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1.
J Chromatogr A ; 1643: 462060, 2021 Apr 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770631

RESUMEN

Numerous epidemiological studies have indicated the potential effects of glucosinolates and their metabolites against cancer as well as other non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disorders. However, information on the presence and quantity of glucosinolates in commonly consumed vegetables and in human fluids is sparse, largely because well-standardised methods for glucosinolate determination are not available, resulting in published data being inconsistent and conflicting. Thus, studies published since 2002 on the most recent developments of glucosinolate extraction and identification have been collected and reviewed with emphasis on determination of the intact glucosinolates by LC-MS and LC-MS/MS. This overview highlights the glucosinolate extraction methods used, the stability of glucosinolates during extraction, the availability of stable isotope labelled internal standards and the use of NMR for purity analysis, as well as the current analytical techniques that have been applied for glucosinolate analysis, e.g. liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS). It aims to interpret the findings with a focus on the development of a validated method, which will help to determine the glucosinolate content of vegetative plants and human tissues, and the identification and determination of selected glucosinolate metabolites.


Asunto(s)
Glucosinolatos/análisis , Verduras/química , Cromatografía de Gases/normas , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/normas , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Glucosinolatos/sangre , Glucosinolatos/normas , Glucosinolatos/orina , Humanos , Extracción Líquido-Líquido , Hojas de la Planta/química , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/química , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Estándares de Referencia , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/normas , Verduras/metabolismo
2.
Food Chem ; 349: 129137, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556727

RESUMEN

Contamination of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in agricultural products have attracted more and more attentions recently. In this review, relationship between PFASs and vegetables is summarized comprehensively. PFASs could transfer to cultivation soils by irrigation water, bio-amended soil, and atmospheric deposition mainly from industrial emissions. Carbon chain length of PFASs, species of vegetables and so on are key factors for PFASs migration and bioaccumulation in soils, plants and vegetables. Studies on food risk assessment of PFOA and PFOS show low consumption risk for most vegetables, however researches on other substances are lacking. In the future, we need to pay more attention on novel pollution pathway in cultivation, traceability research for considerable contamination, dietary exposure levels for different vegetables and more substances, as well as more exact and scientific food risk assessments. Additionally, effective means for PFASs adsorption in soil and removal from soil are also expected.


Asunto(s)
Bioacumulación , Fluorocarburos/metabolismo , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Verduras/metabolismo , Alquilación , Fluorocarburos/química , Medición de Riesgo
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 213: 112075, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636468

RESUMEN

Biochars were studied for their impacts on the dissipation and vegetable uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an agricultural soil. The health risks of PAHs taken up by vegetables were assessed by growing Chinese cabbage in both unamended soil and biochar-amended soils. In the unamended soil, the total 16 PAHs (Σ16PAHs) content decreased by 77.38% after planting the vegetable. The dissipation percentages of low-molecular-weight PAHs (LMW-PAHs), medium-molecular-weight PAHs (MMW-PAHs), and high-molecular-weight PAHs (HMW-PAHs) were 82.37%, 72.65%, and 68.63%, respectively. A significant negative correlation was determined between the dissipation percentages of PAHs in soil and the logKow of PAHs (p < 0.01), indicating that the affinity of PAHs for soil particles was one of an important limiting factors on the dissipation of PAHs. The uptake of PAHs by plant was significantly reduced with the increase in the molecular weight of the PAHs (76.55% for LWM-PAHs, 17.13% for MMW-PAHs, and 6.05% for HMW-PAHs). Addition of biochars to the soil decreased the dissipation of Σ16PAHs (73.59-77.01%), mostly due to a decrease in the dissipation of LMW-PAHs and MMW-PAHs. This finding was due to the immobilization of LMW-PAHs and MMW-PAHs within the biochar micropores. A marked reduction of Proteobacteria in biochar-amended soils also resulted in the decreased biodegradation of PAHs. Four of six biochars significantly increased the concentrations of Σ16PAHs in plant by 30.10-74.22%. Generally, biochars significantly increased the uptake of LMW-PAHs by plant but had little influence on the plant uptake of MMW-PAHs and HMW-PAHs. Three of six biochars notably increased the incremental lifetime cancer risk values based on the exposure of PAHs by vegetable consumption.


Asunto(s)
Biodegradación Ambiental , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Agricultura , Carbón Orgánico/química , Suelo , Verduras/metabolismo
4.
Food Chem ; 347: 128984, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503574

RESUMEN

Pesticide adjuvants (PAs) are important components of pesticide products. However, limited information is available regarding their occurrences in foodstuffs. Herein, eight common-used PAs were investigated in vegetables in North China in 2014-2016. The residue levels of total PAs in vegetables from markets and farms were 500 and 661 µg/kg, respectively. The highest residues of total PAs were found in cauliflowers (average: 1.53 × 103 µg/kg, market vegetables) and spinaches (average: 3.72 × 103 µg/kg, farm vegetables), respectively. In addition, Tristyrylphenol ethoxylates (TPE) dominated the total 8 PAs concentrations in most vegetable species. Moreover, the risk assessment showed that the human health risks associated with TPE and nonylphenol (NP) exposure via vegetables for adults were acceptable, and the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of other six PAs were in the range of <0.010-0.89 µg/kg bw/day, which were less likely to pose a threat to human health.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Residuos de Plaguicidas/análisis , Verduras/química , Adulto , China , Ingestión de Alimentos , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Humanos , Límite de Detección , Fenoles/química , Medición de Riesgo , Verduras/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467698

RESUMEN

The genus Brassica comprises a highly diverse range of vegetable crops varying in morphology, harvestable crop product, and postharvest shelf-life that has arisen through domestication, artificial selection and plant breeding. Previous postharvest studies on the shelf-life of Brassica species has mainly focused on the variable rates of physiological changes including respiration and transpiration. Therefore, further understanding of the molecular basis of postharvest senescence in Brassica vegetables is needed to understand its progression in improving their postharvest shelf-life. The aim of this study was to better understand the trajectory of molecular responses in senescence-associated genes but not induced by ethylene and ethylene-induced genes towards altered postharvest storage conditions. After storage at different temperatures, the expression levels of the key senescence-associated genes (SAGs) and the ethylene biosynthesis, perception, and signaling genes were quantitatively analyzed in cabbage, broccoli and kale. The expression levels of these genes were tightly linked to storage temperature and phase of senescence. Expression of ORE15, SAG12, and NAC29 were continuously increased during the twelve days of postharvest storage at room temperature. Prolonged exposure of these three vegetables to cold temperature reduced the variation in the expression levels of ORE15 and SAG12, observed as mostly decreased which resulted in limiting senescence. The transcript levels of the ethylene receptor were also decreased at lower temperature, further suggesting that decreased ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in cabbage during postharvest storage would delay the senescence mechanism. These results enhanced our understanding of the transcriptional changes in ethylene-independent SAGs and ethylene-related genes in postharvest senescence, as well as the timing and temperature sensitive molecular events associated with senescence in cabbage, broccoli and kale and this knowledge can potentially be used for the improvement of postharvest storage in Brassica vegetables.


Asunto(s)
Brassica/genética , Senescencia Celular , Etilenos/química , Almacenamiento de Alimentos , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Verduras/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Productos Agrícolas/genética , Productos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Fitomejoramiento , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Temperatura , Verduras/metabolismo
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111750, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396075

RESUMEN

Contamination of agricultural land and water by heavy metals due to rapid industrialization and urbanization including various natural processes have become one of the major constraints to crop growth and productivity. Several studies have reported that to counteract heavy metal stress, plants should be able to maneuver various physiological, biochemical and molecular processes to improve their growth and development under heavy metal stress. With the advent of modern biotechnological tools and techniques it is now possible to tailor legume and other plants overexpressing stress-induced genes, transcription factors, proteins, and metabolites that are directly involved in heavy metal stress tolerance. This review provides an in-depth overview of various biotechnological approaches and/or strategies that can be used for enhancing detoxification of the heavy metals by stimulating phytoremediation processes. Synthetic biology tools involved in the engineering of legume and other crop plants against heavy metal stress tolerance are also discussed herewith some pioneering examples where synthetic biology tools that have been used to modify plants for specific traits. Also, CRISPR based genetic engineering of plants, including their role in modulating the expression of several genes/ transcription factors in the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance and phytoremediation ability using knockdown and knockout strategies has also been critically discussed.


Asunto(s)
Productos Agrícolas/fisiología , Fabaceae/fisiología , Metales Pesados/toxicidad , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Biodegradación Ambiental , Biotecnología , Productos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Metales Pesados/análisis , Metales Pesados/metabolismo , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Estrés Fisiológico , Verduras/metabolismo
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(2): 582-592, 2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673406

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Magnesium (Mg) fertilization is a promising practice to improve vegetable yield. However, its impacts on vegetable quality and human health have not been examined. Thus, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of varying Mg fertilization rates on yield and quality of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit. Furthermore, result of the field experiment was linked to pepper consumption data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) in the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) framework to evaluate the potential health impact of Mg fertilization for the first time. RESULTS: Compared to control, Mg fertilization increased the 2-year average pepper yield by 25.6%, whereas there was no significant yield improvement when Mg rates exceeded 112.5 kg MgO ha-1 . Magnesium application increased concentrations of Mg and capsaicinoids, decreased those of calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn) and vitamin C (Vc), and had no effect on potassium (K) and iron (Fe) in pepper fruit. As a result, Mg fertilization decreased the comprehensive nutrition level of pepper by 16.6%. Furthermore, the current health burden of the Chinese adult population associated with pepper consumption is estimated at 21.3 million DALYs per year, with the risk being increased by 5.40 DALYs for per megagram of Mg fertilizer application. Increasing health risk was mainly attributed to decreasing concentrations of Ca and Vc in pepper fruit, though the increased Mg intakes offset the impact of 1.74% to 14.4%. CONCLUSION: Magnesium fertilization significantly improved the yield but reduced nutritional quality of pepper fruit, and increased human health risks associated with consumption of pepper fruit. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Capsicum/metabolismo , Fertilizantes/análisis , Frutas/química , Magnesio/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/análisis , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Capsicum/química , Capsicum/crecimiento & desarrollo , China , Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Magnesio/análisis , Minerales/análisis , Minerales/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Verduras/química , Verduras/metabolismo
8.
J Chromatogr A ; 1636: 461735, 2021 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316560

RESUMEN

A novel magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) material (Fe3O4@SiO2-NH2-G2) had been prepared and employed for adsorption and analysis of seven quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in infant fruit and vegetable products coupled with high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). In this paper, Fe3O4@SiO2-NH2-G2 was synthesized based on Fe3O4@SiO2-NH2 and dendrimer (G2) consisting of cyanuric chloride and imidazole. The morphology, configuration and magnetic behavior of the magnetic material were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Critical parameters affecting extraction efficiency, such as the adsorbent amount, sample pH, extraction time, the type of eluent, and desorption time, were optimized. The proposed method provided good linearity with the correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9992-0.9999, low limits of detection (LODs) (0.05-0.50 µg kg-1) and limits of quantitation (LOQs) (0.20-2.00 µg kg-1). The satisfactory method recoveries in three spiked infant fruit and vegetable products samples were between 80.12% and 101.35% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 12.04%. In summary, the established method was an effective sample preparation method and showed good prospect for the analysis of QACs in complex matrices.


Asunto(s)
Dendrímeros/química , Alimentos Infantiles/análisis , Magnetismo , Nanopartículas/química , Compuestos de Amonio Cuaternario/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Adsorción , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Óxido Ferrosoférrico/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imidazoles/química , Lactante , Límite de Detección , Compuestos de Amonio Cuaternario/aislamiento & purificación , Dióxido de Silicio/química , Extracción en Fase Sólida , Triazinas/química , Verduras/química , Verduras/metabolismo , Difracción de Rayos X
9.
Chemosphere ; 261: 128018, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113642

RESUMEN

Highly persistent, toxic and bioaccumulative per - and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) represents a serious problem for the environment and their concentrations and fate remain largely unknown. The present study consists of a PFAS screening in sludges originating from 43 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Czech Republic. To analyze an extended group of PFAS consisting of 32 PFAS, including GenX and other new replacements of older and restricted PFAS in sludge, a new method was optimized and validated using pressurized solvent extraction, followed by the SPE clean-up step to eliminate the observed matrix effects and LC-MS/MS. The results revealed high PFAS contamination of sewage sludge, reaching values from 5.6 to 963.2 ng g-1. The results showed that in the majority of the samples (about 60%), PFOS was the most abundant among the targeted PFAS, reaching 932.9 ng g-1. Approximately 20% of the analyzed samples contained more short-chain PFAS, suggesting the replacement of long-chain PFAS (especially restricted PFOA and PFOS). GenX was detected in 9 samples, confirming the trend in the use of new PFAS. The results revealed that significantly higher contamination was detected in the samples from large WWTPs (population equivalent > 50,000; p-value <0.05). Concerning the application of sludge in agriculture, our prediction using the respective PFAS bioconcentration factors, the observed concentrations, and the legislatively permitted management of biosolids in Czech Republic agriculture revealed that PFAS can cause serious contamination of cereals and vegetables (oat, celery shoots and lettuce leaves), as well as general secondary contamination of the environment.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Alcanesulfónicos/análisis , Fluorocarburos/análisis , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Propionatos/análisis , Aguas del Alcantarillado/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Verduras/química , Ácidos Alcanesulfónicos/metabolismo , Bioacumulación , Biosólidos , Cromatografía Liquida , República Checa , Fertilizantes/análisis , Fluorocarburos/metabolismo , Propionatos/metabolismo , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Verduras/crecimiento & desarrollo , Verduras/metabolismo , Aguas Residuales/química , Purificación del Agua
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0235522, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946481

RESUMEN

Light conditions in retail stores may contribute to potato greening. In this study, we aimed to develop a potato tuber greening risk rating model for retail stores based on light quality and intensity parameters. This was achieved by firstly exposing three potato varieties (Nicola, Maranca and Kennebec) to seven specific light wavelengths (370, 420, 450, 530, 630, 660 and 735 nm) to determine the tuber greening propensity. Detailed light quality and intensity measurements from 25 retail stores were then combined with the greening propensity data to develop a tuber greening risk rating model. Our study showed that maximum greening occurred under blue light (450 nm), while 53%, 65% and 75% less occurred under green (530 nm), red (660 nm) and orange (630 nm) light, respectively. Greening risk, which varied between stores, was found to be related to light intensity level, and partially explained potato stock loss in stores. Our results from this study suggested that other in-store management practices, including lighting duration, average potato turnover, and light protection during non-retail periods, likely influence tuber greening risk.


Asunto(s)
Luz/efectos adversos , Iluminación/efectos adversos , Tubérculos de la Planta/efectos de la radiación , Solanum tuberosum/efectos de la radiación , Verduras/efectos de la radiación , Comercio , Calidad de los Alimentos , Almacenamiento de Alimentos/métodos , Iluminación/instrumentación , Iluminación/métodos , Tubérculos de la Planta/metabolismo , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Factores de Riesgo , Solanum tuberosum/economía , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Factores de Tiempo , Verduras/economía , Verduras/metabolismo
11.
J Food Sci ; 85(9): 2902-2914, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776553

RESUMEN

We tested the hypothesis that reduced-salt versions of four "better-for-you" dishes enhanced with monosodium glutamate (MSG) through a "Salt Flip" in an amount that still substantially reduced total sodium matched the consumer acceptance of normal-salt versions. Three versions each-standard recipe with normal salt, reduced salt, and reduced salt with MSG, of four dishes-roasted vegetables (RV), quinoa bowl (QB), savory yogurt dip (SD), and pork cauliflower fried rice (CR) were evaluated by 163 consumers for overall liking and liking of appearance, flavor, and texture/mouthfeel on the nine-point hedonic scale, preference, adequacy of flavor, saltiness, and aftertaste on just-about-right (JAR) scales, likeliness to order, and sensory characteristics by check-all-that-apply. For each dish, the MSG recipe was liked the same (or significantly more for SD, P < 0.05) than the standard recipe, and better than the reduced salt recipe for QB and CR. The same was true of likeliness to order. MSG recipes of QB and SD were significantly preferred to the standard recipes, with no difference for RV and CR. MSG recipes were consistently described as "delicious," "flavorful," and "balanced." Penalty-lift analysis showed that "delicious," "flavorful," "balanced," "fresh," and "savory"; and "bland," "rancid," and "bitter," were positive and negative drivers of liking, respectively. Two of three uncovered preference clusters, accounting for 68% of consumers, consistently liked MSG recipes, and the same or more so than standard recipes. We conclude that MSG can successfully be used to mitigate salt and sodium reduction without compromising consumer acceptance of better-for-you foods. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The Salt Flip offers a promising dietary sodium reduction strategy through the addition of monosodium glutamate (MSG) to reduced-salt, savory, better-for-you foods that does not compromise consumer acceptance of their sensory profile.


Asunto(s)
Cloruro de Sodio/metabolismo , Glutamato de Sodio/metabolismo , Gusto , Verduras/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/análisis , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Preferencias Alimentarias , Humanos , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Cloruro de Sodio/análisis , Verduras/química
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 206: 111189, 2020 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858328

RESUMEN

In this study, a highly effective combined biochar and metal-immobilizing bacteria (Bacillus megaterium H3 and Serratia liquefaciens CL-1) (BHC) was characterized for its effects on solution Pb and Cd immobilization and edible tissue biomass and Pb and Cd accumulation in Chinese cabbages and radishes and the mechanisms involved in metal-polluted soils. In the metal-containing solution treated with BHC, the Pb and Cd concentrations decreased, while the pH and cell numbers of strains H3 and CL-1 increased over time. BHC significantly increased the edible tissue dry weight by 17-34% and reduced the edible tissue Pb (0.32-0.46 mg kg-1) and Cd (0.16 mg kg-1) contents of the vegetables by 24-45%. In the vegetable rhizosphere soils, BHC significantly decreased the acid-soluble Pb (1.81-2.21 mg kg-1) and Cd (0.40-0.48 mg kg-1) contents by 26-47% and increased the reducible Pb (18.2-18.8 mg kg-1) and Cd (0.38-0.39 mg kg-1) contents by 10-111%; while BHC also significantly increased the pH, urease activity by 115-169%, amorphous Fe oxides content by 12-19%, and relative abundance of gene copy numbers of Fe- and Mn-oxidising Leptothrix species by 28-73% compared with the controls. These results suggested that BHC decreased edible tissue metal uptake of the vegetables by increasing pH, urease activity, amorphous Fe oxides, and Leptothrix species abundance in polluted soil. These results may provide an effective and eco-friendly way for metal remediation and reducing metal uptake in vegetables by using combined biochar and metal-immobilizing bacteria in polluted soils.


Asunto(s)
Carbón Orgánico/química , Compuestos Férricos/análisis , Leptothrix/crecimiento & desarrollo , Metales Pesados/análisis , Serratia liquefaciens/crecimiento & desarrollo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Verduras/química , Cadmio/análisis , Plomo/análisis , Leptothrix/genética , Leptothrix/metabolismo , Metales Pesados/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Suelo/química , Microbiología del Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Verduras/metabolismo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234611, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649667

RESUMEN

Perennial vegetables are a neglected and underutilized class of crops with potential to address 21st century challenges. They represent 33-56% of cultivated vegetable species, and occupy 6% of world vegetable cropland. Despite their distinct relevance to climate change mitigation and nutritional security, perennial vegetables receive little attention in the scientific literature. Compared to widely grown and marketed vegetable crops, many perennial vegetables show higher levels of key nutrients needed to address deficiencies. Trees with edible leaves are the group of vegetables with the highest levels of these key nutrients. Individual "multi-nutrient" species are identified with very high levels of multiple nutrients for addressing deficiencies. This paper reports on the synthesis and meta-analysis of a heretofore fragmented global literature on 613 cultivated perennial vegetables, representing 107 botanical families from every inhabited continent, in order to characterize the extent and potential of this class of crops. Carbon sequestration potential from new adoption of perennial vegetables is estimated at 22.7-280.6 MMT CO2-eq/yr on 4.6-26.4 Mha by 2050.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/métodos , Secuestro de Carbono/fisiología , Verduras/metabolismo , Biodiversidad , Carbono/metabolismo , Cambio Climático , Productos Agrícolas/química , Productos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Nutrientes/análisis , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional/fisiología
14.
Food Chem ; 332: 127424, 2020 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619947

RESUMEN

Celery (Apium graveolens L. var dulce) is a widely cultivated vegetable which is popularly consumed due to its nutrient content and contains bioactive metabolites with positive effects on human physiology. In this study, 1H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analyses was used to distinguish celery stem and leaf samples from different geographical origins. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were employed to investigate the differences between celery extracts from three geographical origins: Australia, Taiwan and China. Sugars, amino acids and organic acids were found to contribute significantly to the differentiation between origins, with mannitol identified as an important discriminating metabolite. It was demonstrated that NMR-based metabolomics is an effective approach for establishing reliable metabolomic fingerprints and profiles, enabling the identification of metabolite biomarkers for the possible discrimination of geographical origin.


Asunto(s)
Apium/química , Metabolómica/métodos , Espectroscopía de Protones por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Aminoácidos/análisis , Apium/metabolismo , Australia , China , Análisis Discriminante , Humanos , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Manitol/análisis , Manitol/metabolismo , Análisis Multivariante , Hojas de la Planta/química , Análisis de Componente Principal , Verduras/química , Verduras/metabolismo
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(2): 364-372, 2020 08 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492135

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The association of dietary pattern with the risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is little understood and has scarcely been investigated. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the association of several complete dietary patterns [Mediterranean, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Pro-vegetarian dietary pattern] with the risk of BCC, conducting a nested case-control study (4 controls for each case). METHODS: Cases and controls were selected from the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) cohort using risk set sampling. Cases were identified among subjects free of skin cancer at baseline but who later reported a physician-made BCC diagnosis during the follow-up period. In the cohort we identified 101 incident cases of BCC. RESULTS: In multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression analyses, better adherence to the Mediterranean diet (highest compared with lowest quintile) was associated with a 72% relative reduction in the odds of BCC (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.77; Ptrend = 0.014); the DASH diet was associated with a 68% RR reduction (OR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.76; Ptrend = 0.013) for the comparison between extreme quintiles. No association was found between a Pro-vegetarian dietary pattern and BCC. Higher fruit consumption (highest compared with lowest quintile, OR: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.64; Ptrend < 0.001) and low-fat dairy products (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.92; Ptrend = 0.014) were associated with a lower BCC risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that Mediterranean and DASH dietary patterns may be associated with a lower risk of BCC, but confirmatory studies are required.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Basocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Basocelular/prevención & control , Dieta Mediterránea , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios de Cohortes , Enfoques Dietéticos para Detener la Hipertensión , Femenino , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Verduras/metabolismo , Vegetarianos
16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(2): 268-283, 2020 08 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520313

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Western dietary pattern (WD) is positively associated with risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and cancer, whereas the Prudent dietary pattern (PD) may be protective. Foods may influence metabolite concentrations as well as oxidative stress and lipid dysregulation, biological mechanisms associated with CAD and cancer. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess the association of 2 derived dietary pattern scores with serum metabolites and identify metabolic pathways associated with the metabolites. METHODS: We evaluated the cross-sectional association between each dietary pattern (WD, PD) and metabolites in 2199 Women's Health Initiative (WHI) participants. With FFQ and factor analysis, we determined 2 dietary patterns consistent with WD and PD. Metabolites were measured with LC-tandem MS. Metabolite discovery among 904 WHI Observational Study (WHI-OS) participants was replicated among 1295 WHI Hormone Therapy Trial (WHI-HT) participants. We analyzed each of 495 metabolites with each dietary score (WD, PD) in linear regression models. RESULTS: The PD included higher vegetables and fruit intake compared with the WD with higher saturated fat and meat intake. Independent of energy intake, BMI, physical activity, and other confounding variables, 45 overlapping metabolites were identified (WHI-OS) and replicated (WHI-HT) with an opposite direction of associations for the WD compared with the PD [false discovery rate (FDR) P < 0.05]. In metabolite set enrichment analyses, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) plasmalogens were positively enriched for association with WD [normalized enrichment score (NES) = 2.01, P = 0.001, FDR P = 0.005], and cholesteryl esters (NES = -1.77, P = 0.005, FDR P = 0.02), and phosphatidylcholines (NES = -1.72, P = 0.01, P = 0.03) were negatively enriched for WD. PE plasmalogens were positively correlated with saturated fat and red meat. Phosphatidylcholines and cholesteryl esters were positively correlated with fatty fish. CONCLUSIONS: Distinct metabolite signatures associated with Western and Prudent dietary patterns highlight the positive association of mitochondrial oxidative stress and lipid dysregulation with a WD and the inverse association with a PD.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Coronaria/metabolismo , Dieta Saludable , Dieta Occidental/efectos adversos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Grasas/metabolismo , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mitocondrias/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , Verduras/metabolismo
17.
Food Chem ; 330: 127166, 2020 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535312

RESUMEN

Knowing the bioaccessibility of vitamin C in foodstuffs produced for infants and young children is necessary to determine their daily vitamin C intake. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the bioaccessibility of vitamin C in fruit-, vegetable-, and cereal-based baby foodstuffs by an in vitro digestion model at varying gastric pHs. The concentrations of measured vitamin C were higher than the declared amounts on their label. The bioaccessibility of vitamin C ranged from 10.4 to 43.4%, and from 0.4 to 19.2% in fruit- and vegetable-based baby foodstuffs (declared vitamin C fortified) at gastric pH 1.5 and 4, respectively. For cereal-based baby foodstuffs, the bioaccessibility ranged from 1.3 to 53.8%, and from 0.3 to 26.3% at gastric pH 1.5 and 4, respectively. As revealed in this research, the bioaccessibility of vitamin C in baby foodstuffs is very low in both gastric pH conditions.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Ascórbico/química , Grano Comestible/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Alimentos Infantiles/análisis , Verduras/metabolismo , Vitaminas/química , Animales , Grano Comestible/química , Frutas/química , Verduras/química
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232554, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374758

RESUMEN

Recycled paper has the potential to be used as a mulch for vegetable production and can be adopted for the cultivation of Italian zucchini. However, there have been no studies about the water savings or crop coefficient values used in irrigation management in this system; therefore, there is a need for more research. In view of the above, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of recycled paper mulch on evaporation and evapotranspiration in Italian zucchini and to determine the crop coefficients in its developmental stages. The study was carried out in two cultivation cycles conducted at the Lysimetric Station in Viçosa, MG, Brazil. The experiments were installed in a randomized block design with four replicates. Four lysimeter cultivation treatments were applied: without mulch (C); with recycled paper as mulch (CP); with only recycled paper (P); and with Bahia grass (G). Irrigation and drainage measurements were performed daily to calculate the crop and reference evapotranspiration, and thus the crop coefficient (Kc) values. The following characteristics were evaluated: fruit yield, NDVI and water productivity. For the cultivation of Italian zucchini using paper as mulch, Kc values of 0.54, 0.77 and 0.44 and Kcb values of 0.15, 0.45 and 0.18 are recommended for the initial, intermediate and final stages, respectively. NDVI can be used to estimate the Kc values for Italian zucchini. The use of recycled paper as mulch reduces the water consumption of Italian zucchini.


Asunto(s)
Producción de Cultivos/métodos , Cucurbita/crecimiento & desarrollo , Verduras/crecimiento & desarrollo , Riego Agrícola , Brasil , Cucurbita/metabolismo , Italia , Papel , Transpiración de Plantas , Reciclaje , Suelo , Verduras/metabolismo , Agua
19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(1): 195-207, 2020 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369545

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence, yet with varying levels of proof, suggests that dietary fibers (DFs) may exert a protective role against various chronic diseases, but this might depend on the DF type and source. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to assess the associations between the intake of DFs of different types [total (TDF), soluble (SF), insoluble (IF)] and from different sources (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, potatoes and tubers) and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancer, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and mortality in the large-scale NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort (2009-2019). METHODS: Overall, 107,377 participants were included. Usual DF intake was estimated from validated repeated 24-h dietary records over the first 2 y following inclusion in the cohort. Associations between sex-specific quintiles of DF intake and the risk of chronic diseases and mortality were assessed using multiadjusted Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: T2D risk was inversely associated with TDFs [HR for quintile 5 compared with quintile 1: 0.59 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.82), P-trend <0.001], SFs [HR: 0.77 (0.56, 1.08); P-trend = 0.02], and IFs [HR: 0.69 (0.50, 0.96); P-trend = 0.004]. SFs were associated with a decreased risk of CVD [HR: 0.80 (0.66, 0.98); P-trend = 0.01] and colorectal cancer [HR: 0.41 (0.21, 0.79); P-trend = 0.01]. IFs were inversely associated with mortality from cancer or CVDs [HR: 0.65 (0.45, 0.94); P-trend = 0.02]. TDF intake was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer [HR:: 0.79 (0.54, 1.13); P-trend = 0.04]. DF intake from fruit was associated with the risk of several chronic diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that DF intake, especially SFs and DFs from fruits, was inversely associated with the risk of several chronic diseases and with mortality. Further studies are needed, involving different types and sources of fiber. Meanwhile, more emphasis should be put on DFs in public health nutrition policies, as DF intake remains below the recommended levels in many countries. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03335644.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Fibras de la Dieta/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Adulto , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidad , Fibras de la Dieta/análisis , Femenino , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/mortalidad , Estudios Prospectivos , Verduras/química , Verduras/metabolismo
20.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(2): 354-363, 2020 08 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453423

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Better adherence to plant-based diets has been linked to lower risk of metabolic diseases but the effect on abdominal fat distribution and liver fat content is unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the association between different plant-based diet indices and measures of abdominal fat distribution and liver fat content. METHODS: In a population-based sample of 578 individuals from Northern Germany (57% male, median age 62 y), diet was assessed with a validated FFQ and an overall, a healthy, and an unhealthy plant-based diet index were derived. Participants underwent MRI to assess volumes of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and liver signal intensity (LSI), a measure of liver fat content. Fatty liver disease (FLD) was defined as log LSI ≥3.0. Cross-sectional associations of the plant-based diet indices with visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat volumes, LSI, and FLD were assessed in linear and logistic regression analyses. The most comprehensive model adjusted for age, sex, education, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, energy intake, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and BMI. RESULTS: Higher overall and healthy plant-based diet indices both revealed statistically significant associations with lower visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue volumes and with lower odds of FLD in multivariable-adjusted models without BMI. Upon additional adjustment for BMI, only the association of the healthy plant-based diet with visceral adipose tissue remained statistically significant (per 10-point higher healthy plant-based diet index, percentage change in visceral adipose tissue: -4.9%, 95% CI: -8.6%, -2.0%). None of the plant-based diet indices was associated with LSI. The unhealthy plant-based diet index was unrelated to any of the abdominal or liver fat parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to healthy plant-based diets was associated with lower visceral adipose tissue. None of the other examined associations remained statistically significant after adjustment for BMI.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Vegetariana , Grasas/metabolismo , Grasa Intraabdominal/metabolismo , Hígado/metabolismo , Verduras/metabolismo , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Dieta Saludable , Ingestión de Energía , Ejercicio Físico , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tamaño de los Órganos , Verduras/química
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