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1.
Appl Ergon ; 106: 103870, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988302

RESUMEN

Future visions of transport systems include both a drive towards automated vehicles and the need for sustainable, active, modes of travel. The combination of these requirements needs careful consideration to ensure the integration of automated vehicles does not compromise vulnerable road users. Transport networks need to be resilient to automation integration, which requires foresight of possible challenges in their interaction with other road users. Focusing on a cyclist overtake scenario, the application of operator event sequence diagrams and a predictive systems failure method provide a novel way to analyse resilience. The approach offers the opportunity to review how automation can be positively integrated into road transportation to overcome the shortfalls of the current system by targeting organisational, procedural, equipment and training measures.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito , Conducción de Automóvil , Humanos , Automatización , Transportes , Viaje , Ingeniería
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1029551, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339177

RESUMEN

The reasonable distribution of urban green space (UGS) is a topic that urban researchers have been exploring for a long time. Solving the imbalance between the supply and demand of UGS plays an important role in improving the health level of a city. This study examines the central urban area of Hefei as an example. We developed a modified Gaussian two-step floating catchment area method and used the path planning model of Gaode Map to evaluate the accessibility of UGS under different transportation modes and different time thresholds while integrating mobile phone signaling data. Additionally, a fine-scale analysis of the actual supply and demand relationship of UGS was conducted by integrating the accessibility evaluation results with the recreational situation of UGS to analyze the deviation of supply and demand to further discuss the spatial distribution equilibrium of UGS. The main conclusions are as follows. (1) The spatial distribution of UGSs in the central urban area of Hefei is uneven. Different time thresholds and different transportation modes have a significant impact on the UGS accessibility evaluation results. (2) With the increase in the time threshold or travel distance, the number of grids above the moderate accessibility level generally increases. The spatial distribution of the grids with moderate, high and highest accessibility level present different patterns of contiguous, clusters, and spots distribution. (3) After combining these results with the actual recreational situation of UGS, we found that the overall demand in the central urban area exceeds the supply at the 15-min threshold, while the overall supply exceeds the demand at the 30-min threshold. The grids with balanced supply and demand or more supply than demand have comprehensive parks with a moderate population density and strong road connectivity in the neighborhood. This study strengthens the data granularity and improves the accuracy of accessibility evaluation by integrating mobile phone signaling data with the path planning model of Gaode Map. Also, we evaluate the accessibility with multi-transport modes and different time thresholds, which can bring more practical guidance for optimizing the distribution of UGS.


Asunto(s)
Teléfono Celular , Parques Recreativos , Ciudades , Viaje , Características de la Residencia
3.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 6274670, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339247

RESUMEN

The development of the COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating impact on one Chinese city that has depended heavily on tourism, which is the core focus of the current study. This article uses phenomenological research methods in qualitative research to conduct semistructured and in-depth interviews with travel agency managers in China Highlights. Through the application of tourism resilience theory in the tourism crisis management domain, this article investigates the performance of China Highlights, a local tourism enterprise in Guilin, China, to restore the functioning and growth of the tourism industry in the postpandemic period. The results show that China's tourism industry is in the early stages of the fast growth stage of economic recovery, and tourism enterprises are faced with a significant challenge in determining how to make sound business choices during the pandemic and after the crisis has passed. It proposes that the tourism resilient theory can serve as a modern crisis management model to facilitate tourism enterprises to revive their performance in times of hardship.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/prevención & control , Pandemias , Viaje , Industrias , China
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(21)2022 Oct 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36365790

RESUMEN

During fire evacuations, crawling is recommended to prevent harm from toxic smoke and to access more breathable air. Few studies have evaluated the physiological burden of crawling, especially for children. The method of using wearable sensors to collect data (e.g., electrodermal activity, EDA; skin temperature, SKT) was used to evaluate the effects of different locomotive postures on children's velocity and physiological demands. Twenty-eight (28) children (13 boys and 15 girls), aged 4 to 6 years old, traveled up to 22.0 m in different postures: Upright walking (UW), stoop walking (SW), knee and hand crawling (KHC). The results showed that: (1) Gender and age had significant impacts on children's velocity (p < 0.05): Boys were always faster than girls in any of the three postures and the older the child, the faster the velocity for KHC. (2) Physiological results demonstrated that KHC was more physically demanding than bipedal walking, represented by higher scores of the EDA and SKT indicators, similar to the findings of adults. (3) Gender and age had significant impacts on children's physiological demands (p < 0.05). The physiological demands were greater for boys than girls. In addition, the higher the age, the less physiological demands he/she needs. Overall, the findings suggest that children are unnecessarily required to choose crawling precisely as adults as the best posture to respond to emergency scenarios. In a severe fire, stoop walking is suggested, as there is more respired air and children could move quickly and avoid overworking physiological burdens. The results of this study are expected to be considered in the evaluation of current evacuation recommendations and for the safety guide of preparedness to improve the effectiveness of risk reduction for children.


Asunto(s)
Movimiento , Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles , Niño , Masculino , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Preescolar , Caminata , Postura , Viaje
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(21)2022 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366195

RESUMEN

In recent years, with the diversification of people's modes of transportation, a large amount of traffic data is generated when people travel every day, and this data can help transportation mode detection to be of great use in a variety of applications. Although transportation mode detection has been investigated, there are still challenges in terms of accuracy and robustness. This paper presents a novel transportation mode detection algorithm, DFTrans, which is based on Temporal Block and Attention Block. Low- and high-frequency components of traffic sequences are obtained using discrete wavelet transforms. A two-channel encoder is carefully designed to accurately capture the temporal and spatial correlation between low- and high-frequency components in both long- and short-term patterns. With the Temporal Block, the inductive bias of the CNN is introduced at high frequencies to improve generalization performance. At the same time, the network is generated with the same length as the input, ensuring a long effective history. Low frequencies are passed through Attention Block, which has fewer parameters to capture the global focus and solves the problem that RNNs cannot be computed in parallel. After fusing the output of the feature by Temporal Block and Attention Block, the classification results are output by MLP. Extensive experimental results show that the DFTrans algorithm achieves macro F1 scores of 86.34% on the real-world SHL dataset and 87.64% on the HTC dataset. Our model can better identify eight modes of transportation, including stationary, walking, running, cycling, bus, car, underground, and train, and has better performance in transportation mode detection than other baseline algorithms.


Asunto(s)
Ciclismo , Transportes , Humanos , Transportes/métodos , Caminata , Viaje , Algoritmos
6.
Malar J ; 21(1): 323, 2022 Nov 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369036

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Human mobility behaviour modelling plays an essential role in the understanding and control of the spread of contagious diseases by limiting the contact among individuals, predicting the spatio-temporal evolution of an epidemic and inferring migration patterns. It informs programmatic and policy decisions for effective and efficient intervention. The objective of this research is to assess the human mobility pattern and analyse its implication for malaria disease epidemiology. METHODS: In this study, human mobility patterns in Benishangul-Gumuz and Gambella regions in Western Ethiopia were explored based on a cellular network mobility parameter (e.g., handover rate) via real world data. Anonymized data were retrieved for mobile active users with mobility related information. The data came from anonymous traffic records collected from all the study areas. For each cell, the necessary mobility parameter data per hour, week and month were collected. A scale factor was computed to change the mobility parameter value to the human mobility pattern. Finally, the relative human mobility probability for each scenario was estimated. MapInfo and Matlab softwares were used for visualization and analysis purposes. Hourly travel patterns in the study settings were compared with hourly malaria mosquito vector feeding behaviour. RESULTS: Heterogeneous human movement patterns were observed in the two regions with some areas showing typically high human mobility. Furthermore, the number of people entering into the two study regions was high during the highest malaria transmission season. Two peaks of hourly human movement, 8:00 to 9:00 and 16:00 to 18:00, emerged in Benishangul-Gumuz region while 8:00 to 10:00 and 16:00 to 18:00 were the peak hourly human mobility time periods in Gambella region. The high human movement in the night especially before midnight in the two regions may increase the risk of getting mosquito bite particularly by early biters depending on malaria linked human behaviour of the population. CONCLUSIONS: High human mobility was observed both within and outside the two regions. The population influx and efflux in these two regions is considerably high. This may specifically challenge the transition from malaria control to elimination. The daily mobility pattern is worth considering in the context of malaria transmission. In line with this malaria related behavioural patterns of humans need to be properly addressed.


Asunto(s)
Teléfono Celular , Malaria , Animales , Humanos , Etiopía/epidemiología , Malaria/epidemiología , Malaria/prevención & control , Mosquitos Vectores , Viaje
7.
Lancet Planet Health ; 6(11): e858-e869, 2022 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370724

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Promoting active travel can be beneficial for both health and the environment. However, evidence about the most effective strategies is inconsistent. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of interventions with positive (ie, carrot), negative (ie, stick), or a combination of strategies on changing population-level travel behaviour. We also aimed to identify which intervention functions, or mechanisms of how interventions seek to alter behaviour (eg, by addressing safety or accessibility), affect transport outcomes. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched eight online databases for studies published before March 28, 2022: Web of Science, MEDLINE, Scopus, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Global Health, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Transport Research International Documentation. We did not restrict searches by language or publication date. We included controlled before-and-after studies of population-level interventions and travel behaviours (ie, driving, public transport, walking, and cycling) from adults in the general population. We categorised interventions according to their function. Depending on whether gains or losses due to intervention function could occur, we classified interventions as carrot (eg, new bike-share programmes), stick (eg, congestion charging), or combined carrot-and-stick interventions (eg, pedestrianising areas by use of reallocated parking space). We used harvest plots to summarise the findings and guide narrative synthesis. Where possible, we converted outcomes into standardised mean differences and did random-effects meta-analyses. FINDINGS: From 38 916 records screened, 102 reports describing 121 interventions met the inclusion criteria. 79 interventions were carrots, 22 were carrot-and-sticks, and 20 were sticks. Results for carrot interventions were less consistent than for stick or combined interventions. Findings from the meta-analysis (64 reports describing 67 interventions) agreed with those in the narrative synthesis; although effects were statistically non-significant, for driving outcomes, interventions with stick strategies (standardised mean difference [SMD] -0·17, 95% CI -0·36 to 0·02) and combined carrot-and-stick strategies (-0·13, -0·47 to 0·20) had point estimates of greater magnitude than those for interventions with carrot strategies (-0·10, -0·23 to 0·03). Likewise, for active travel outcomes, combined carrot-and-stick strategies had a higher point estimate (0·33, -0·01 to 0·68) compared with carrot interventions (0·08, -0·05 to 0·21). Functions thought to change behaviour using financial means were effective at decreasing driving behaviour, whereas those improving access, safety, and space were effective for increasing active travel outcomes. INTERPRETATION: This Article found that, although transport interventions with only positive strategies are more commonly evaluated, interventions that combine both positive and negative strategies might be more effective at encouraging alternatives to driving at the population level. Further research is needed for interventions involving a stick strategy, which remain less widely implemented or well studied than those with only carrot strategies. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, Cambridge Trust.


Asunto(s)
Transportes , Viaje , Adulto , Humanos , Conducción de Automóvil , Estado de Salud
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19492, 2022 Nov 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376417

RESUMEN

Pre-vaccine SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence data from Germany are scarce outside hotspots, and socioeconomic disparities remained largely unexplored. The nationwide representative RKI-SOEP study (15,122 participants, 18-99 years, 54% women) investigated seroprevalence and testing in a supplementary wave of the Socio-Economic-Panel conducted predominantly in October-November 2020. Self-collected oral-nasal swabs were PCR-positive in 0.4% and Euroimmun anti-SARS-CoV-2-S1-IgG ELISA from dry-capillary-blood antibody-positive in 1.3% (95% CI 0.9-1.7%, population-weighted, corrected for sensitivity = 0.811, specificity = 0.997). Seroprevalence was 1.7% (95% CI 1.2-2.3%) when additionally correcting for antibody decay. Overall infection prevalence including self-reports was 2.1%. We estimate 45% (95% CI 21-60%) undetected cases and lower detection in socioeconomically deprived districts. Prior SARS-CoV-2 testing was reported by 18% from the lower educational group vs. 25% and 26% from the medium and high educational group (p < 0.001, global test over three categories). Symptom-triggered test frequency was similar across educational groups. Routine testing was more common in low-educated adults, whereas travel-related testing and testing after contact with infected persons was more common in highly educated groups. This countrywide very low pre-vaccine seroprevalence in Germany at the end of 2020 can serve to evaluate the containment strategy. Our findings on social disparities indicate improvement potential in pandemic planning for people in socially disadvantaged circumstances.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Adulto , Femenino , Masculino , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Prueba de COVID-19 , Viaje , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Enfermedad Relacionada con los Viajes , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Inmunoglobulina G
9.
Obstet Gynecol ; 140(3): 391-397, 2022 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356237

RESUMEN

Since May 2022, more than 6,900 cases of monkeypox virus infection have been reported in 52 countries. The World Health Organization is planning to rename the virus and its clades to reduce stigma. As of July 5, 2022, 556 cases have been reported in 33 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. The initial cases were travel-associated; however, person-to-person transmission is now occurring domestically. Close, sustained skin-to-skin contact, including during sexual activity, appears to be the primary mode of transmission. The risk of widespread community transmission remains low; however, rapid identification of monkeypox virus infection and isolation of affected individuals is critical to prevent further transmission. Most but not all cases have occurred in males; some infections have started with anogenital lesions and can be mistaken for common sexually transmitted infections. To facilitate rapid, accurate diagnosis of monkeypox virus infection, obstetrician-gynecologists (ob-gyns) in the United States should ask about recent travel history and new ulcers or lesions and perform a thorough visual inspection of skin and mucosal sites (oral, genital, perianal area) in patients presenting with new rash. Obstetrician-gynecologists should become familiar with the appearance of monkeypox lesions and know whom to call to report a suspected case, how and when to test for monkeypox virus, and how to counsel patients. In the event of a suspected case, ob-gyns should follow infection-control guidelines to prevent transmission and make recommendations to prevent further community spread. This article outlines the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of monkeypox virus infection, monkeypox virus infection during pregnancy, and implications for practicing ob-gyns in the United States.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Viruela de los Monos , Viruela del Mono , Embarazo , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Viaje , Personal de Salud , Conducta Sexual
11.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 164(20): 36-37, 2022 Nov.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376673
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360604

RESUMEN

Vaccination is a very common topic, but it is rarely raised or discussed with respect to military members. Soldiers are one of the main professional groups to be immunized on a regular basis. The military actively participates in research on new vaccine preparations. This paper presents data from 2018-2021 on vaccination among Polish soldiers. The material obtained from the Central Register of Vaccination for Professional Soldiers was analyzed using descriptive statistical methods. The number of injections performed in a given period depends on the location of the ongoing missions and the vaccination schedule specific to a given Polish Military Contingent. In Poland, soldiers undergo preventive vaccinations in accordance with the scheme developed by the Armed Forces Operational Command, taking into account the specific nature of the service, epidemiological risks and the calendar of current preventive vaccinations. Soldiers serving abroad are immunized against typhoid, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies, measles, tick-borne encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, polio, diphtheria, meningococcal disease, chickenpox, cholera and yellow fever. Regular vaccinations for soldiers are necessary to minimize the spread of infectious diseases, and they have a beneficial effect upon the effectiveness of military operations.


Asunto(s)
Personal Militar , Vacunas , Humanos , Polonia , Viaje , Vacunación
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360994

RESUMEN

Active travel (AT) is a core physical activity (PA) indicator for children and youth; contributing to health and wellbeing, at both the individual and societal levels. This analysis explores patterns of adolescent active school travel (AST) and cycling and associations with different PA measures. Secondary analysis of the cross-sectional 2018-2019 Health Behaviour in School Age Children study in Israel included an extended PA module with walking, cycling and e-cycling modes. The nationally representative sample includes students in grades 6-12 (n = 4407). Analysis of weighted data included descriptive analyses, inferential statistics, and regression analyses. AST was reported by 61.9% of adolescents; 39.3% reported 20 min or more daily AST; 27.1% reported habitual cycling (HC) and 17.4% reported habitual e-cycling (HEC). There are mixed results for socio-economic status and environment. AST and HC were associated with less sedentary hours daily (odds ratio [OR] = 1.190 and 1.397, respectively); HC was associated with positive sports self-rating (OR = 2.394). Stepwise regression analysis found that lower AST duration, time in minutes, was associated with watching television with the family. Promotion of adolescent AT may be associated with increased PA and joint parent-adolescent AT, and was utilized across different socio-demographic groups in Israel.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Instituciones Académicas , Niño , Adolescente , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Israel , Caminata , Viaje , Transportes
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361002

RESUMEN

The reduction in locational traffic accident risks through appropriate traffic safety management is important to support, maintain, and improve children's safe and independent mobility. This study proposes and verifies a method to evaluate the risk of elementary school students-vehicle accidents (ESSVAs) at individual intersections on residential roads in Toyohashi city, Japan, considering the difference in travel purposes (i.e., school commuting purpose; SCP or non-school commuting purpose: NSCP), based on a statistical regression model and Empirical Bayes (EB) estimation. The results showed that the ESSVA risk of children's travel in SCP is lower than that in NSCP, and not only ESSVAs in SCP but also most ESSVAs in NSCP occurred on or near the designated school routes. Therefore, it would make sense to implement traffic safety management and measures focusing on school routes. It was also found that the locational ESSVA risk structure is different depending on whether the purpose of the children's travels is SCP or NSCP in the statistical model. Finally, it was suggested that evaluation of locational ESSVA risks based on the EB estimation is useful for efficiently extracting locations where traffic safety measures should be implemented compared to that only based on the number of accidents in the past.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones Académicas , Transportes , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Transportes/métodos , Accidentes de Tránsito , Viaje , Caminata
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361007

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Hajj is an annual religious mass gathering event held in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. With millions of participants from across the globe attending the Hajj, the risk of importation, transmission, and global spread of infectious diseases is high. The emergence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria is of worldwide concern and the Hajj poses a serious risk to its dissemination. This review aims to synthesize published literature on AMR bacteria acquisition and transmission associated with the Hajj. METHODS: We searched electronic databases to identify literature published between January 1990 and December 2021. The search strategy included medical subject headings and keyword terms related to AMR bacteria and the Hajj. RESULTS: After screening 2214 search results, 51 studies were included in the analysis. The review found 6455 AMR bacteria transmissions related to the Hajj. Thirty predominantly enteric or respiratory disease-causing AMR bacterial species were reported with isolates identified in cases on five continents. Most were male, aged above 50 years and were diagnosed in Makkah. Most cases were identified through hospital-based research; few cases were detected in community or primary health care settings. CONCLUSIONS: This review provides a contemporary account of knowledge related to AMR transmission at the Hajj. It emphasizes the need for the enhancement of surveillance for AMR bacteria globally.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Masculino , Humanos , Anciano , Femenino , Viaje , Islamismo , Bacterias , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361077

RESUMEN

As the fourth pillar of sustainable development, culture is widely recognized as contributing to human wellbeing. The distinctive culture of cities is an important driving force for attracting visitors to destinations for tourism consumption. Since historical cities have important cultural and historical values, the design of their tourist maps needs not only geographic positioning and artistic aesthetics, but also a systematic design method to present the connotation of regional cultures, so as to enhance the local cultural identity of hosts and the cultural cognition of visitors, and to drive the local tourism economy, improve the regional environment, promote cultural transmission and inheritance with the help of tourist map design in terms of cultural sustainability, which ultimately achieves sustainable development of human wellbeing. Taking Foshan, a national historical city, as an example, combined with the cultural gene and the cultural hierarchy theory, this study analyzes and summarizes the regional culture of Foshan from three aspects: material cultural gene, intangible cultural gene and spiritual cultural gene. This study also comprehensively presents the geographical information and historical or humanistic characteristics of the city through direct translation, narrative translation, and metaphor translation, which provide theoretical support and practical guidance for the integration of regional cultures into tourist map design.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Sostenible , Viaje , Humanos , China , Turismo , Ciudades
17.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276631, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327197

RESUMEN

Oleotourism (olive oil tourism) is a new form of gastronomic tourism that satisfies increasingly challenging tourist demand, especially in the wake of the pandemic and for tourists who seek not only quality food products but also a safe environment to enjoy their chosen activity. Córdoba is a province in southern Spain where olives play a very important role, accounting for 50% of its cultivated area, and whose agricultural activity can be complemented with tourism due to its 189 oil mills that can welcome visitors for oil tasting. However, this type of tourism is not seeing an expected boom. This research analyzes, through a varimax analysis, the factors that attract and drive oleotourists as well as the components of such tourism. As a result, four principal components related to tourists and tourism offers were obtained, finding a high degree of satisfaction of oleotourist with the routes explored as well as a lack of knowledge of this type of tourism in international markets.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Viaje , España , Satisfacción Personal , Turismo
19.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(11): e1010650, 2022 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36413581

RESUMEN

Network science has increasingly become central to the field of epidemiology and our ability to respond to infectious disease threats. However, many networks derived from modern datasets are not just large, but dense, with a high ratio of edges to nodes. This includes human mobility networks where most locations have a large number of links to many other locations. Simulating large-scale epidemics requires substantial computational resources and in many cases is practically infeasible. One way to reduce the computational cost of simulating epidemics on these networks is sparsification, where a representative subset of edges is selected based on some measure of their importance. We test several sparsification strategies, ranging from naive thresholding to random sampling of edges, on mobility data from the U.S. Following recent work in computer science, we find that the most accurate approach uses the effective resistances of edges, which prioritizes edges that are the only efficient way to travel between their endpoints. The resulting sparse network preserves many aspects of the behavior of an SIR model, including both global quantities, like the epidemic size, and local details of stochastic events, including the probability each node becomes infected and its distribution of arrival times. This holds even when the sparse network preserves fewer than 10% of the edges of the original network. In addition to its practical utility, this method helps illuminate which links of a weighted, undirected network are most important to disease spread.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Viaje , Humanos , Proyectos de Investigación , Modelos Epidemiológicos , Probabilidad
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361300

RESUMEN

Uncontrolled, large-scale human mobility can amplify a localized disease into a pandemic. Tracking changes in human travel behavior, exploring the relationship between epidemic events and intercity travel generation and attraction under policies will contribute to epidemic prevention efforts, as well as deepen understanding of the essential changes of intercity interactions in the post-epidemic era. To explore the dynamic impact of small-scale localized epidemic events and related policies on intercity travel, a spatial lag model and improved gravity models are developed by using intercity travel data. Taking the localized COVID-19 epidemic in Xi'an, China as an example, the study constructs the travel interaction characterization before or after the pandemic as well as under constraints of regular epidemic prevention policies, whereby significant impacts of epidemic events are explored. Moreover, indexes of the quantified policies are refined to the city level in China to analyze their effects on travel volumes. We highlight the non-negligible impacts of city events and related policies on intercity interaction, which can serve as a reference for travel management in case of such severe events.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Viaje , Ciudades/epidemiología , China/epidemiología
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