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1.
Addict Behav ; 115: 106783, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360444

RESUMEN

We examined tobacco use changes in young adult college students in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on smoking and vaping. First, we evaluated changes in tobacco use from pre to post campus closure focusing on smoking and electronic nicotine vaping frequency (days) and quantity (cigarettes/cartridges per day). Also, given the potential protective effects of pausing (temporarily or permanently discontinuing) smoking or vaping, we evaluated its predictors. We hypothesized that generalized anxiety and moving home would increase the odds of pausing. We also explored effects of COVID-related news exposure and seeking on tobacco use. We re-contacted young adults two years after they completed a study on alcohol and marijuana co-use. A subset (N = 83; 26.6% of the 312 respondents) were enrolled in college and reported use of cigarettes (n = 35) and/or e-cigarettes (n = 69) in the week prior to their campus closing (PC). Paired sample t-tests compared smoking and vaping frequency and quantity PC to past-week use since closing (SC). Multivariate logistic regression models were fit to examine predictors of pausing. Both smoking and vaping frequency decreased from PC to SC; however, decreased frequency did not correspond to reduced quantity. Twenty-four participants (28.9%) paused past-week use SC. Higher anxiety and moving home (versus living independently) were related to increased odds of pausing, whereas COVID-19 related news exposure and seeking were related to decreased odds of pausing. Characterizing COVID-19 related tobacco use change provides insights into how college students respond to novel health threats and informs potential interventions.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Fumar Cigarrillos/psicología , Vapeo/epidemiología , Vapeo/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Pandemias , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Joven
2.
J Environ Public Health ; 2020: 7391587, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655649

RESUMEN

Objectives: Our objective in this study was to identify the risk factors for cigarette, e-cigarette, and IQOS use among adolescents in Taiwan, with a particular focus on socioeconomic status, smoking status of parents and peers, cigarette promotions, and anti-tobacco campaigns. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2018 version of the annual cross-sectional Taiwan Global Youth Tobacco Survey, which is used to monitor tobacco use among Taiwanese adolescents in junior and senior high schools. The dependent variables in the study were "current cigarette smoking," "current use of e-cigarettes," and "current use of IQOS devices" (i.e., during the 30 days prior to survey completion). Independent variables included gender, school grade, monthly income/allowance, educational level of parents, smoking status of parents, smoking status of close friends, access to free cigarettes, exposure to cigarette advertisements, and attendance at anti-tobacco courses. Logistic regression was used in the identification of factors correlated with the current use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, or IQOS. Results: We determined that 5.65% of the adolescents in the study were currently using cigarettes, 2.74% were currently using e-cigarettes, and 2.33% were currently using IQOS. Our analysis revealed a number of factors that have a bearing on smoking behavior, including gender, monthly allowance, educational level of parents, smoking status of parents and close friends, access to free cigarettes, and exposure to cigarette advertisements. Conclusions: The tobacco product that was most widely used by adolescents was cigarettes, followed by e-cigarettes and IQOS. The socioeconomic status, smoking status of parents/close friends, and access to cigarettes were all identified as important factors related to the current use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and IQOS by adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Tabaco/epidemiología , Dispositivos para Dejar de Fumar Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Vapeo/epidemiología , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Taiwán/epidemiología , Fumar Tabaco/psicología , Vapeo/psicología
3.
Psychol Assess ; 32(10): 903-914, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658519

RESUMEN

Schools are increasingly concerned with the well-being of the whole child - likely, more so since the COVID-19 pandemic - and goals here were to document the psychometric properties of a brief new measure of adolescent mental health, the Well-Being Index (WBI). The measure assesses 4 symptom areas, 2 each of internalizing and externalizing symptoms-Depression, Anxiety, Rule-Breaking, and Substance Use-and an optional scale on Isolation at School. A total of 2,444 students from 2 high schools completed the WBI, the Youth Self-Report (YSR), and other related measures. Alpha coefficients showed acceptable internal consistency, with values for the 5 WBI subscales at .83, .84, .78, .79, and .74, respectively. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated consistent factorial validity. Correlations with corresponding YSR subscales indicated good convergent and discriminant validity. The WBI Substance Use and Isolation at School subscales, similarly, had high correlations with subscales from preexisting measures. Criterion-related validity was indicated in significant correlations between WBI subscales and conceptually related dimensions of close relationships. Also examined was the percentage of youth falling above clinical cutoffs on both the WBI and YSR, and findings demonstrated high concurrent validity. Collectively, results suggest the promise of the WBI as a brief, psychometrically sound measure to assess the adjustment of adolescents, along with perceptions of school climate that can be modified toward fostering their overall well-being. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Salud del Adolescente , Ansiedad/psicología , Fumar Cigarrillos/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Uso de la Marihuana/psicología , Salud Mental , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores/psicología , Vapeo/psicología , Adolescente , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Depresión/diagnóstico , Análisis Factorial , Familia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Instituciones Académicas , Autoinforme , Estudiantes/psicología
5.
Pediatrics ; 145(5)2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253264

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of evidence regarding the association of use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) with certain product characteristics and adolescent and young adult risk of unhealthy tobacco use patterns (eg, frequency of combustible cigarette smoking), which is needed to inform the regulation of e-cigarettes. METHODS: Data were collected via an online survey of participants in the Southern California Children's Health Study from 2015 to 2016 (baseline) and 2016 to 2017 (follow-up) (N = 1312). We evaluated the association of binary categories of 3 nonmutually exclusive characteristics of the e-cigarette used most frequently with the number of cigarettes smoked in the past 30 days at 1-year follow-up. Product characteristics included device (vape pen and/or modifiable electronic cigarette [mod]), use of nicotine in electronic liquid (e-liquid; yes or no), and use for dripping (directly dripping e-liquid onto the device; yes or no). RESULTS: Relative to never e-cigarette users, past-30-day e-cigarette use was associated with greater frequency of past-30-day cigarette smoking at follow-up. Among baseline past-30-day e-cigarette users, participants who used mods (versus vape pens) smoked >6 times as many cigarettes at follow-up (mean: 20.8 vs 1.3 cigarettes; rate ratio = 6.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.64-24.5) after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, baseline frequency of cigarette smoking, and number of days of e-cigarette use. After adjustment for device, neither nicotine e-liquid nor dripping were associated with frequency of cigarette smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline mod users (versus vape pen users) smoked more cigarettes in the past 30 days at follow-up. Regulation of e-cigarette device type warrants consideration as a strategy to reduce cigarette smoking among adolescents and young adults who vape.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Fumar Cigarrillos/tendencias , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Vapeo/epidemiología , Vapeo/tendencias , Adolescente , Fumar Cigarrillos/psicología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Vapeo/psicología , Adulto Joven
6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 278, 2020 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111186

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite the misconceptions regarding E-cigarettes (ECs), only a few studies have been conducted in the Middle East that focused on this topic. This study assesses the knowledge of and attitudes towards ECs in Lebanon, determines how these two measures are associated, and identifies the variables that explain each of these measures. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted on a convenience sample of Lebanese pedestrians aged between 18 and 64 inclusive. A structured self-administered questionnaire comprising of knowledge and attitude scales, and questions on demographical, health and smoking characteristics was used. RESULTS: Scores for attitudes and knowledge of ECs were summed and dichotomized using a 75% cutoff, above which the participant was considered to have a positive attitude and good knowledge. Among the 352 participants (56.6% males, 43.3% females, mean age 30.3, 46.2% smokers), 63.3% exhibited a lower level of EC knowledge. More than 50% erroneously thought that ECs are not associated with lung and bladder cancer or impair lung and heart function. 65% falsely thought that it is harmless and not addictive. As for attitude, 43.3, 53.9, and 44.3% thought that it is socially acceptable, helps in smoking cessation, and is a good replacement for cigarettes and an enjoyable recreational device respectively. Our results revealed an inverse correlation between attitude and knowledge scores (Spearman's correlation = -.30, p < .001). Predictors of knowledge included health-related occupation (p = .010), regular exercise (p = .016), healthy diet (p = .026), EC use (p = .026), perception that ECs are not harmful (p = .001), and help in smoking cessation (p = .017). Predictors of attitude included EC use (p = .008), sex (p = .010), and knowledge that most ECs are addictive (p = .006), harmful (p = .014), and impair heart and lung function (p = .047). CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed a gap in EC knowledge, especially among participants who displayed a positive attitude towards ECs. Hence, measures should be undertaken to regulate its use by instituting more stringent laws and holding nationwide awareness campaigns.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Vapeo/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Líbano , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vapeo/efectos adversos , Adulto Joven
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(9): 236-240, 2020 Mar 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134907

RESUMEN

On July 10, 2019, Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WDHS) was notified of five previously healthy adolescents with severe lung injuries who reported use of e-cigarette, or vaping, products before symptom onset. As of December 31, 2019, 105 confirmed or probable cases of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI)* had been reported to WDHS . Three social clusters (A, B, and C), comprising eight EVALI patients (cluster A = two patients, cluster B = three, and cluster C = three) were identified. WDHS investigated these clusters with standard and follow-up interviews; laboratory analysis of e-cigarette, or vaping, products; and analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. All eight patients reported daily use of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, product cartridges (THC cartridges) in the month preceding symptom onset. All THC cartridges were purchased from local illicit dealers, and all patients reported using THC cartridges labeled as "Dank Vapes," among other illicit brand names. At least two members of each cluster reported frequent sharing of THC cartridges before symptom onset. All eight patients also reported daily use of nicotine-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products. Vitamin E acetate (VEA) was detected in all five THC cartridges tested from two patients, and in BAL fluid from two other patients. These findings suggest that THC cartridges containing VEA and sold on the illicit market were likely responsible for these small clusters of EVALI. Based on information presented in this and previous reports (1,2) CDC recommends not using THC-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products, especially those obtained from informal sources such as friends, family, or in-person or online dealers (1). VEA is strongly linked to the EVALI outbreak and should not be added to e-cigarette, or vaping, products (1).


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Lesión Pulmonar/epidemiología , Vapeo/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Análisis por Conglomerados , Dronabinol/toxicidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Vapeo/psicología , Vitamina E/toxicidad , Wisconsin/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(2): e1920961, 2020 02 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049291

RESUMEN

Importance: Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is high among adolescents, but the extent to which the JUUL e-cigarette brand accounts for the high prevalence has not been explored using population-based surveys. Objective: To examine e-cigarette and JUUL use among adolescents in New Jersey. Design, Setting, and Participants: Survey study using data from the 2018 New Jersey Youth Tobacco Survey, a cross-sectional statewide representative survey of tobacco use. The survey was school based and sampled New Jersey students in grades 9 to 12. Exposures: Use of tobacco products; JUUL as first tobacco product tried; exposure to JUUL at school; number of friends perceived as JUUL users; liking or following a tobacco brand on social media; and buying or receiving tobacco-branded merchandise. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence ratio (PR) for current and frequent e-cigarette use, inclusive of JUUL. Results: In this sample of 4183 adolescents, respondents were 49.6% female and 49.6% non-Hispanic white. Students were evenly distributed across grades 9 through 12. Overall, the estimate for current use of e-cigarettes inclusive of JUUL was higher (24.2%; 95% CI, 22.5%-25.9%) compared with current use assessed by use of e-cigarettes only (17.8%; 95% CI, 16.4%-19.4%) or JUUL use only (21.3%; 95% CI, 19.7%-23.0%). Divergence in e-cigarette use estimates was higher for certain subgroups, including female respondents and non-Hispanic black respondents. Also, 88.8% (95% CI, 86.6%-91.1%) of current e-cigarette users reported JUUL as a brand they used. Hispanic students (PR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.69-0.89) and non-Hispanic students of other races (PR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.51-0.81) were significantly less likely than non-Hispanic white students to be current e-cigarette users, and students in 12th grade were more likely than those in 9th grade to be current users (PR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.11-1.48). Current e-cigarette use was positively associated with current use of other tobacco products (PR, 2.57; 95% CI, 2.24-2.95), endorsing a tobacco brand on social media (PR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.19-1.72), having tobacco-branded merchandise (PR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.46-1.97), having close friends who used JUUL (PR, 3.81; 95% CI, 3.17-4.58), and seeing JUUL used on school grounds (PR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.24-1.65). Estimates of prevalence were greater when modeling frequent use. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that prevalence of current and frequent e-cigarette use among adolescents was higher when inclusive of JUUL use, and JUUL was by far the most common e-cigarette brand used, providing support for inclusion of brand-specific questions when assessing e-cigarette use. The results also identify characteristics of adolescents who may be more likely to use e-cigarettes.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Influencia de los Compañeros , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Vapeo , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mercadotecnía , New Jersey/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Vapeo/epidemiología , Vapeo/psicología
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(1): e1920255, 2020 01 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003818

RESUMEN

Importance: Millions of Americans use electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). A growing number of state and local governments have started to draft and implement laws regarding the sale, marketing, and use of e-cigarettes. The association of US state regulations regarding e-cigarettes with e-cigarette use remains unknown. Objective: To examine the association of US state regulations regarding e-cigarettes with current e-cigarette use among adults in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included adults aged 18 years or older from the 2016 and 2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which is a nationwide, telephone-administered survey that collects state-representative data on health-related risk behaviors, chronic health conditions, and use of preventive services. Data analysis was performed from February 1, 2019, to April 31, 2019. Exposures: United States state laws regulating e-cigarette use, including prohibiting e-cigarette use in indoor areas of private workplaces, restaurants, and bars; requiring retailers to purchase a license to sell e-cigarettes; prohibiting self-service displays of e-cigarettes; prohibiting sales of tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, to persons younger than 21 years; and e-cigarette taxes. Main Outcomes and Measures: Current use of e-cigarettes. Results: Among 894 997 participants aged 18 years or older (503 688 women [51.3%], 679 443 non-Hispanic white [62.6%], 71 730 non-Hispanic black [16.3%], 69 823 Hispanic [11.4%], and 74 001 non-Hispanic other races [9.8%]), 28 907 (weighted prevalence, 4.4%) were currently using e-cigarettes. The age-standardized weighted prevalence of current e-cigarette use varied across US states and territories, from 1.0% in Puerto Rico to 6.2% in Guam. After adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors, including conventional cigarette use, the odds ratios of current e-cigarette use were 0.90 (95% CI, 0.83-0.98) for state laws prohibiting e-cigarette use in indoor areas of private workplaces, restaurants, and bars; 0.90 (95% CI, 0.85-0.95) for state laws requiring retailers to purchase a license to sell e-cigarettes; 1.04 (95% CI, 0.99-1.09) for state laws prohibiting self-service displays of e-cigarettes; 0.86 (95% CI, 0.74-0.99) for state laws prohibiting sales of tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, to persons younger than 21 years; and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.83-0.96) for state laws applying taxes to e-cigarettes. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that several state regulations regarding e-cigarettes may be associated with reduced e-cigarette use among US adults.


Asunto(s)
Sistema de Vigilancia de Factor de Riesgo Conductual , Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/economía , Vapeo/economía , Vapeo/epidemiología , Vapeo/legislación & jurisprudencia , Vapeo/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948125

RESUMEN

Presently, a growing popularity of electronic cigarettes may be observed. Used as a means of obtaining nicotine they allow to substitute traditional cigarettes. The origins of substance use disorders are conditioned by dopaminergic signaling which influences motivational processes being elementary factors conditioning the process of learning and exhibiting goal-directed behaviors. The study concentrated on analysis of three polymorphisms located in the dopamine receptor 2 (DRD2) gene-rs1076560, rs1799732 and rs1079597 using the PCR method, personality traits determined with the Big Five Questionnaire, and anxiety measured with the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. The study was conducted on a group of 394 volunteers, consisting e-cigarette users (n = 144) and controls (n = 250). Compared to the controls the case group subjects achieved significantly higher scores in regard to the STAI state and the trait scale, as well as the NEO-FFI Neuroticism and Openness scale. Likewise, in the case of the STAI state for DRD2 rs1076560 significant differences were found. Furthermore, while comparing the groups (e-cigarette users vs. controls) we noticed interactions for the NEO FFI Neuroticism and DRD2 rs1076560. The same was observed in the case of interactions significance while comparing groups (e-cigarette users vs. controls) for the STAI trait/scale and DRD2 rs1799732. Findings from this study demonstrate that psychological factors and genetic determinants should be analyzed simultaneously and comprehensively while considering groups of addicted patients. Since the use, and rapid increase in popularity, of electronic cigarettes has implications for public health, e-cigarette users should be studied holistically, especially younger groups of addicted and experimenting users.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Personalidad , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Vapeo/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroticismo , Nicotina , Inventario de Personalidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Fenotipo , Polimorfismo Genético , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/genética , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vapeo/genética , Adulto Joven
11.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 32, 2020 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941548

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether exposure to smoking and vaping cues the urge to smoke or vape. It extends previous studies on first-generation cigalikes (visually similar to cigarettes) and second-generation devices (visually similar to pens) by including third-generation tank system devices (larger bulky units). In an online experiment, participants were randomly assigned to view one of four videos, which included smoking, vaping (cigalike or tank system), or neutral cues. The primary outcome was urge to smoke. Secondary outcomes were urge to vape, desire to smoke and vape, and intention to quit or remain abstinent from smoking. RESULTS: UK adults varying in smoking (current or former) and vaping (user or non-user) status (n = 1120) completed the study: 184 (16%) failed study attention checks meaning 936 were included in the final analysis. Urges to smoke were similar across cue groups. Urges to vape were higher following exposure to vaping compared to neutral cues. There was no clear evidence of an interaction between cue group and smoking or vaping status. The lack of cueing effects on smoking urges is inconsistent with previous research, raising questions about the ability to assess craving in online settings.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Productos de Tabaco , Fumar Tabaco/psicología , Vapeo/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Ansia , Señales (Psicología) , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/clasificación , Femenino , Humanos , Intención , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Pública/estadística & datos numéricos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963835

RESUMEN

Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has had an exponential increase in popularity since the product was released to the public. Currently, there is a lack of human studies that assess different biomarker levels. This pilot study attempts to link e-cigarette and other tobacco product usage with clinical respiratory symptoms and immunoglobulin response. Subjects completed surveys in order to collect self-reported data on tobacco product flavor preferences. Along with this, plasma samples were collected to test for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and E (IgE) levels. Our pilot study's cohort had a 47.9% flavor preference towards fruit flavors and a 63.1% preference to more sweet flavors. E-cigarette and traditional cigarette smokers were the two subject groups to report the most clinical symptoms. E-cigarette users also had a significant increase in plasma IgE levels compared to non-tobacco users 1, and dual users had a significant increase in plasma IgG compared to non-tobacco users 2, cigarette smokers, and waterpipe smokers. Our pilot study showed that users have a preference toward fruit and more sweet flavors and that e-cigarette and dual use resulted in an augmented systemic immune response.


Asunto(s)
Aromatizantes/química , Inmunoglobulina E/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Fumadores/psicología , Gusto , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Proyectos Piloto , Fumadores/clasificación , Uso de Tabaco/psicología , Vapeo/psicología , Fumar en Pipa de Agua/psicología
13.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(5): 663-671, 2020 04 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698815

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarette (ECIG) use and changes in cigarette smoking status may be influenced by self-reported reasons for using ECIGs. METHODS: We analyzed adult current and former cigarette smokers who were also current or former ECIG users at wave 1 (n = 3044) using wave 1 and wave 2 Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study data (2013-2015). Prevalence of reporting 13 reasons for ECIG use at wave 1 was examined and weighted logistic regressions were conducted predicting smoking status changes from wave 1 to wave 2. RESULTS: Reasons for ECIG use ranged from 18.1% (people in the media or public figures use them) to 82.5% (they might be less harmful to people around me than cigarettes). From wave 1 to wave 2, 27.2% of former smokers (n = 249) became current smokers and 11.6% of current smokers (n = 246) became former smokers. Among wave 1 former smokers, using ECIGs because of the availability of flavors (AOR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.39-0.85) or because they don't smell (AOR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.42-0.97) was associated with lower odds of relapse to smoking, but using ECIGs because using them helps people quit smoking (AOR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.01-2.38) was associated with greater odds of relapse. Among wave 1 current smokers, using ECIGs because they can be used where smoking is not allowed (AOR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.38-0.85) was associated with reduced odds of quitting cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: Some reasons for ECIG use are associated with changes in self-reported smoking status. Researchers should examine ECIG user characteristics when assessing associations between ECIG use and smoking status transitions. IMPLICATIONS: Given that certain reasons for ECIG use, such as using ECIGs in locations are where smoking is not allowed, may inhibit smoking reduction, policies may be developed to prevent ECIG use in locations where smoking is banned. In addition, because certain reasons for ECIG use may aid in relapse prevention, such as availability of desired flavors, efforts should be made to identify ECIG device characteristics that are appealing to smokers but not youth or nontobacco users. These results provide support for future research on reasons for ECIG use to inform regulatory policies.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumadores/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Vapeo/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Fumar Cigarrillos/psicología , Femenino , Aromatizantes , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Autoinforme , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
14.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(5): 798-805, 2020 04 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437266

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Sensory research on e-liquid flavors can be performed by means of smelling and vaping. However, data comparing smelling versus vaping e-liquid flavors are lacking. This study aims to investigate if smelling could be an alternative to vaping experiments by determining the correlation for hedonic flavor assessment between orthonasal smelling and vaping of e-liquids, for smokers and nonsmokers. METHODS: Twenty-four young adult smokers (mean age 24.8 ± 9.3) and 24 nonsmokers (mean age 24.9 ± 7.7) smelled and vaped 25 e-liquids in various flavors. Participants rated liking, intensity, familiarity, and irritation on a 100-mm Visual Analog Scale. Pearson correlations within and between smelling and vaping were calculated. Differences between user groups were calculated using t tests. RESULTS: Correlation coefficients between smelling and vaping based on mean group ratings were 0.84 for liking, 0.82 for intensity, 0.84 for familiarity, and 0.73 for irritation. Means of the within-subjects correlation coefficients were, respectively, 0.51, 0.37, 0.47, and 0.25. Correlations between smelling and vaping varied across individuals (ranging from -0.27 to 0.87) and flavors (-0.33 to 0.81). Correlations and mean liking ratings did not differ between smokers and nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS: The strong group-level correlations between orthonasal smelling and vaping e-liquid flavors justify the use of smelling instead of vaping in future research. For example, smelling could be used to investigate differences in e-liquid flavor liking between (potential) user groups such as nicotine-naïve adolescents. The more modest within-subject correlations and variation across individuals and flavors merit caution in using smelling instead of vaping in other types of experiments. IMPLICATIONS: This study supports the use of orthonasal smelling (instead of vaping) e-liquids to measure hedonic flavor perception in some studies where vaping would be inappropriate or not feasible. Examples of research situations where smelling e-liquids may be sufficient are (1) investigating nicotine-naïve individuals (ie, nonusers), (2) investigating individuals under legal age for e-cigarette use (ie, youth and adolescents), (3) investigating brain responses to exposure of e-liquid flavors using functional magnetic resonance imaging or electroencephalogram, and (4) comparing hedonic flavor assessment between adolescent nonusers and current smokers to provide support for future regulations on e-liquid flavors.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Aromatizantes/administración & dosificación , No Fumadores/psicología , Olfato/efectos de los fármacos , Fumadores/psicología , Vapeo/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
15.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(5): 764-770, 2020 04 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883640

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Although some smokers switch to exclusive use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), others become dual users of combustible cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Little is known about how the onset of vaping affects the use of and dependence on combustible cigarettes or total nicotine use and dependence, which may influence health-related and cessation outcomes. Using self-report data of current combustible and e-cigarette use and retrospective recall of pre-vaping smoking in a sample of dual users, the aims of this study were (1) to compare pre- and post-vaping number of cigarettes per day and combustible cigarette dependence; (2) to compare pre- and post-vaping total nicotine use frequency (number of vaping sessions and cigarettes smoked per day), and total nicotine dependence; and (3) to examine predictors of nicotine dependence. METHODS: We used baseline data from a smoking cessation trial with 2896 dual users. Nicotine use frequency and the Heaviness of Smoking Index were used as measures of nicotine use and dependence, respectively. RESULTS: Participants decreased cigarettes/day from pre- (M = 19.24, SD = 9.01) to post-vaping (M = 11.15, SD = 8.02, p < .0001) and combustible cigarette dependence declined from pre- (M = 3.55, SD = 1.51) to post-vaping (M = 2.11, SD = 1.60, p < .0001). Total daily nicotine use frequency increased after initiating vaping (M = 19.25, SD = 9.01 vs. M = 29.46, SD = 8.61; p < .0001), as did total nicotine dependence (M = 3.55, SD = 1.51 vs. M = 4.68, SD = 1.38; p < .0001). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that variables associated with greater overall nicotine dependence included: younger age, lower education, more years smoking, higher pre-vaping nicotine dependence, using e-cigarettes more days per month, more puffs per vaping session, higher e-liquid nicotine concentration, and longer vaping history. CONCLUSIONS: Dual use leads to a reduction in the number of combustible cigarettes, but total nicotine use and dependence increases. IMPLICATIONS: In dual users, a reduction in smoking following onset of vaping may offer some harm reduction via reduction in cigarette intake. However, the increase in total nicotine use and dependence could affect the ability to quit either or both products.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumadores/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Fumar Tabaco/psicología , Tabaquismo/psicología , Vapeo/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Reducción del Daño , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Autoinforme , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Vapeo/epidemiología
16.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(5): 838-842, 2020 04 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452714

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Recent literature has demonstrated individuals may be using electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) as a method of weight loss and/or management. Furthermore, e-cigarette companies are developing and patenting technologies related to e-cigarettes and weight loss. This study aims to determine the association between intentions to lose weight and e-cigarette use behaviors among a nationally representative sample of high school students. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance survey. Participants were 12 847 students in grades 9-12 in the United States. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression models assessed the association between past 30-day e-cigarette use and weight loss intentions among 9-12 grade students. Subsample analyses were conducted, stratified by sex. Covariates included perceived weight, sex, race/ethnicity, grade, and past 30-day tobacco use. RESULTS: Overall, 23.7% of the sample used e-cigarettes in the past 30 days. E-cigarette use was associated with 1.38 (95% CI = 1.07% to 1.78%) greater risk of intentions to lose weight among the full sample, controlling for covariates. Among girls, e-cigarette use was associated with 1.44 (95% CI = 1.05% to 1.97%) greater risk of intentions to lose weight, controlling for covariates. Among boys, e-cigarette use was associated with 1.40 (95% CI = 1.04% to 1.88%) greater odds of intentions to gain weight, controlling for covariates. CONCLUSION: Findings show a significant association between e-cigarette use and intentions to lose weight among high school students, among the full sample. Interestingly, e-cigarette use was statistically associated with intentions to gain weight among boys. Longitudinal study is needed to further examine this relationship. IMPLICATIONS AND CONTRIBUTION: This is the one of the first studies reporting on e-cigarette use and weight loss intentions among adolescents, both highly prevalent among this population. These findings are an important development in the study of e-cigarette use given the established link between conventional cigarette smoking and weight loss and/or management.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Fumar Cigarrillos/psicología , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Intención , Estudiantes/psicología , Vapeo/epidemiología , Pérdida de Peso/efectos de los fármacos , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Prevalencia , Asunción de Riesgos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Texas/epidemiología , Vapeo/psicología
17.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(2): 297-301, 2020 02 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500925

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: E-cigarettes have risen in prevalence in recent years, and most public health experts agree they deliver fewer toxicants than combustible tobacco products such as cigarettes. Thus, it is important to understand how use of e-cigarettes by current smokers impacts dependence on combustible cigarettes. METHODS: The present study is a secondary analysis of a randomized pilot trial of e-cigarette sampling. Nontreatment seeking current smokers were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to either receive or not receive a weekly supply of e-cigarettes for 3 weeks. Participants completed the Brief Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM) scale and the cigarette purchase task before and after the sampling period and at monthly follow-up visits for 3 months. RESULTS: Individuals assigned to receive an e-cigarette had significantly lower mean WISDM scores at the end of sampling and the end of the follow-up period compared with those in the control group. Both frequency of e-cigarette use as well as nicotine concentration of the e-cigarette given to smokers were significant predictors of changes in the mean WISDM score. E-cigarette sampling significantly reduced the demand parameter Omax, which measures the maximum amount of money participants estimate they would spend on cigarettes in a single day. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that current smokers who try using an e-cigarette may experience reductions in dependence on combustible cigarettes. IMPLICATIONS: The present analysis suggests that providing an e-cigarette to current cigarette smokers is likely to reduce cigarette dependence, especially if the e-cigarette delivers sufficient nicotine and is used frequently.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos/psicología , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Refuerzo en Psicología , Fumadores/psicología , Vapeo/psicología , Adulto , Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivación/fisiología , Proyectos Piloto , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Vapeo/epidemiología
18.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(6): 1023-1029, 2020 05 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074792

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Primary care visits present an opportunity to reduce tobacco use and tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) among adolescents. To date, few studies have examined tobacco-related electronic health record (EHR) documentation in adolescent visits. The purpose of this study was to (1) describe tobacco-related EHR documentation practices in adolescent care clinics, including whether alternative tobacco products, parental use, and TSE were addressed; and (2) identify aspects of adolescent tobacco use that may inform EHR updates and counseling and documentation practices. METHODS: Following a convergent mixed-methods design, we conducted an EHR review of 508 adolescent well-child visits, performed focus groups with pediatric providers and staff, and conducted in-depth interviews with adolescent patients. Record review data and interview transcripts were analyzed and interpreted concurrently. RESULTS: In the EHR review, cigarette screening was documented in 92.3% of visits, smokeless tobacco screening in 51.4%, parental tobacco use in 23.2%, and home TSE in 33.1% of visits. Smoking status options were not mutually exclusive and did not include noncigarette products. No records documented assessment of e-cigarette use, despite nearly half of adolescent interview respondents citing these as the most popular products among adolescents. In interviews, adolescents discussed their experiences with alternative tobacco/nicotine products more than cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco use status prompts should be revised for clarity and include noncigarette tobacco products and TSE. Provider education on noncigarette products and TSE assessment is needed. Improvements in EHR systems, resources, and tools can lead to better tobacco screening, prevention, and treatment practices among primary care providers. IMPLICATIONS: Clinical guidelines call for pediatricians to assess and treat adolescent and parental tobacco use during primary care visits. The use of electronic health records (EHRs) can improve screening and counseling practices; however, few studies have examined tobacco-related EHR documentation practices in adolescent care settings. This mixed-methods study found low rates of EHR documentation related to noncigarette nicotine/tobacco products, parental tobacco use, and tobacco smoke exposure. These results demonstrate the need for increased provider training and EHR modifications to facilitate comprehensive tobacco control efforts in the adolescent population.


Asunto(s)
Consejo/métodos , Documentación/estadística & datos numéricos , Registros Electrónicos de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Tamizaje Masivo/normas , Atención Primaria de Salud/normas , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Adolescente , Terapia Conductista , Niño , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Masculino , Uso de Tabaco/psicología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Vapeo/psicología
19.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(5): 655-662, 2020 04 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768136

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and smoking cessation among US adults. Duration of smoking cessation was taken into consideration because e-cigarette awareness and use were low in the United States before 2010. METHODS: A pooled analysis of the 2016 and 2017 National Health Interview Surveys on current (N = 9935) and former smokers (N = 14 754) was performed. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs), for sociodemographic factors, were calculated. FINDINGS: Current e-cigarette use was reported by 10.5% (95% CI = 9.8% to 11.3%) of current smokers and 4.5% (95% CI = 4.0% to 5.0%) of former smokers. Prevalence was high in former smokers of less than 1 year (16.8%, 95% CI = 13.9% to 20.2%), 1-3 years (15.0%, 95% CI = 13.0% to 17.3%), and 4-6 years (10.5%, 95% CI = 8.6% to 12.7%), and very low in former smokers of more than 6 years (0.7%, 95% CI = 0.5% to 0.9%). Similar patterns were observed for daily e-cigarette use. Current e-cigarette use was negatively associated with being a former smoker when quit duration was ignored (aPR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.59 to 0.69) but was positively associated with being a former smoker of less than 1 year (aPR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.84) and 1-3 years (aPR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.42). Daily e-cigarette use was not associated with being a former smoker when quit duration was ignored but was positively associated with being a former smoker of less than 1 year (aPR = 3.44, 95% CI = 2.63 to 4.49), 1-3 years (aPR = 2.51, 95% CI = 2.13 to 2.95), and 4-6 years (aPR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.49 to 2.26). CONCLUSIONS: Daily e-cigarette use is strongly associated with recent smoking cessation (≤6 years) among US adults. Frequency of e-cigarette use and smoking cessation duration are important parameters when analyzing the effects of e-cigarettes in population surveys. IMPLICATIONS: There is controversy on whether e-cigarettes promote or prevent smoking cessation. This study presents a detailed analysis of the association between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation in the United States considering frequency of e-cigarette use and duration of smoking cessation. The latter was considered appropriate because e-cigarette awareness and use were low in the United States before 2010. Daily e-cigarette use is strongly associated with recent (≤6 years) smoking cessation in the United States. Both frequency of e-cigarette use and duration of smoking cessation are important factors in determining the effects of e-cigarettes in population studies.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumadores/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Fumar/psicología , Tabaquismo/rehabilitación , Vapeo/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Fumar/epidemiología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Tiempo , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/psicología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
20.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(5): 681-688, 2020 04 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30215774

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The ability to reliably measure real-world vaping behavior is critical to understand exposures to potential toxins. Commercially available mobile topography devices were originally designed to measure cigarette puffing behavior. Information regarding how applicable these devices are to the measurement of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) vaping topography is needed. METHODS: Clinical Research Support System (CReSS; Pocket) and Smoking Puff Analyzer Mobile (SPA-M) topography devices were tested against the calibrated laboratory-based smoking puff analyzer duplicator (SPA-D) device combined with an analytical smoking machine that generates programmable puffs with high precision. Puff topography of e-cigarettes was measured over a range of puff volumes (10-130 mL) at 2 and 5 s puff durations (using bell- and square-shaped puffs). "Real-world" topography data collected from 10 participants during 1 week of at-home vaping were also analyzed. Recording anomalies and limitations of the devices, such as accuracy of detection of the puff end, flow rate dropouts, unreported puffs, and abandoned vaping sessions for the CReSS, and multi-peak puffs for the SPA-M were defined. RESULTS: The accuracy of puff volumes and durations was determined for both devices. The error for SPA-M was generally within ±10%, whereas that for the CReSS varied more widely. The CReSS consistently underestimated puff duration at higher flow rates. CONCLUSIONS: CReSS and SPA-M topography devices can be used for real-world e-cigarette topography measurements, but researchers have to be aware of the limitations. Both devices can provide accurate measurements only under certain puff parameter ranges. The SPA-M provided more accurate measurements under a wider range of puffing parameters than the CReSS. Summary data reported by both devices require thorough analysis of the raw data to avoid misleading data interpretation. IMPLICATIONS: Results of this study provide researchers with valuable information about the capability of commercially available cigarette topography devices to measure real-world vaping behaviors. The differing measurement ranges of the two devices and puff recording limitations and anomalies should be taken into account during analysis and interpretation of real-world data.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumadores/psicología , Fumar/epidemiología , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Vapeo/psicología , Adulto , Calibración , Recolección de Datos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Maryland/epidemiología , Fumar/psicología , Vapeo/tendencias
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