and by the sensitivity of the biomarker towards environmental perturbations. To minimize data misinterpretation, robustness reference values for biomarkers were important in biomonitoring programs. Specific three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, immune reference ranges for field studies had been determined based on laboratory data and one reference station (Contentieuse river at Houdancourt). In this study, data obtained in one uncontaminated and three contaminated sites were compared to these reference ranges as a validation step before considering them for larger scale biomonitoring programs. When the field reference range were compared to data from the uncontaminated station (Béronelle), only few deviations were shown. In this way, data coming from uncontaminated station (Béronelle) was integrated in the field reference ranges to improve the evaluation of site variability. The new field reference ranges provided better discrimination of sites and spanned a larger range of fish lengths than the initial reference ranges. Furthermore, the results suggest lysosomal presence during several months and phagocytosis capacity in autumn may be the most relevant immunomarkers towards identifying contaminated sites. In the future, combining this reference value approach with active biomonitoring could facilitate the obtention of data in multiple stream conditions.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Smegmamorpha , Animales , Monitoreo Biológico , Valores de Referencia , Ríos
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444430

RESUMEN

The concentration of cerebrospinal fluid total protein (CSF-TP) is important for the diagnosis of neurological emergencies. Recently, some Western studies have shown that the current upper reference limit of CSF-TP is quite low for older patients. However, little is reported about the concentration of CSF-TP in the older Asian population. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the CSF-TP concentrations in healthy older Japanese volunteers. CSF samples in 69 healthy Japanese volunteers (age range: 55-73 years) were collected by lumbar puncture, and the data of CSF were retrospectively analyzed. The mean (standard deviation) CSF-TP was 41.7 (12.3) mg/dL. The older group (≥65 years old) had higher CSF-TP concentration than the younger group (55-64 years old). The 2.5th percentile and 97.5th percentile of CSF-TP were estimated as 22.5 and 73.2 mg/dL, respectively, which were higher than the current reference range in Japan (10-40 mg/dL). Conclusions: The reference interval of CSF-TP in the older population should be reconsidered for the precise diagnosis of neurological emergencies.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas del Líquido Cefalorraquídeo , Voluntarios , Anciano , Líquido Cefalorraquídeo , Humanos , Japón , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valores de Referencia , Estudios Retrospectivos
15.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(9): e23935, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390017

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Neutral-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and many diseases, but there are few data about the reference interval (RI) of NLR, LMR, and PLR. METHODS: The neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, monocyte count, and platelet count of 404,272 Chinese healthy adults (>18 years old) were measured by Sysmex XE-2100 automatic hematology analyzer, and NLR, LMR, and PLR were calculated. According to CLSI C28-A3, the nonparametric 95% percentile interval is defined as the reference interval. RESULTS: The results of Mann-Whitney U test showed that NLR (p < .001) in male was significantly higher than that in female; LMR (p < .001) and PLR (p < .001) in male were significantly lower than that in female. Kruskal-Wallis H test showed that there were significant differences in NLR, LMR, and PLR among different genders and age groups (p < .001). The linear graph showed that the reference upper limit of NLR and PLR increased with age and the reference upper limit of LMR decreases with age in male population. In female population, the reference upper limit of NLR in 50-59 group, LMR in >80 group, and PLR in 70-79 group appeared a trough; the reference upper limit of NLR in >80 group, LMR in 50-59 group, and PLR in 40-49 group appeared peak. CONCLUSION: The establishment of RI for NLR, LMR, and PLR in Chinese healthy adults according to gender and age will promote the standardization of clinical application.


Asunto(s)
Recuento de Leucocitos/estadística & datos numéricos , Recuento de Linfocitos/estadística & datos numéricos , Monocitos , Neutrófilos , Recuento de Plaquetas/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19/sangre , China , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valores de Referencia , SARS-CoV-2 , Factores Sexuales
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e27095, 2021 Aug 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449514

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was reported as an independent prognostic factor in many studies, but its cutoff point was not yet concluded. We set forth to prove and validate cutoff point of NLR as a poor prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) in nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients.Retrospective cohort of nonmetastatic NPC adult patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy with curative aim at Siriraj hospital during 2007 to 2014 was enrolled. NLR was defined as absolute neutrophil count divided by absolute lymphocyte count. OS was the primary outcome. We explored our cutoff value by maximum concordance index (C-index) method, and we validated our cutoff and previously reported cutoff values by categorizing patients as NLR ≤ 3 or >3. Internal validation was done by bootstrapping method.Four hundred sixty-three patients were included. The median follow-up time was 70.8 months. By the end of June 2019, 211 patients had died. In univariable analysis of OS by Cox model, an NLR value of 3 showed the highest C-index (0.548) with an HR of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.08-1.89). After adjustment for body mass index, overall staging, age, gender, and histology in multivariable analysis, an NLR >3 was still an independent prognostic factor of poor OS (HR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.01-1.79). After internal validation, the resampling method shows no overfitting condition and corrected C-index was 0.547 for univariable analysis.A cutoff point of NLR of 3 from routine blood test was found to be an independent poor prognostic factor among patients with nonmetastatic NPC. This prognostic factor could be included in clinical prediction model of NPC and this further prediction model would select high risk patients for intensive treatment.


Asunto(s)
Recuento de Linfocitos/estadística & datos numéricos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/sangre , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/sangre , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Adulto , Anciano , Biomarcadores de Tumor , Femenino , Humanos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Estadísticos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/mortalidad , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/radioterapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Pronóstico , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Radioterapia de Intensidad Modulada , Valores de Referencia , Estudios Retrospectivos
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e27096, 2021 Aug 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449515

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: To determine the normal range of pancreatic volume (PV) in Chinese adults using computed tomography (CT) volumetry. To assess the relationships of PV with patient demographics and clinical parameters. To analyze the degree of correlation between PV values determined by manual segmentation and those calculated by formulas.A total of 240 adults (120 women, 120 men) between the ages of 18 and 79 years were reviewed. There were 6 groups of patients, with 40 patients in each decade regarding age. PV was segmented manually on computed tomography images slice by slice for each patient, and 2 formulas were used to calculate PV∗ and PV#.The mean PV was 77.44 ±â€Š19.11 cm3 (range from 28.55-138.15 cm3). PV was significantly correlated with height (r = 0.427, P < .001), weight (r = 0.525, P < .001), body mass index (r = 0.377, P < .001), the width of the first lumbar vertebral body (r = 0.166, P = .01), the transverse abdominal diameter (r = 0.455, P < .001), and the sagittal abdominal diameter (r = 0.456, P < .001). There was a negative correlation between PV and age (r = -0.209, P = .001). The correlation coefficients between PV and PV∗ and PV# were 0.676 and 0.376, respectively, with both P < .001.PV associated with patient demographics and clinical parameters. A more accurate and simpler formula should be used in the future to calculate and monitor changes in PV.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico/métodos , Tamaño de los Órganos , Páncreas/anatomía & histología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , China , Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico/normas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valores de Referencia , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
18.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 151, 2021 07 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303362

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Converting electronic health record (EHR) entries to useful clinical inferences requires one to address the poor scalability of existing implementations of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) for repeated measures. The major computational bottleneck concerns the numerical evaluation of multivariable integrals, which even for the simplest EHR analyses may involve millions of dimensions (one for each patient). The hierarchical likelihood (h-lik) approach to GLMMs is a methodologically rigorous framework for the estimation of GLMMs that is based on the Laplace Approximation (LA), which replaces integration with numerical optimization, and thus scales very well with dimensionality. METHODS: We present a high-performance, direct implementation of the h-lik for GLMMs in the R package TMB. Using this approach, we examined the relation of repeated serum potassium measurements and survival in the Cerner Real World Data (CRWD) EHR database. Analyzing this data requires the evaluation of an integral in over 3 million dimensions, putting this problem beyond the reach of conventional approaches. We also assessed the scalability and accuracy of LA in smaller samples of 1 and 10% size of the full dataset that were analyzed via the a) original, interconnected Generalized Linear Models (iGLM), approach to h-lik, b) Adaptive Gaussian Hermite (AGH) and c) the gold standard for multivariate integration Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). RESULTS: Random effects estimates generated by the LA were within 10% of the values obtained by the iGLMs, AGH and MCMC techniques. The H-lik approach was 4-30 times faster than AGH and nearly 800 times faster than MCMC. The major clinical inferences in this problem are the establishment of the non-linear relationship between the potassium level and the risk of mortality, as well as estimates of the individual and health care facility sources of variations for mortality risk in CRWD. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the direct implementation of the h-lik offers a computationally efficient, numerically accurate approach for the analysis of extremely large, real world repeated measures data via the h-lik approach to GLMMs. The clinical inference from our analysis may guide choices of treatment thresholds for treating potassium disorders in the clinic.


Asunto(s)
Registros Electrónicos de Salud , Potasio , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Cadenas de Markov , Método de Montecarlo , Valores de Referencia
19.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101368, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314937

RESUMEN

The blood gas and biochemical reference range established with i-STAT clinical analyzer in avian has become common, however, the reference value for various laying hen lines is limited. Therefore, blood gas and biochemical reference intervals will be established for Lohmann Silver layers in the pre- and post-laying periods. The blood sample was collected at a 4-wk interval. A total of 230 Lohmann Silver layers including 80 pullets (5-17 wk) and 150 laying hens (21-37 wk) were collected for whole blood measurement with the i-STAT clinical analyzer. The CG8+ cartridge provides values of the following 13 parameters: sodium (Na mmol/L), potassium (K mmol/L), ionized calcium (iCa mmol/L), glucose (Glu mg/dL), hematocrit (Hct% Packed Cell Volume [PCV]), pH, partial pressure carbon dioxide (PCO2 mm Hg), partial pressure oxygen (PO2 mm Hg), total concentration carbon dioxide (TCO2 mmol/L), bicarbonate (HCO3 mmol/L), base excess (BE mmol/L), oxygen saturation (sO2%), and hemoglobin (Hb g/dL). The correlation of these parameters and the effect of physiological status were investigated. The reference value interval was established with a reference value advisor for pre-laying and post-laying birds. Correlations were found to be statistically significant, especially between BE and HCO3 and TCO2. Besides, values in Na, iCa, K, Hct, Hb, sO2 differed significantly between the pre- and post-laying periods. Data in this study might serve as important information for facilitating the genetic selection and assessing the health of Lohmann Silver laying hens.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de los Gases de la Sangre/veterinaria , Pollos , Animales , Pollos/metabolismo , Femenino , Valores de Referencia , Sodio
20.
Eur J Radiol ; 142: 109861, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280596

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To investigate retrospective classification of adult patients into small, average, and large based on effective diameter (EDia) from localizer image of computed tomography (CT) scans and to develop regional diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) and achievable doses (AD). METHOD: The patients falling within the mean ± standard deviation (SD) of EDia were classified as average; those below this range as small and above as large. The CTDIvol,dose-length-product (DLP) and size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) of all adult patients undergoing CT examinations in 8 CT facilities for 11 months (Dec. 2019 - Oct. 2020) were evaluated. The 75th and 50th percentile values were compared with national and international values. RESULTS: Of the total of 69,434 CT examinations, nearly 80% fell within average size. The 75th percentile values of CTDIvol and DLP for small patients for abdomen-pelvic exams were nearly half of average sized patients. Similarly, the 75th percentile values for large patients were nearly double. Similar findings were not found for chest exams. Analysis of image quality and dose factors such as noise, mean axial length, slice thickness, mean number of sequences, use of iterative reconstruction and tube current modulation (TCM) resulted in identification of opportunities for improvement and optimization of different CT facilities. CONCLUSIONS: DRLs for adult patients were found to vary widely with patient size and thus establishing DRLs only for standard sized patient is not adequate. Simplified and intuitive methods for size classification was shown to provide meaningful information for optimization for patients outside the standard size adult.


Asunto(s)
Abdomen , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Adulto , Humanos , Dosis de Radiación , Valores de Referencia , Estudios Retrospectivos
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