Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 23.134
Filtrar
1.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 37, 2021 02 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568158

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation, which can be modulated by diet, is linked to high white blood cell counts and correlates with higher cardiometabolic risk and risk of more severe infections, as in the case of COVID-19. METHODS: Here, we assessed the association between white blood cell profile (lymphocytes, basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes and total white blood cells) as markers of chronic inflammation, habitual diet and gut microbiome composition (determined by sequencing of the 16S RNA) in 986 healthy individuals from the PREDICT-1 nutritional intervention study. We then investigated whether the gut microbiome mediates part of the benefits of vegetable intake on lymphocyte counts. RESULTS: Higher levels of white blood cells, lymphocytes and basophils were all significantly correlated with lower habitual intake of vegetables, with vegetable intake explaining between 3.59 and 6.58% of variation in white blood cells after adjusting for covariates and multiple testing using false discovery rate (q < 0.1). No such association was seen with fruit intake. A mediation analysis found that 20.00% of the effect of vegetable intake on lymphocyte counts was mediated by one bacterial genus, Collinsella, known to increase with the intake of processed foods and previously associated with fatty liver disease. We further correlated white blood cells to other inflammatory markers including IL6 and GlycA, fasting and post-prandial glucose levels and found a significant relationship between inflammation and diet. CONCLUSION: A habitual diet high in vegetables, but not fruits, is linked to a lower inflammatory profile for white blood cells, and a fifth of the effect is mediated by the genus Collinsella. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The ClinicalTrials.gov registration identifier is NCT03479866 .


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Frutas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Leucocitos , Verduras , Actinobacteria , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , Clostridiales , Clostridium , Ayuno , Femenino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangre , Recuento de Leucocitos , Recuento de Linfocitos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Ruminococcus
2.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(1): 75-78, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517965

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence data for fatty acid esters of chloropropanol and glycidyl in edible vegetable oils purchased in China. METHODS: The 1309 samples of edible vegetable oil were collected and the data of chloropropanol and glycidyl were detected by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry from 2015 to 2017. RESULTS: The detection rate of 3-monochloropropanediol esters in vegetable oils was 81. 83% with the mean level of 1. 21 mg/kg. The mean content of tea-seed oil was significantly higher than that of other varieties, followed by peanut oil(1. 36 mg/kg), rapeseed oil(1. 12 mg/kg). The sunflower seed oil has the lowest mean content(0. 54 mg/kg). The detection rate of 2-monochloropropanediol esters in vegetable oils was 82. 84% with the mean level of 0. 39 mg/kg. The content of peanut oil was significantly higher than that of other varieties, followed by blended oil(0. 30 mg/kg) and soybean oil(0. 25 mg/kg). There was no significant difference with rapeseed oil(0. 66 mg/kg). The exceeding rate of glycidyl ester was 19. 90% with the mean level of 0. 68 mg/kg. The average content of glycidyl ester in blended oil(0. 78 mg/kg) was significantly higher than that in peanut oil(0. 54 mg/kg). There was no significant difference among other varieties. CONCLUSION: The pollution of chloropropanol esters is common in edible vegetable oils in China. The contamination is different in kinds of edible oils.


Asunto(s)
Ésteres , Aceites Vegetales , China , Ésteres/análisis , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Verduras
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466375

RESUMEN

This study was to investigate the association of long-term fruit and vegetable (FV) intake with all-cause mortality. We utilized data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), a prospective cohort study conducted in China. The sample population included 19,542 adult respondents with complete mortality data up to 31 December 2011. Cumulative FV intake was assessed by 3 day 24 h dietary recalls. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of all-cause mortality. Covariates included sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, health-related factors, and urban index. A total of 1409 deaths were observed during follow-up (median: 14 years). In the fully adjusted model, vegetable intake of the fourth quintile (327~408 g/day) had the greatest negative association with death compared to the lowest quintile (HR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.53-0.76). Fruit intake of the fifth quintile (more than 126 g/day) had the highest negative association (HR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.15-0.40) and increasing general FV intake were also negatively associated with all-cause mortality which demonstrated the greatest negative association in the amount of fourth quintile (HR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.49-0.70) compared to the lowest quintile. To conclude, greater FV intake is associated with a reduced risk of total mortality for Chinese adults. High intake of fruit has a stronger negative association with mortality than differences in intake of vegetables. Our findings support recommendations to increase the intake of FV to promote overall longevity.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Frutas , Mortalidad , Verduras , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas Nutricionales , Estudios Prospectivos , Adulto Joven
4.
Chemosphere ; 269: 129387, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387789

RESUMEN

Cadmium (Cd) contamination is easily generated during the mining and manufacturing of barium (Ba). In this study, concentrations of both Ba and Cd in rice, vegetables, pork, fish, drinking water, and soil samples from an active barite mining district were determined. Daily intakes of Ba and Cd, as well as corresponding health risks, were evaluated. The average total daily exposure doses of Cd were 0.0035 and 0.0012 mg/kg BW/day (geometric mean) in the mining zone (MZ) and the chemical plant zone (PZ), respectively. These values significantly exceed the provisional tolerable monthly intake (25 µg/kg BW/month, equal to 0.00083 mg/kg BW/day). Based on the daily exposure doses, vegetable consumption was the most significant Ba exposure route for residents, contributing around 66.1% of the total exposure. In contrast, rice consumption was the major Cd exposure pathway, accounting for about 85.6% of the total exposure. Although the geometric mean (0.17) and 95th percentile (P95, 0.75) of the total hazard quotient (HQ) for Ba were below the acceptable level (1), suggesting that there were no significant health effects caused by Ba exposure, Cd exposure was associated with significant health risks, with the geometric mean of the HQ (1.7) and the P95 (21) well above the acceptable limit (1), indicating the unacceptable non-carcinogenic risk of Cd exposure. In summary, high Cd exposure risk, rather than Ba, was observed for populations living in a large-scale active Ba mining area.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Oryza , Contaminantes del Suelo , Animales , Sulfato de Bario , Cadmio/análisis , China , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Verduras
5.
Environ Pollut ; 272: 116372, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434865

RESUMEN

Vegetable production in greenhouses is often associated with the use of excessive amounts of nitrogen (N) fertilizers, low NUE (15-35%), and high N losses along gaseous and hydrological pathways. In this meta-analysis, we assess the effects of application rate, fertilizer type, irrigation, and soil properties on soil N2O emissions and nitrogen leaching from greenhouse vegetable systems on the basis of 75 studies. Mean ± standard error (SE) N2O emissions from unfertilized control plots (N2Ocontrol) and N leaching (NLcontrol) of greenhouse vegetable systems were 3.2 ± 0.4 and 91 ± 20 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively, indicating legacy effects due to fertilization in preceding crop seasons. Soil organic carbon concentrations (SOC) and irrigation were significantly positively correlated with NLcontrol losses, while other soil properties did not significantly affect N2Ocontrol or NLcontrol. The annual mean soil N2O emission from fertilized greenhouse vegetable systems was 12.0 ± 1.0 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 (global: 0.067 Tg N2O-N yr-1), with N2O emissions increasing exponentially with fertilization. The mean EFN2O was 0.85%. The mean annual nitrogen leaching (NL) was 297 ± 22 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (global: 1.66 Tg N yr-1), with fertilization, irrigation, and SOC explaining 65% of the observed variation. The mean leaching factor across all fertilizer types was 11.9%, but 18.7% for chemical fertilizer. Crop NUE was highest, while N2O emissions and N leaching were lowest, at fertilizer rates <500 kg N ha-1 year-1. Yield-scaled N2O emissions (0.05 ± 0.01 kg N2O-N Mg-1 yr-1) and nitrogen leaching (0.79 ± 0.08 kg N Mg-1 yr-1) were lowest at fertilizer rates <1000 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Vegetables are increasingly produced in greenhouses, often under management schemes of extreme fertilization (>1500 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and irrigation (>1200 mm yr-1). Our study indicates that high environmental N2O and N leaching losses can be mitigated by reducing fertilization rates to 500-1000 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (mean: ∼762 kg N ha-1 yr-1) without jeopardizing yields.


Asunto(s)
Nitrógeno , Suelo , Agricultura , Carbono , China , Fertilizantes/análisis , Óxido Nitroso/análisis , Verduras
6.
J Environ Manage ; 281: 111901, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434763

RESUMEN

The present research describes an integral strategy for valorisation of fruit and vegetable discards (FVd) in feeding application, using solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF), for both solid and liquid fractions obtained during these by-products handle and processing, using a strain of Rhizopus sp. After SSF, fermented biomass had 1.9 times higher protein content (up to 20.2 ± 1.7% DM) than the original mass and an improved amino acid (AA) profile (45.7 ± 1.8% essential AAs). Fatty acid (FA) profile was also modified during fermentation process, with higher monounsaturated (MUFA) and lower polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) percentage in the final product compared with initial substrate. Phenolic compound concentration was double in final biomass than in initial substrate (up to 8.9 ± 1.5 mg GAE/g DM) and fermented product had higher antioxidant activity (DPPH reduction of 81.3 ± 7.7% and TEAC of 3.6 ± 0.3 mg/g DM). Compared with previously reported results, fruit complementation with vegetables increased the available nitrogen and resulted in higher biomass production. The fruit and vegetable leachate (FVL) obtained by centrifugation was treated by SmF and led, per liter of substrate, to 10.6 ± 1.4 g of fungal biomass and 3.3 g protein after 7 days of fermentation. Obtained fungal biomass was rich in PUFAs (27.1 ± 7.2% of total FA) and had an AA profile comparable to soybean meal, with 45.3 ± 1.5% of essential amino acids (EAA). In conclusion, results demonstrate that combined solid and liquid fermentation is a successful strategy for FVd valorisation to produce valuable alternative feed ingredient due to their high protein and the well-balanced lipid content and amino acid profile.


Asunto(s)
Frutas , Verduras , Fermentación , Hongos , Rhizopus
7.
Environ Pollut ; 271: 116361, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388677

RESUMEN

Vegetable consumption is a potential toxin exposure pathway for humans. Studies have recognized that vegetables can uptake organic contaminants via roots and translocate pollutants to their aerial parts. However, the aerial parts might also directly uptake polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soils. This has not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to explore the uptake and translocation of PAHs in contaminated soil-air-vegetable systems. Sixteen individual PAHs in contaminated soils, vegetable roots, and leaves were identified using GC-MS. The results showed that the average PAH concentrations both in roots and leaves from the reference soil, the moderately contaminated soil, and the heavily polluted soil increased as expected. PAHs with log KOW < 5 accumulated more easily in roots and leaves. Using a Pearson correlation analysis, isomer ratios, and a principal component analysis (PCA), it was found that the contaminated soil not only caused PAH accumulation in roots, but also increased the PAH concentration in leaves. Quantitatively, the absorption of PAHs in roots in the moderately contaminated soil (70.3 ng m-3) was approximately twice that of the reference soil (40.8 ng m-3). The PAHs absorbed by vegetable roots in the heavily polluted soil (74.7 ng m-3) was only slightly higher than that of the moderately polluted soil. In addition, the PAH dose volatilized into the air from the reference soil, the moderately contaminated soil, and the heavily polluted soil also showed an increasing trend. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) indicated that adult females had a higher cancer risk via vegetable consumption than other groups. Although vegetable consumption had a slight effect on cancer risk for some groups in the present study, the cancer risk of PAHs caused by eating vegetables grown in heavily contaminated soil still requires attention.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes del Suelo , Adulto , China , Humanos , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Verduras
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(3): 69-74, 2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476311

RESUMEN

According to the 2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, persons should consume fruits and vegetables as part of a healthy eating pattern to reduce their risk for diet-related chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and obesity.* A healthy diet is important for healthy growth in adolescence, especially because adolescent health behaviors might continue into adulthood (1). The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommends minimum daily intake of 1.5 cups of fruit and 2.5 cups of vegetables for females aged 14-18 years and 2 cups of fruit and 3 cups of vegetables for males aged 14-18 years.† Despite the benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, few adolescents consume these recommended amounts (2-4). In 2013, only 8.5% of high school students met the recommendation for fruit consumption, and only 2.1% met the recommendation for vegetable consumption (2). To update the 2013 data, CDC analyzed data from the 2017 national and state Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBSs) to describe the percentage of students who met intake recommendations, overall and by sex, school grade, and race/ethnicity. The median frequencies of fruit and vegetable consumption nationally were 0.9 and 1.1 times per day, respectively. Nationally, 7.1% of students met USDA intake recommendations for fruits (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.0-10.3) and 2.0% for vegetables (upper 95% confidence limit = 7.9) using previously established scoring algorithms. State-specific estimates of the percentage of students meeting fruit intake recommendations ranged from 4.0% (Connecticut) to 9.3% (Louisiana), and the percentage meeting vegetable intake recommendations ranged from 0.6% (Kansas) to 3.7% (New Mexico). Additional efforts to expand the reach of existing school and community programs or to identify new effective strategies, such as social media approaches, might help address barriers and improve adolescent fruit and vegetable consumption.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Frutas , Ingesta Diaria Recomendada , Verduras , Adolescente , Sistema de Vigilancia de Factor de Riesgo Conductual , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111750, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396075

RESUMEN

Contamination of agricultural land and water by heavy metals due to rapid industrialization and urbanization including various natural processes have become one of the major constraints to crop growth and productivity. Several studies have reported that to counteract heavy metal stress, plants should be able to maneuver various physiological, biochemical and molecular processes to improve their growth and development under heavy metal stress. With the advent of modern biotechnological tools and techniques it is now possible to tailor legume and other plants overexpressing stress-induced genes, transcription factors, proteins, and metabolites that are directly involved in heavy metal stress tolerance. This review provides an in-depth overview of various biotechnological approaches and/or strategies that can be used for enhancing detoxification of the heavy metals by stimulating phytoremediation processes. Synthetic biology tools involved in the engineering of legume and other crop plants against heavy metal stress tolerance are also discussed herewith some pioneering examples where synthetic biology tools that have been used to modify plants for specific traits. Also, CRISPR based genetic engineering of plants, including their role in modulating the expression of several genes/ transcription factors in the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance and phytoremediation ability using knockdown and knockout strategies has also been critically discussed.


Asunto(s)
Productos Agrícolas/fisiología , Fabaceae/fisiología , Metales Pesados/toxicidad , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Biodegradación Ambiental , Biotecnología , Productos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Metales Pesados/análisis , Metales Pesados/metabolismo , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Estrés Fisiológico , Verduras/metabolismo
10.
J Chromatogr A ; 1637: 461733, 2021 Jan 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385745

RESUMEN

A hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of 21 free amino acids (AAs). Compared to published reports, our method renders collectively improved sensitivity with lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) at 0.5~42.19 ng/mL with 0.3 µL injection volume (or equivalently 0.15~12.6 pg injected on column), robust linear range from LLOQ up to 3521~5720 ng/mL (or 1056 ~ 1716 pg on column) and a high throughput with total time of 6 min per sample, as well as easier experimental setup, less maintenance and higher adaptation flexibility. Ammonium formate in the mobile phase, though commonly used in HILIC, was found unnecessary in our experimental setup, and its removal from mobile phase was key for significant improvement in sensitivity (4~74 times higher than with 5 mM ammonium formate). Addition of 10 (or up to100 mM) hydrochloric acid (HCl) in the sample diluent was crucial to keep response linearity for basic amino acids of histidine, lysine and arginine. Different HCl concentration (10~100 mM) in sample diluent also excreted an effect on detection sensitivity, and it is of importance to keep the final prepared sample and calibrators in the same HCl level. Leucine and isoleucine were distinguished using different transitions. Validated at seven concentration levels, accuracy was bound within 75~125%, matrix effect generally within 90~110%, and precision error mostly below 2.5%. Using this newly developed method, the free amino acids were then quantified in a total of 544 African indigenous vegetables (AIVs) samples from African nightshades (AN), Ethiopian mustards (EM), amaranths (AM) and spider plants (SP), comprising a total of 8 identified species and 43 accessions, cultivated and harvested in USA, Kenya and Tanzania over several years, 2013~2018. The AN, EM, AM and SP were distinguished based on free AAs profile using machine learning methods (ML) including principle component analysis, discriminant analysis, naïve Bayes, elastic net-regularized logistic regression, random forest and support vector machine, with prediction accuracy achieved at ca. 83~97% on the test set (train/test ratio at 7/3). An interactive ML platform was constructed using R Shiny at https://boyuan.shinyapps.io/AIV_Classifier/ for modeling train-test simulation and category prediction of unknown AIV sample(s). This new method presents a robust and rapid approach to quantifying free amino acids in plants for use in evaluating plants, biofortification, botanical authentication, safety, adulteration and with applications to nutrition, health and food product development.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos/análisis , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Aprendizaje Automático , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Verduras/química , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Interacciones Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Análisis de Componente Principal , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
11.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 46(4): 100737, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412349

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic's mental health consequences remain unknown. AIM: To assess the mental health status of ambulatory cardiometabolic patients during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in Spanish speaking Latin American countries. METHODS: Cardiometabolic patients without COVID-19 evidence in 13 Latin American countries answered a survey between June 15th and July 15th, 2020. The Diagnosis Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition was used to identify the presence of major depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The sample included 4216 patients, 1590 (37.71%; IC95% 36.24-39.19) were considered suffering major depression. Female gender, consuming ≥5 medications day, physical activity <100 minutes weekly, low fruits and vegetables intake, poor treatment adherence, reduced food consumption were independently associated to the presence of major depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The CorCOVID Latam Psy study showed that one-third of the Latin American Spanish speaking population is suffering from major depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/psicología , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/epidemiología , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/psicología , Diabetes Mellitus/psicología , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Dislipidemias/epidemiología , Dislipidemias/psicología , Ingestión de Alimentos , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Femenino , Frutas , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/epidemiología , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/psicología , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/psicología , América Latina/epidemiología , Masculino , Salud Mental , Síndrome Metabólico/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Sexuales , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Cumplimiento y Adherencia al Tratamiento/psicología , Cumplimiento y Adherencia al Tratamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Verduras
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 325: 124695, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465648

RESUMEN

Elimination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) from excess activated sludge (EAS) mixed for effective treatment of different fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) by using a novel vermireactor consisted of substrate and bed compartments was investigated. ARGs (tet G, tet M and sul 1) and mobile genetic element gene (intl 1) were targeted and, through quantitative analysis of their abundances in both the compartments and the fresh cast of earthworms, significant reductions in substrate compartments were confirmed for the treatments for FVW added with EAS and EAS alone even if the reduction extents differed among the types of FVW. Apparent reductions were not found in the bed compartment where the final products accumulated. For the fresh cast, the relative abundances of ARGs and intl 1 against to the total bacterial 16S rDNA decreased markedly. The present study provided an insight for proper controlling of ARGs during vermicomposting of FVW and EAS.


Asunto(s)
Aguas del Alcantarillado , Verduras , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Frutas , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Aguas Residuales
13.
Molecules ; 26(2)2021 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478152

RESUMEN

The food sector includes several large industries such as canned food, pasta, flour, frozen products, and beverages. Those industries transform agricultural raw materials into added-value products. The fruit and vegetable industry is the largest and fastest-growing segment of the world agricultural production market, which commercialize various products such as juices, jams, and dehydrated products, followed by the cereal industry products such as chocolate, beer, and vegetable oils are produced. Similarly, the root and tuber industry produces flours and starches essential for the daily diet due to their high carbohydrate content. However, the processing of these foods generates a large amount of waste several times improperly disposed of in landfills. Due to the increase in the world's population, the indiscriminate use of natural resources generates waste and food supply limitations due to the scarcity of resources, increasing hunger worldwide. The circular economy offers various tools for raising awareness for the recovery of waste, one of the best alternatives to mitigate the excessive consumption of raw materials and reduce waste. The loss and waste of food as a raw material offers bioactive compounds, enzymes, and nutrients that add value to the food cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. This paper systematically reviewed literature with different food loss and waste by-products as animal feed, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products that strongly contribute to the paradigm shift to a circular economy. Additionally, this review compiles studies related to the integral recovery of by-products from the processing of fruits, vegetables, tubers, cereals, and legumes from the food industry, with the potential in SARS-CoV-2 disease and bacterial diseases treatment.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/métodos , Industria Farmacéutica , Industria de Alimentos , Residuos/economía , Agricultura/economía , Cosméticos/economía , Grano Comestible , Industria de Procesamiento de Alimentos/economía , Industria de Procesamiento de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas , Raíces de Plantas , Tubérculos de la Planta , Verduras
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 17, 2021 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389185

RESUMEN

The bioaccessibility of some elements (As, B, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) in soils and vegetables was determined using the physiologically based extraction test. An investigation of the geochemical phases of soils through sequential extraction methods followed by ICP-MS detection was also undertaken. Samples were collected from Iskele, Begendikler and Yolbasi villages in the Bigadic region and Yildiz village in the Susurluk region of Balikesir province, Turkey. All of these villages are close to boron mines. Principal component analysis and correlation analysis demonstrated the interrelationship between the bioaccessibility values of these elements in the gastric and intestinal extracts of soils as well as the plant samples grown in those soils and the elements' concentrations in the different soil fractions. From the bioaccessible concentrations of the elements in the intestinal phases, it was shown that the amounts of As, B, Cu, Mn and Ni in some plant samples were higher than the recommended and tolerable values for human consumption. The bioaccessibilty of these elements in the soils and plants were statistically related with the concentrations of these elements in the labile phases of the soil. The methodology adopted here would be applicable to determining interactions between elements and soil fractions and the interrelationships between bioaccessibility data and soil fractions for any soil samples.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes del Suelo , Suelo , Boro , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Turquia , Verduras
15.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 82: 103563, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310081

RESUMEN

This study determined the heavy metals (HMs) accumulation in different vegetables in different seasons and attributed a serious health hazard to human adults due to the consumption of such vegetables in Jhansi. The total amounts of zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), and cadmium (Cd) were analysed in 28 composite samples of soil and vegetables (Fenugreek, spinach, eggplant, and chilli) collected from seven agricultural fields. The transfer factor (TF) of HMs from soil to analysed vegetables was calculated, and significant non-carcinogenic health risks due to exposure to analysed heavy metals via consumption of these vegetables were computed. The statistical analysis involving Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Pearson's correlation matrix suggested that anthropogenic activities were a major source of HMs in the study areas. The target hazard quotient of Cd, Mn, and Pb for fenugreek (2.156, 2.143, and 2.228, respectively) and spinach (3.697, 3.509, 5.539, respectively) exceeded the unity, indicating the high possibilities of non-carcinogenic health risks if regularly consumed by human beings. This study strongly suggests the continuous monitoring of soil, irrigation water, and vegetables to prohibit excessive accumulation in the food chain.


Asunto(s)
Exposición Dietética/análisis , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Metales Pesados/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Verduras/química , Adulto , Capsicum , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Frutas/química , Humanos , India , Hojas de la Planta/química , Medición de Riesgo , Solanum melongena , Spinacia oleracea , Trigonella
16.
Food Chem ; 338: 128119, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091976

RESUMEN

The inhibition of the α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity facilitates the maintenance of circulating glucose levels by decreasing the rate of blood sugar absorption. Existing enzyme inhibitors such as acarbose, miglitol, and voglibose are used for inhibiting the activity of these enzymes, however, alternative solutions are required to avoid the side-effects of using these drugs. The current study aims to review recent evidence regarding the in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities of extracts derived from selected fruit, vegetables, and mushrooms. The mechanisms of action of the extracts involved in the inhibition of both enzymes are also presented and discussed. Compounds including flavonoids, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, saponins, carotenoids, terpenes, sugars, proteins, capsaicinoids, fatty acids, alkaloids have been shown to have α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities. Harvesting period, maturity stage, sample preparation, extraction technique, and solvent type are parameters that affect the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities of the extracts.


Asunto(s)
Agaricales/química , Frutas/química , Inhibidores de Glicósido Hidrolasas/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Verduras/química , alfa-Amilasas/antagonistas & inhibidores , Inhibidores de Glicósido Hidrolasas/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación
17.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 1): 111482, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126191

RESUMEN

The United States (U.S.) imports 87 percent of its avocados from a single Mexican region, Michoacán. Although environmental and social costs associated with avocado production are significant, consumers and retailers in the U.S. cannot clearly discern them in part due to complex, opaque supply chains. In this paper, we use a novel methodology, TRAcking Corporations Across Space and Time (TRACAST), to reconstruct avocado supply chains between the U.S. retailers and Mexican producers and exporters. Using remote sensing and machine learning, we document how avocado plantations are associated with deforestation in Michoacán, whose forests are important reservoirs for biodiversity, especially for the Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus). We estimate that ~20% of the total deforestation in Michoacán between 2001 and 2017 is associated with the expansion of avocado plantations. Despite these impacts, interviews reveal that industry associates (namely, representatives of firms and associations) do not consider avocado production to be a driver of deforestation in the region. This disconnect between actual and perceived environmental impacts can be addressed by the U.S. governmental agencies that play influential roles in regulating avocado imports for sanitary and health purposes and by the vertically integrated avocado trading firms that connect Michoacán packing houses to Kroger, Costco, and other prominent U.S. grocers. Key measures to make the U.S.-Mexico avocado supply chain more sustainable include conventional regulatory tools, greater transparency, and improved governance through multi-stakeholder initiatives.


Asunto(s)
Persea , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Bosques , México , Estados Unidos , Verduras
18.
Food Chem ; 339: 127955, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919344

RESUMEN

Lateral flow assay (LFA), performed with simple devices and short detection time, is popular in field applications. Herein, a novel sandwich type-based LFA was constructed for high sensitivity and selectivity detection of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Vancomycin-immobilized gold nanoparticles (VAN-Au NPs) were utilized as the first identifier to capture S. aureus and the specificity was guaranteed by the second recognition agent of pig immunoglobulin G (IgG). In addition, gold growth was adopted for signal amplification to further improve the detection sensitivity. S. aureus could be directly assayed by this LFA within the concentration range of 1.0 × 103-1.0 × 108 cfu mL-1 with a detection limit of 1.0 × 103 cfu mL-1. Furthermore, the novel sandwich LFA realized S. aureus detection in food samples with admissible recoveries and established a rapid, simple, cost-effective and sensitive platform, could meet the demand for on-site testing of S. aureus.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/química , Inmunoensayo/métodos , Inmunoglobulina G/química , Staphylococcus aureus/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Microbiología de Alimentos , Jugos de Frutas y Vegetales/microbiología , Oro/química , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Límite de Detección , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Staphylococcus aureus/inmunología , Porcinos , Vancomicina/química , Verduras/microbiología
19.
Food Chem ; 337: 127974, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920274

RESUMEN

Facile enrichment and determination of trace organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in foods has been a constantly pursuing goal in food safety field. Herein, Zr4+-immobilized covalent organic frameworks (Fe3O4@COF@Zr4+) have been first constructed and utilized as the powerful adsorbents for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of OPPs. Owing to the π-π stacking interaction, hydrogen bonding and Zr4+-phosphate coordination reaction, the composites exhibited excellent selectivity and superior affinity to OPPs. Under optimized conditions, the proposed MSPE method coupled with GC-FPD showed good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9990) and yielded low limits of detection (0.7-3.0 µg kg-1) for OPPs. Moreover, the developed method was successfully employed for the quantitation of OPPs in spiked vegetable samples and obtained satisfactory recoveries in the range of 87-121% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ≤ 8.9%. These results demonstrated that the prepared nanoparticles hold unique advantages for trace OPPs analysis in foodstuffs.


Asunto(s)
Estructuras Metalorgánicas/química , Organofosfatos/análisis , Plaguicidas/análisis , Extracción en Fase Sólida/métodos , Verduras/química , Compuestos de Anilina/química , Análisis de los Alimentos/instrumentación , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Hierro/química , Límite de Detección , Fenómenos Magnéticos , Nanocompuestos/química , Extracción en Fase Sólida/instrumentación , Circonio/química
20.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127983, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841878

RESUMEN

The seaweed food has always been important in Asia, but recently increased in the Western diet. Superfood known for health benefits and rich in essential elements, can also accumulate high contents of heavy metals and iodine from the environment, becoming a health hazard. In particular for iodine, an appropriate labelling of seaweed is needed to warn the consumer of the potential risks. The aim of the study was to analyze the content of 20 heavy metals in seaweeds, distributed in Italy, by ICP-MS, also determining iodine and arsenic (total and inorganic fraction). A total of 72 samples of European and Asian seaweed of 8 genera were analyzed and the results correlated the content of heavy metals to genus, geographical origin and type of sample; 8.33% of the products lacked in the label of the indications of allergens, while 9.72% had irregularities in the label language. The highest concentration of elements was found in the Rhodophyta. The Aluminum level was the highest in the mixed seaweed (165.39 mg/kg) and for the Cadmium in the Asian seaweed (1.16 mg/kg). The amounts of Iron, Zinc and Magnesium, was highest in the Asian seaweed. The values of Arsenic (total and inorganic contents) were compared with the limits: 2.78% exceeds France and USA limits for inorganic, while higher content of total was found in Phaeophyta, which also showed the highest Iodine content (6770.80 mg/kg) that can be dangerous if not reported correctly in the label.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Metales Pesados/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Arsénico/análisis , Asia , Cadmio/análisis , Francia , Italia , Minerales , Phaeophyta , Rhodophyta , Algas Marinas , Verduras
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA