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1.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 34(1): 104-1112, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570154

RESUMEN

Great variation has been reported in worldwide prevalence of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) and Hypomineralized Second Primary Molar (HSPM). South America has the highest regional prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of MIH HSPM in 6- to 12-year-old children who received care at two dental healthcare services (public and private) in Caracas Metropolitan Area, Venezuela. A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted on 145 children, of whom 121 were selected in the stratified random sample. A calibrated examiner (Kappa=0.878/0.831) evaluated all patients following the MIH diagnosis criteria established by the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry and using a valid and reliable instrument. Data were analyzed with a significance level of 5%. Of the 121 children, 46.28% (56) were male and 53.72% (65) female, average age 8.83 ± 1.61. The prevalence of MIH/HSPM was 25.6%/20%. Both enamel defects were more prevalent in females (p-value=0.026/0.005). Severe MIH/HSPM was present in 21.8%/31.2% of cases. Average number of affected teeth was 4.16 ± 2.19/1.68 ± 0.74; and the condition was more frequent in upper molars (67.7%/51.4%). It was concluded that prevalence of MIH in 6- to 12-year-old Venezuelan children who received care in Caracas Metropolitan Area was higher than the previously estimated prevalence for South America, with predominance of mild affectation and more frequently occurring in upper molars.


Asunto(s)
Hipoplasia del Esmalte Dental , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Atención Odontológica , Hipoplasia del Esmalte Dental/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Venezuela/epidemiología
2.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 34(2): 104-1112, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570857

RESUMEN

Great variation has been reported in worldwide prevalence of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) and Hypomineralized Second Primary Molar (HSPM). South America has the highest regional prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of MIH HSPM in 6- to 12-year-old children who received care at two dental healthcare services (public and private) in Caracas Metropolitan Area, Venezuela. A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted on 145 children, of whom 121 were selected in the stratified random sample. A calibrated examiner (Kappa=0.878/0.831) evaluated all patients following the MIH diagnosis criteria established by the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry and using a valid and reliable instrument. Data were analyzed with a significance level of 5%. Of the 121 children, 46.28% (56) were male and 53.72% (65) female, average age 8.83 ± 1.61. The prevalence of MIH/HSPM was 25.6%/20%. Both enamel defects were more prevalent in females (p-value=0.026/0.005). Severe MIH/HSPM was present in 21.8%/31.2% of cases. Average number of affected teeth was 4.16 ± 2.19/1.68 ± 0.74; and the condition was more frequent in upper molars (67.7%/51.4%). It was concluded that prevalence of MIH in 6- to 12-year-old Venezuelan children who received care in Caracas Metropolitan Area was higher than the previously estimated prevalence for South America, with predominance of mild affectation and more frequently occurring in upper molars.


Asunto(s)
Hipoplasia del Esmalte Dental , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Atención Odontológica , Hipoplasia del Esmalte Dental/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Venezuela/epidemiología
3.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-09-24. (OPS/ONUSIDA/CDE/COVID-19/21-0013).
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54912

RESUMEN

El flujo de personas refugiadas y migrantes desde la República Bolivariana de Venezuela constituye el mayor movimiento de personas de la historia de América Latina y la segunda más numerosa a nivel mundial. Hasta el 2020, más de 5 millones de personas habían abandonado el país en busca de mejores condiciones de vida y de acceso a servicios básicos, entre ellos, la atención de salud. Esta publicación ha sido elaborada por ONUSIDA y la OPS en el marco del proceso de coordinación regional, técnica y financiera para el apoyo a personas refugiadas y migrantes de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela. Presenta orientaciones prácticas para incrementar la cobertura de salud a las personas refugiadas y migrantes del país, considerando el actual contexto de la COVID-19. Se estructura en cinco líneas de acción estratégicas dirigidas a ampliar las políticas de prevención, atención y tratamiento del VIH. Esta propuesta se dirige a los responsables de la formulación de políticas de los ministerios de salud de la Región y a funcionarios de los sistemas de salud, así como a otras instituciones que aborden cuestiones relacionadas con las poblaciones refugiadas y migrantes a nivel regional, nacional y subnacional, en especial a las que desarrollan actividades en las zonas fronterizas y en las comunidades de destino. Las recomendaciones se han adaptado al contexto de la pandemia de COVID-19, que ha sumado nuevos desafíos a las respuestas en salud, y en especial al VIH/sida en la Región de las Américas.


Asunto(s)
Refugiados , Migrantes , VIH , COVID-19 , Venezuela
4.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-09-24. (PAHO/UNAIDS/CDE/COVID-19/21-0013).
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54911

RESUMEN

The flow of refugees and migrants from the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is the largest movement of people in the history of Latin America and the second largest in the world. By 2020, more than 5 million people had left the country in search of better living conditions and access to basic services, including health care. This publication was prepared by PAHO and UNAIDS as part of the regional process of coordinating technical and financial support for refugees and migrants in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. It presents practical guidelines for expanding health care coverage for Venezuelan refugees and migrants, taking into consideration the current context of COVID-19. It is structured along five strategic lines of action aimed at expanding HIV prevention, care, and treatment policies. This proposal is aimed at policymakers in the Region’s ministries of health, health system officials, and other institutions that deal with issues related to refugee and migrant populations at regional, national, and subnational levels, especially those active in border areas and destination communities. The recommendations have been adapted to the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has created new challenges in relation to health responses, especially the response to HIV/AIDS in the Region of the Americas.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , VIH , Refugiados , Migrantes , Emigración e Inmigración , Venezuela
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 633723, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327183

RESUMEN

Background: The deterioration of Venezuela's health system in recent years undoubtedly contributes to an increased impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding healthcare workers' (HCWs) knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) toward COVID-19 in the early stages of the pandemic could inform their medical training and improve their preparedness. Methods: A online national cross-sectional survey was conducted between May 26th and May 30th, 2020, to assess KAPs among HCWs in Venezuela. Results: A total of 1,441 HCWs from all 24 regions of the country responded to the survey. The mean age of the HCWs was 44 (SD [standard deviation] 14) years; most were women (66.4%). Most HCWs were specialized doctors (48%), followed by nurses (13%) and resident doctors (12.3%). The majority of HCWs had good knowledge (76.3%), obtained information mainly from scientific literature (85.4%); had negative attitudes (53.6%), felt uncomfortable with their work during the current pandemic (59.8%); and reported appropriate practices (76.9%). However, participation in COVID-19 related training was absent in more than half of the HCWs. Positive attitudes were significantly more frequent in frontline workers than in non-frontline workers (p = 0.001). Bioanalysts, students, and doctors were more likely to have good knowledge; participating in training was a predictor for positive attitudes and older age was an appropriate practice predictor. Conclusions: HCWs, knowledge in Venezuela could be improved by strengthening education and training programs. Strategies should focus on reducing fear and improving attitudes toward the care of COVID-19 patients, as well as the promotion of preventive practices.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Venezuela
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198627

RESUMEN

In this paper, we group South American countries based on the number of infected cases and deaths due to COVID-19. The countries considered are: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela. The data used are collected from a database of Johns Hopkins University, an institution that is dedicated to sensing and monitoring the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic. A statistical analysis, based on principal components with modern and recent techniques, is conducted. Initially, utilizing the correlation matrix, standard components and varimax rotations are calculated. Then, by using disjoint components and functional components, the countries are grouped. An algorithm that allows us to keep the principal component analysis updated with a sensor in the data warehouse is designed. As reported in the conclusions, this grouping changes depending on the number of components considered, the type of principal component (standard, disjoint or functional) and the variable to be considered (infected cases or deaths). The results obtained are compared to the k-means technique. The COVID-19 cases and their deaths vary in the different countries due to diverse reasons, as reported in the conclusions.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Argentina , Brasil , Chile , Colombia , Ecuador , Humanos , Perú , Análisis de Componente Principal , SARS-CoV-2 , Uruguay , Venezuela
9.
Acta Trop ; 222: 106034, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224715

RESUMEN

Trypanosoma cruzi uses various mechanisms of infection to access humans. Since 1967, food contaminated with metacyclic trypomastigotes has triggered several outbreaks of acute infection of Chagas disease by oral transmission. Follow-up studies to assess the effectiveness of anti-parasitic treatment of oral outbreaks are rather scarce. Here, we report a 10-year laboratory follow-up using parasitological, serological, and molecular tests of 106 individuals infected in 2007 of the largest known outbreak of orally transmitted Chagas disease, which occurred in Caracas city, Venezuela. Before treatment (2007), specific IgA, IgM and IgG, were found in 71% (75/106), 90% (95/106) and 100% (106/106), respectively, in addition to 21% (9/43) parasitemia, Complement Mediated Lysis (CML) in 98% (104/106) and 79% (34/43) parasitic DNA for PCR. Blood culture detected parasitemia up to 18 months post-treatment in 6% (6/106) of the patients. In 2017, the original number of cases in the follow-up decreased by 46% and due to the country's economic situation, not all the trials could be carried out in the entire population. During follow-up, IgA and IgM disappeared promptly, with IgM persisting in 19% (20/104) of the patients three years after treatment. The anti-T. cruzi IgG remained positive 10 years later in 41% (20/49) of the individuals evaluated. CML remained positive seven years later in 79% (65/82) of the cases. PCR positive cases decreased after treatment but progressively recovered, being positive in 69% (32/46) of the individuals evaluated in 2017. The group of children (under 18 years of age) showed the highest PCR positivity with 76% (26/34) of the cases, but their parasitic load tended to diminish, while in adults the parasitic load regained their initial values. The simultaneous evaluation of serological tests and PCR of the patients allowed us to separate patients among responders and non-responders to the anti-parasitic treatment, and this information prompted us to apply a second anti-parasitic treatment in the group of non-responders. In this population not subjected to the like lihood of re-infection, adult patients were more likely to be non-responders when compared to children. These results suggest that rigorous laboratory follow-up with T. cruzi infectious biomarkers is essential to detect cases of parasite persistence.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Chagas , Adulto , Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/análisis , Biomarcadores , Enfermedad de Chagas/diagnóstico , Enfermedad de Chagas/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad de Chagas/epidemiología , Niño , Brotes de Enfermedades , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Insuficiencia del Tratamiento , Venezuela/epidemiología
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 463, 2021 Jul 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218333

RESUMEN

Sustainable development is a grand challenge of the present century, with tremendous direct and indirect implications for a range of social, economic, and environmental factors. This research proposes a water-centric framework for evaluating "relative" sustainability of the status quo in a country via a new "hydro-social-economic-environmental sustainability index" (HSEESI). We test this framework across 35 countries of American continent using national-scale surveyed data for the 2005-2017 periods. HSEESI possesses four dimensions, namely economic, social development, knowledge and technology, and health sanitation and environment, and 12 related indicators for characterizing these dimensions. Based on the developed HSEESI scores, we assess the linkages between water resources and social-economic-environmental systems at the country level, using single and hybrid-artificial intelligence-gene expression programming (GEP) methods. The former method involves all the indicators, while the latter focuses only on the most effective indicators. Further, we aggregate these analyses at three spatial scales, including American continent, North American countries, and South American countries. Our analyses show that both methods lead to approximate similar results, but the latter is preferred for larger scales as it is more cost effective. Overall, results indicate that the status of water resources in North America is relatively sustainable, whereas in South America, it is relatively unsustainable. Importantly, social development, health sanitation, and environmental dimensions, in both North and South American continents, seem to have a relatively unsustainable status, indicating that water resources systems may not have enough capacity to meet the needs of those dimensions. At the country level, our analyses show that water resources systems of Uruguay, Guyana, and Venezuela may face the highest relative unsustainability, across economic, social development, and health sanitation and environment dimensions. The approach and the framework developed in this study can be applied in other regions around the world and with a more detailed representation of intra-country sustainability issues. It can inform managers and policymakers for sustainable planning and developing water resources projects across scales.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Recursos Hídricos , Inteligencia Artificial , Monitoreo del Ambiente , América del Sur , Uruguay , Venezuela , Agua
11.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 38(2): 197-203, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184710

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The production of carbapenem-hydrolyzing ß-lactamases is one of the most concerning resistance mechanisms since it eliminates the last therapeutic option against multidrug resistant microorganisms. AIM: To determine the production of KPC and NDM-1 type carbapenemases, using phenotypic and genotypic methods, in isolated enterobacteria in a clinical laboratory in the city of Maracay, Venezuela. METHODS: The production of carbapenemases was determined by phenotypic (according to the Malbrán algorithm) and genotypic methods (amplification of the blaNDM-1 and blaKPC genes by PCR) in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae during the period March-August 2018. RESULTS: 605 Enterobacteriaceae of different species were identified, being Escherichia coli the strain with the highest percentage of isolation (61.3%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.9%). Sixteen strains (2.64%) were positive for carbapenemases production: 13 strains of K. pneumoniae and three of the Enterobacter cloacae complex. PCR showed that 14 strains (87.5%) carry the blaNDM-1 gene and two strains (12.5%) the blaKPC gene; 100% agreement was observed between phenotypic determination and PCR for both groups of enzymes. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed a higher incidence of metallo-ß-lactamase type NDM-1, which rapid dissemination and consequently difficult control has been cause of epidemiological alert. The identification of the type of enzyme would allow establishing more accurate management and control strategies in order to eradicate these pathogens.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae , Enterobacteriaceae , Antibacterianos , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Laboratorios , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Venezuela , beta-Lactamasas/genética
12.
Zootaxa ; 4984(1): 218227, 2021 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186685

RESUMEN

Some taxonomic changes are made in Amazonian Stygnidae, based on reinterpretation of generic boundaries: (1) the hitherto monotypic genus Jime Pinto-da-Rocha Tourinho, 2012 is newly recorded from Venezuela: Jime praecursor spec. nov. (Tobogán de la Selva, Amazonas state) is described and a new generic diagnosis is provided. The genital chaetotaxy is interpreted for the two known species of Jime, and (2) three species which have been originally described as Stygnoplus Simon, 1879 are herein newly transferred to Yapacana Pinto-da-Rocha, 1997 (hitherto monotypic): Y. ianomami (Pinto-da-Rocha Tourinho, 2012) comb. nov., Y. neblina (Pinto-da-Rocha Tourinho, 2012) comb. nov., and Y. tapirapeco (Pinto-da-Rocha Tourinho, 2012) comb. nov. A key for identification of males of the genus Yapacana is offered.


Asunto(s)
Arácnidos/clasificación , Animales , Genitales , Masculino , Venezuela
13.
Zootaxa ; 4984(1): 182202, 2021 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186687

RESUMEN

Stenostygnus martensi spec. nov. and Stenostygnus huberi spec. nov. are described from montane localities of the States of Mérida and Lara in Venezuela, and the diagnosis of the previously monotypic genus Stenostygnus Simon, 1879, is emended. The presence of these two new species as local endemics in Andean localities of Venezuela represents a huge range extension for the genus Stenostygnus, and the new localities are also ecologically different from previously known localities in the Amazon Basin. This could indicate the presence of a rich and uncharted diversity of stenostygnines in the Andean regions, particularly in the north of South America.


Asunto(s)
Arácnidos/clasificación , Animales , América del Sur , Venezuela
14.
Zootaxa ; 4991(3): 434-466, 2021 Jun 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186835

RESUMEN

Five new species of Stellifer are described from the Caribbean Sea and tropical southwestern Atlantic. Among the previously recognized stelliferine genera, Stellifer is unique by having a pair of variably developed appendages on the posterior margin of the anterior gas chamber, which is lacking in Bairdiella, Corvula, Elattarchus, Odontoscion and Ophioscion. However, recent genetic studies indicated that Stellifer and Ophioscion are not monophyletic. The genus Ophioscion Gill, 1863 is recognized herein as a junior synonym of Stellifer Oken, 1817. Of the five new species described, Stellifer cervigoni n. sp., S. collettei n. sp., and S. musicki n. sp. have a pair of knob-like diverticula along the posterior margin of the anterior gas chamber, which is absent in S. macallisteri n. sp., and S. menezesi n. sp. Stellifer cervigoni n. sp. is found along the southern Caribbean coast of Colombia and Venezuela; it can be distinguished from other species by having a jet-black roof of mouth and inner opercular lining. Stellifer collettei n. sp. is found from Surinam to southeastern Brazil, while S. musicki n. sp. is endemic to northern Brazil. Stellifer macallisteri n. sp. has an oblique, terminal mouth and it is found in Colombia, Venezuela and Dominican Republic. Stellifer menezesi n. sp. has a subterminal mouth and is found from northeastern to southeastern Brazil. These results bring the number of valid species of Stellifer in the Atlantic to 18, and a key to the identification of these species is included.


Asunto(s)
Perciformes/clasificación , Animales , Océano Atlántico , Brasil , Colombia , República Dominicana , Venezuela
15.
Malar J ; 20(1): 285, 2021 Jun 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174891

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Fifty-three percent of all cases of malaria in the Americas in 2019 came from Venezuela, where the epidemic is heavily focused south of the Orinoco river, and where most of the country's Amerindian groups live. Although the disease is known to represent a significant public health problem among these populations, little epidemiological data exists on the subject. This study aims to provide information on malaria incidence, geospatial clustering, and risk factors associated to Plasmodium falciparum infection among these groups. METHODS: This is a descriptive study based on the analysis of published and unpublished programmatic data collected by Venezuelan health authorities and non-government organizations between 2014 and 2018. The Annual Parasite Index among indigenous groups (API-i) in municipalities of three states (Amazonas, Bolivar, and Sucre) were calculated and compared using the Kruskal Wallis test, risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum infection were identified via binomial logistic regression and maps were constructed to identify clusters of malaria cases among indigenous patients via Moran's I and Getis-Ord's hot spot analysis. RESULTS: 116,097 cases of malaria in Amerindian groups were registered during the study period. An increasing trend was observed between 2014 and 2016 but reverted in 2018. Malaria incidence remains higher than in 2014 and hot spots were identified in the three states, although more importantly in the south of Bolivar. Most cases (73.3%) were caused by Plasmodium vivax, but the Hoti, Yanomami, and Eñepa indigenous groups presented higher odds for infection with Plasmodium falciparum. CONCLUSION: Malaria cases among Amerindian populations increased between 2014 and 2018 and seem to have a different geographic distribution than those among the general population. These findings suggest that tailored interventions will be necessary to curb the impact of malaria transmission in these groups.


Asunto(s)
Malaria Falciparum/epidemiología , Plasmodium falciparum/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Análisis por Conglomerados , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Indios Sudamericanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Malaria Falciparum/parasitología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Análisis Espacial , Venezuela/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
17.
Syst Parasitol ; 98(4): 455-476, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145527

RESUMEN

Members of Forticulcitinae Blasco-Costa, Balbuena, Kostadinova & Olson, 2009 include endoparasites of mullet fishes distributed worldwide. Adult specimens were collected from the intestines of white mullet (Mugil curema) and flathead grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) from five localities in the Gulf of Mexico and a single locality in Venezuela. Photogenophores were sequenced for two nuclear molecular markers, the large subunit (LSU) and second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of nuclear rDNA. The new sequences were aligned with other sequences downloaded from GenBank. The maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences were deduced using the combined dataset (LSU + ITS2). The phylogenetic analyses revealed four new lineages belonging to Forticulcitinae. Three new species are described in the present study. Ekuarhuni mexicanus n. sp. can be differentiated from its congeneric species by presenting a longer hermaphroditic sac length (136-180 µm) and a wider testis (91-123 µm). Forticulcita macropharyngis n. sp. and Forticulcita venezuelensis n. sp. are the 8th and 9th species described in Forticulcita. Both species belong to the diminutive morphotype of Forticulcita. Forticulcita macropharyngis n. sp. can be morphologically distinguished from the other congeneric species by the presence of a massive and muscular pharynx (46-110 µm long, 74-106 µm wide). Forticulcita venezuelensis n. sp. is the second species of the studied genus recorded in South America and can be differentiated from congeneric species by possessing the largest testis (138-201 µm long, 83-100 µm wide). Finally, the fourth lineage corresponds to Overstreetoides Andrade-Gómez & García-Varela, 2021; however, few specimens of this lineage were collected, precluding any description of the species. In addition, a key is proposed for differentiating the genera and species of Forticulcitinae.


Asunto(s)
Filogenia , Smegmamorpha/parasitología , Trematodos/clasificación , Américas , Animales , ADN de Helmintos/genética , ADN Ribosómico/genética , Golfo de México , Especificidad de la Especie , Trematodos/anatomía & histología , Trematodos/genética , Venezuela
18.
Microbes Environ ; 36(2)2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092740

RESUMEN

Phaseolus vulgaris is a grain cultivated in vast areas of different countries. It is an excellent alternative to the other legumes in the Venezuelan diet and is of great agronomic interest due to its resistance to soil acidity, drought, and high temperatures. Phaseolus establishes symbiosis primarily with Rhizobium and Ensifer species in most countries, and this rhizobia-legume interaction has been studied in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. However, there is currently no evidence to show that rhizobia nodulate the endemic cultivars of P. vulgaris in Venezuela. Therefore, we herein investigated the phylogenetic diversity of plant growth-promoting and N2-fixing nodulating bacteria isolated from the root nodules of P. vulgaris cultivars in a different agroecosystem in Venezuela. In comparisons with other countries, higher diversity was found in isolates from P. vulgaris nodules, ranging from α- and ß-proteobacteria. Some isolates belonging to several new phylogenetic lineages within Bradyrhizobium, Ensifer, and Mesorhizobium species were also specifically isolated at some topographical regions. Additionally, some isolates exhibited tolerance to high temperature, acidity, alkaline pH, salinity stress, and high Al levels; some of these characteristics may be related to the origin of the isolates. Some isolates showed high tolerance to Al toxicity as well as strong plant growth-promoting and antifungal activities, thereby providing a promising agricultural resource for inoculating crops.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Variación Genética , Phaseolus/microbiología , Nódulos de las Raíces de las Plantas/microbiología , Simbiosis , Bacterias/clasificación , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Fijación del Nitrógeno , Phaseolus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Filogenia , Nodulación de la Raíz de la Planta , Microbiología del Suelo , Venezuela
19.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(5): e00078820, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076096

RESUMEN

Historically, human migrations have determined the spread of many infectious diseases by promoting the emergence of temporal outbreaks between populations. We aimed to analyze health indicators, expenditure, and disability caused by tuberculosis (TB) and HIV/AIDS burden under the Colombian-Venezuelan migration flow focusing on the Northeastern border. A retrospective study was conducted using TB and HIV/AIDS data since 2009. We consolidated a database using official reports from the Colombian Surveillance System, World Health Organization, Indexmundi, the Global Health Observatory, IHME HIV atlas, and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Disability metrics regarding DALYs (disability adjusted life years) and YLDs (years lived with disability), were compared between countries. Mapping was performed on ArcGIS using official migration data of Venezuelan citizens. Our results indicate that TB profiles from Colombia and Venezuela are identical in terms of disease burden, except for an increase in TB incidence in the Colombian-Venezuelan border departments in recent years, concomitantly with the massive Venezuelan immigration since 2005. We identified a four-fold underfunding for the TB program in Venezuela, which might explain the low-testing rates for cases of multidrug-resistant TB (67%) and HIV/AIDS (60%), as well as extended hospital stays (150 days). We found a significant increase in DALYs of HIV/AIDS patients in Venezuela, specifically, 362.35 compared to 265.37 observed in Colombia during 2017. This study suggests that the Venezuelan massive migration and program underfunding might exacerbate the dual burden of TB and HIV in Colombia, especially towards the Colombian-Venezuelan border.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Tuberculosis , Brasil , Colombia/epidemiología , Emigración e Inmigración , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Venezuela/epidemiología
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067018

RESUMEN

Increased consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods can lead to inadequate intakes of shortfall nutrients, including vitamin A, D, C, and E, dietary folate, calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, and fiber. The objective was to examine the prevalence of inadequate intake of shortfall nutrients and identify food sources of shortfall nutrients in eight Latin American countries. Data from ELANS, a multi-country, population-based study of 9218 adolescents and adults were used. Dietary intake was collected through two 24 h Recalls from participants living in urban areas of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Foods and beverages were classified using the adapted version of the NHANES "What We Eat in America" system. Nutrients inadequacy was estimated using the Institute of Medicine recommendations and descriptive statistics were calculated. Prevalence of inadequacy was above 50% for most of the nutrients, which the exception of vitamin C with a prevalence of inadequacy of 39%. Milk, cheese, seafoods, breads, and fruit juices/drinks were among the top 5 sources for each of the 10 shortfall nutrients examined. Many food categories were top contributors to more than one dietary component examined. Understanding the nutrient intake and food sources can help inform dietary guidance and intervention approaches.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina/epidemiología , Brasil , Chile , Colombia , Ecuador/epidemiología , Ingestión de Energía , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología , Encuestas Nutricionales , Perú , Venezuela , Vitaminas
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