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1.
Vet Parasitol ; 277: 109019, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918044

RESUMEN

Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) is a widespread parasite infection of livestock in Victoria, South-eastern Australia, where high rainfall and a mild climate is suitable for the main intermediate host Austropeplea tomentosa. The aims of this study were to quantify the prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica in dairy cattle in the irrigated dairy regions of Victoria and determine if triclabendazole resistance was present in infected herds. Cattle in 83 herds from the following six irrigation regions were tested for F. hepatica: Macalister Irrigation District (MID), Upper Murray (UM), Murray Valley (MV), Central Goulburn (CG), Torrumbarry (TIA) and Loddon Valley (LV). Twenty cattle from each herd were tested using the F. hepatica faecal egg count (FEC) as well as the coproantigen ELISA (cELISA). The mean individual animal true prevalence of F. hepatica across all regions was 39 % (95 % credible interval [CrI] 27%-51%) by FEC and 39 % (95 % CrI 27%-50%) by cELISA with the highest true prevalence (75-80 %) found in the MID. Our results show that 46 % of the herds that took part in this study were likely to experience fluke-associated production losses, based on observations that herd productivity is impaired when the true within-herd prevalence is > 25 %. Using the FEC and cELISA reduction tests, triclabendazole resistance was assessed on 3 herds in total (2 from the 83 in the study; and 1 separate herd that did not take part in the prevalence study) and resistance was confirmed in all 3 herds. This study has confirmed that F. hepatica is endemic in several dairy regions in Victoria: triclabendazole resistance may be contributing to the high prevalence in some herds. From our analysis, we estimate that the state-wide economic loss associated with fasciolosis is in the order of AUD 129 million (range AUD 38-193 million) per year or about AUD 50,000 (range AUD 15,000-75,000) per herd per year.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/parasitología , Resistencia a Medicamentos , Fasciola hepatica/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Antiplatelmínticos/farmacología , Bovinos , Industria Lechera , Fascioliasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Fascioliasis/prevención & control , Fascioliasis/veterinaria , Prevalencia , Triclabendazol/farmacología , Victoria/epidemiología
2.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 106(1): 146-156, 2020 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521718

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) commonly affects people of working age, yet there is limited data regarding the return-to-work experience in this cohort. This study aimed to investigate the proportion of survivors currently working after completion of radiation therapy and to explore potential facilitators and barriers to working after treatment. METHODS: A cross-sectional, single-institutional study was undertaken at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, a comprehensive cancer center in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Eligible participants were 18 to 65 years old at diagnosis, were employed at or within the 3 months before diagnosis, and had completed curative treatment for HPV-associated OPC ≥4 months before enrollment. Participants completed a paper-based survey to assess baseline demographics, employment status, and quality of life (QOL; Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Head and Neck). Open-ended questions explored factors affecting return to work. Associations between current employment status and various disease, treatment, and demographic variables and with QOL were examined. Free-text items were analyzed by summarizing content analysis. RESULTS: Of 93 participants approached, 68 responded (73.1%). Mean age was 54.1 years (range, 39-64 years), and 89.7% were male. Most participants (67.6%) had stage II disease and were treated with chemoradiation (85.3%). Mean time after treatment was 2.6 years (range, 0.3-9.1 years). Fifty-eight of 68 participants (85.3%) were working at enrollment; median time to return to work was 6.0 months (interquartile range, 4-10 months); 45 (77.6%) were in the same role and 35 (60.3%) worked the same number of hours. Ten participants were not working, 3 had retired, 5 reported persistent and significant treatment toxicity preventing employment. Survivors currently working reported higher physical, functional, and global QOL scores. Access to leave and support from treating doctors were facilitators for return to work, whereas fatigue was frequently reported as a barrier to returning to work. CONCLUSION: With time, the majority of participants with HPV-associated OPC will return to work after radiation therapy. Attention to symptom management and support from the workplace may enable more successful return to work.


Asunto(s)
Supervivientes de Cáncer/estadística & datos numéricos , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/terapia , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Calidad de Vida , Reinserción al Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Supervivientes de Cáncer/psicología , Quimioradioterapia/efectos adversos , Quimioradioterapia/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Fatiga/complicaciones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/patología , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/virología , Papillomaviridae , Investigación Cualitativa , Jubilación/estadística & datos numéricos , Reinserción al Trabajo/psicología , Ausencia por Enfermedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Apoyo Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Tiempo , Victoria , Tolerancia al Trabajo Programado , Lugar de Trabajo
3.
J Law Med ; 26(4): 732-736, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682352

RESUMEN

The use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is highly regulated across Australia. Its use on those under compulsory mental health treatment orders remains controversial and the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel and Inhuman Treatment or Punishment has called for a ban on its nonconsensual use. Mental health tribunals must consider whether or not the person concerned has capacity to consent to ECT and there have been different understandings of just what capacity means in this regard. This column discusses the influence of human rights law and a recent decision by Justice Bell of the Supreme Court of Victoria setting a low threshold for a person's capacity to consent to or refuse ECT.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Electroconvulsiva , Consentimiento Informado , Justicia Social , Humanos , Legislación Médica , Naciones Unidas , Victoria
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1420, 2019 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666042

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Understanding levels of community readiness can result in prevention efforts that align with communities' ability and capacity for change and, therefore, be more effective and sustainable. Our study aimed to use baseline (pre-intervention) community readiness scores to assist with the development of obesity prevention strategies, and to assess changes in community readiness over time (pre/post- intervention), to provide evidence of intervention impact. METHOD: Our study was located in a rural and remote area of Victoria, Australia. Community readiness was part of a broader obesity prevention intervention designed to create healthier food and physical activity environments through the combination of systems thinking and collaborative community-led solutions. Interviews were conducted using the community readiness to change tool in 2016 (pre) and 2018 (post) with a community representative sample. Baseline data informed the development of community relevant strategies and the pre/post results formed part of the overall evaluation. RESULTS: The tool generated both quantitative and qualitative (quotes) data. A final readiness score was calculated that corresponded to one of the nine stages of readiness. Four of the five domains of the community readiness to change tool showed statistically significant improvements over time (p < 0.05): knowledge of effort, knowledge of issue, community climate, and leadership. The resources domain that did not improve pre/post intervention. CONCLUSION: Community readiness to change interviews, pre- and post- intervention, provided essential information related to the appropriate targeting and pitch of the prevention strategies, as well as providing an overall evaluation of the positive movement in the community's readiness to implement change.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Investigación Participativa Basada en la Comunidad , Obesidad/prevención & control , Servicios Preventivos de Salud , Población Rural , Adulto , Dieta , Ejercicio , Humanos , Liderazgo , Victoria
5.
Zootaxa ; 4611(1): zootaxa.4611.1.1, 2019 May 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717089

RESUMEN

Samples of Pectinariidae in the Australian Museum and Museums of Victoria, Australia were examined. Thirteen species were identified, including three additional records of previously recorded species of Amphictene and two new species, A. cercusa n. sp. and A. undulata n. sp., two species of the genus Lagis which has not previously been recorded from Australia, including a new species, L. portus n. sp., and five additional records of previously recorded species of Pectinaria and one new species, P. ningalooensis n. sp. The study revealed additional characters which are useful to identify species of pectinariids, a pair of ear-shaped lobes which are adjacent to both sides of dorsal base of cephalic veil in species of Pectinaria and Amphictene, but in Lagis they are present between the buccal cavity and lateral margin of segment 1; and a pair of ventral lappets which have not previously been described on the lateral margin of segment I in all species of pectinariids from Australia. For species where numerous individuals were available for study, we investigated how some characters, change with increasing body size. A key to all recorded species from Australia is given, but does not imply any phylogenetic relationships.


Asunto(s)
Poliquetos , Distribución Animal , Estructuras Animales , Animales , Tamaño Corporal , Tamaño de los Órganos , Filogenia , Victoria
6.
Zootaxa ; 4565(1): zootaxa.4565.1.9, 2019 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716495

RESUMEN

Pseudolaryngodus spectabilis gen. et sp. nov., from Little Desert National Park in Victoria, Australia, is described and illustrated. The monotypic new genus superficially resembles the udeocorine genus Laryngodus Herrich-Schaeffer in general facies, and is sympatric with one of the species of Laryngodus. Pseudolaryngodus has some characters that share its tribal placement within both Udeocorini and Myodochini of the family Rhyparochromidae. However, it lacks inner laterotergites on abdomen, making it a Myodochini rather than a Udeocorini. Details of the relationships between these two genera, along with their tribal placements, are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Hemípteros , Heterópteros , Distribución Animal , Animales , Simpatría , Victoria
7.
Zootaxa ; 4560(3): zootaxa.4560.3.9, 2019 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716573

RESUMEN

In his landmark revision of the Australian Dynastinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Phil Carne (1957) described Novapus bifidus Carne, 1957 from males and females collected at Cape York and Thursday Island. The type series is in the Australian National Insect Collection, Canberra, Australia (ANIC); the Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom; the South Australian Museum, Adelaide, Australia (SAM); and the Museum of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia. He noted "In the collections of the South Australian Museum there are specimens designated as types of bifidus Lea. No description of this species has been published, and it is now described under the same specific name". One of his paratypes is a female in SAM identified as "Lea's unpublished ♀ type" and two other paratypes are males in SAM. Cassis Weir (1992) noted that one of the SAM specimens has the registration number I4268, although they knew of only two paratypes (one male, one female) in that collection. The name has been attributed to Carne by most subsequent authors (Endrodi 1974, 1985; Carne Allsopp 1987; Cassis Weir 1992; Dechambre 2005; Atlas of Living Australia 2018.). Krajcik (2005, 2012) listed it in his scarab checklists but as "bifidus? Carne 1957".


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Animales , Femenino , Londres , Masculino , Reino Unido , Victoria
8.
Zootaxa ; 4647(1): zootaxa.4647.1.18, 2019 Jul 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716986

RESUMEN

Five new species of Topalia (Nosybeidae) are described from Australia: Topalia caliginosa sp. nov. from Victoria, T. corinnensis sp. nov. from Tasmania, T. dunlopi sp. nov. and T. katyae sp. nov. from Norfolk Island and T. royi sp. nov. from New South Wales. The genus was known previously from Australia from unidentified specimens only. I revise the generic definition, provide a key to species and clarify the family placement and taxonomic status of Topalia, Nosybea, Lamellocepheus and Charassobates. From a phylogenetic analysis and identification of synapomorphies, I consider Topalia, Nosybea and Lamellocepheus are valid, morphologically related and included in the Nosybeidae. The superfamily Charassobatoidea is valid, and contains Charassobatidae, Nosybeidae and Microtegeidae. These families have synapomorphies of a narrow, elongate subcapitulum, minute notogastral setae with at least one pair in the d series retained in the adults (dm in Nosybeidae, dp or dm in Microtegeidae, full complement in Charassobates). Immatures of Nosybeidae and Microtegeidae are undescribed, but in Charassobates are eupheredermous, plicate, and the tritonymph has the full complement of setae in the d series. Charassobates and Topalia have the synapomorphy of a ventral plate tectum, providing strong evidence for their relatedness. By way of contrast, the Cepheoidea, in which Nosybeidae and Microtegeidae have been placed by various authors, have a broad subcapitulum, well-developed setiform notogastral setae positioned marginally and lacking the d series, and no ventral plate tectum. The immatures are eupheredermous but non-plicate and the tritonymph lacks setae in the d series. Based on these differences, Nosybeidae, Microtegeidae and Charassobatidae cannot be included in the Cepheoidea.


Asunto(s)
Ácaros , Animales , Melanesia , Nueva Gales del Sur , Filogenia , Tasmania , Victoria
9.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 62(10): 1195-1203, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490828

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Peritoneal metastases carry the worst prognosis among all sites of colorectal cancer metastases. In recent years, the advent and acceptance of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy have greatly improved survival for selected patients with low-volume peritoneal metastases. OBJECTIVE: Here, we report the evolution of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for colorectal peritoneal metastases at a statewide tertiary referral center over an 8-year period. DESIGN: This is a retrospective study from 2009 to 2017. SETTING: The study was conducted at a single center over 8 years. PATIENTS: Patients with colorectal peritoneal metastases undergoing cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy were included. MAIN OUTCOMES: Main outcomes included evaluation of grade III/IV morbidity rate, mortality rate, overall and relapse-free survival, and prognostic factors influencing survival on a Cox multivariate analysis model. RESULTS: One hundred one cytoreductive surgeries were undertaken on 96 patients during this time for colorectal peritoneal metastases. The median patient age was 60 years with 55.2% being female. The median Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Index was 9, with complete cytoreduction achieved in 76 (75.2%) cases. Grade III or IV complications occurred in 26 cases (25.7%) with 2 (2%) perioperative mortalities. Median overall survival for the entire cohort was 32 months, with a 3-year survival of 38%. For patients who achieved a complete cytoreduction, median overall survival was 37 months, with a relapse-free survival of 13 months and a 3-year survival of 54%. Complete cytoreduction and nonmucinous histology were key factors independently associated with improved overall survival. LIMITATIONS: The main limitation this study is its retrospective nature. CONCLUSION: Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for isolated low-volume colorectal peritoneal metastases is safe and effective, with low morbidity. It offers selected patients a highly favorable overall and relapse-free survival. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B2. EVOLUCIÓN DE LA CIRUGÍA CITORREDUCTIVA Y QUIMIOTERAPIA INTRAPERITONEAL HIPERTÉRMICA (HIPEC) PARA METÁSTASIS PERITONEALES COLORRECTALES: EXPERIENCIA INSTITUCIONAL DE 8 AÑOS: El cáncer colorrectal es la segunda causa de mortalidad relacionada con el cáncer en todo el mundo. Las metástasis peritoneales tienen el peor pronóstico entre todos los sitios de metástasis del cáncer colorrectal. En los últimos años, el advenimiento y la aceptación de la cirugía citorreductiva y la quimioterapia intraperitoneal hipertérmica ha mejorado enormemente la supervivencia de pacientes seleccionados con metástasis peritoneales de bajo volumen. OBJETIVO: Aquí, informamos sobre la evolución de la cirugía citorreductiva y la quimioterapia intraperitoneal hipertérmica para las metástasis peritoneales colorrectales en un centro de referencia terciario para todo el estado durante un período de ocho años. DISEÑO:: Estudio retrospectivo del 2009 a 2017. CONFIGURACIÓN:: Centro único a lo largo de ocho años. PACIENTES: Pacientes con metástasis peritoneales colorrectales sometidos a cirugía citorreductiva y quimioterapia intraperitoneal hipertérmica. RESULTADOS PRINCIPALES: Los resultados principales incluyeron la evaluación de la tasa de morbilidad de grado III / IV, la tasa de mortalidad, la supervivencia general y libre de recaída y los factores pronósticos que influyen en la supervivencia en el modelo de análisis multivariado Cox. RESULTADOS: Se realizaron el ciento uno cirugías citorreductivas en noventa y seis pacientes durante este tiempo por metástasis peritoneales colorrectales. La edad media de los pacientes fue de 60 años, con un 55.2% de mujeres. El Índice de Carcinomatosis Peritoneal mediano fue de 9, con una citorreducción completa lograda en 76 (75.2%) casos. Las complicaciones de grado III o IV ocurrieron en 26 casos (25.7%) con dos (2%) de mortalidad perioperatoria. La supervivencia mediana general para toda la cohorte fue de 32 meses, con una supervivencia de 3 años del 38%. Para los pacientes que lograron una citorreducción completa, la supervivencia global media fue de 37 meses, con una supervivencia sin recaída de 13 meses y una supervivencia de 3 años del 54%. La citorreducción completa y la histología no mucinosa fueron factores clave asociados de forma independiente con una mejor supervivencia general. LIMITACIONES: La principal limitación es la naturaleza retrospectiva del estudio. CONCLUSIÓN:: La cirugía citorreductiva y la quimioterapia intraperitoneal hipertérmica para las metástasis peritoneales colorrectales aisladas de bajo volumen son seguras y eficaces, con baja morbilidad. Ofrece a los pacientes seleccionados una supervivencia global altamente favorable y libre de recaída. Vea el Resumen del video en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B2.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales/terapia , Hipertermia Inducida/métodos , Estadificación de Neoplasias/métodos , Neoplasias Peritoneales/terapia , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Neoplasias Colorrectales/mortalidad , Neoplasias Colorrectales/patología , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos de Citorreducción , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Laparoscopía , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias Peritoneales/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Peritoneales/secundario , Peritoneo/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada por Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tasa de Supervivencia/tendencias , Factores de Tiempo , Victoria/epidemiología
10.
Aust Vet J ; 97(11): 447-451, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475336

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Australia is currently regarded as free of classical swine fever (CSF), a highly contagious disease of pigs caused by a pestivirus. This study aimed to provide additional evidence that the Victorian domestic pig population is free of CSF. DESIGN: A structured representative sero-prevalence survey of Victorian domestic pigs at slaughter. METHOD: Three-hundred and ninety-one pigs from 23 holdings were sampled at the time of slaughter between March 2016 and October 2017. RESULTS: All samples were negative for CSF virus Ab on ELISA. Because of uncertainty in the sensitivity of the CSF Ab ELISA, estimates of the true prevalence of CSF were calculated using Bayesian methods. The median and upper bound of the 95% credible intervals for the true prevalence of CSF was zero when the diagnostic sensitivity of the CSF Ab ELISA was assumed to range from 0.75 to 0.95. CONCLUSION: These results provide evidence that the population of domestic pigs in Victoria in 2016-2017 was free of CSF.


Asunto(s)
Peste Porcina Clásica/epidemiología , Peste Porcina Clásica/prevención & control , Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/prevención & control , Animales , Peste Porcina Clásica/sangre , Virus de la Fiebre Porcina Clásica/aislamiento & purificación , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/veterinaria , Prevalencia , Sus scrofa , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/sangre , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Victoria/epidemiología
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3988, 2019 09 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488838

RESUMEN

Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has been used to investigate transmission of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, but to date, most studies have not combined genomic data with detailed information on sexual behaviour to define the extent of transmission across population risk groups (bridging). Here, through combined epidemiological and genomic analysis of 2,186N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Australia, we show widespread transmission of N. gonorrhoeae within and between population groups. We describe distinct transmission clusters associated with men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals, and men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are identified as a possible bridging population between these groups. Further, the study identifies transmission of N. gonorrhoeae between HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals receiving pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Our data highlight several groups that can be targeted for interventions aimed at improving gonorrhoea control, including returning travellers, sex workers, and PrEP users.


Asunto(s)
Gonorrea/tratamiento farmacológico , Gonorrea/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Conducta Sexual , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Adulto , Femenino , Gonorrea/transmisión , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Trabajadores Sexuales , Parejas Sexuales , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Victoria , Adulto Joven
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 647, 2019 Sep 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492185

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Emergency department (ED) presentations made by patients having cancer treatment are associated with worth outcomes. This study aimed to explore the socio-demographic and disease related characteristics associated with ED presentation, frequent ED presentations, and place of discharge for cancer patients receiving systemic cancer therapies in the ambulatory setting. METHODS: This was a single site, retrospective observational cohort design. Hospital data for patients treated in the Day Oncology Unit of a large public tertiary hospital in Melbourne, Australia between December 2014 and November 2017 were extracted from clinical databases and retrospectively matched to ED attendance records. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Service Utilisation provided the conceptual framework for exploring associations between socio-demographic and disease characteristics and ED use. RESULTS: A total of 2638 individuals were treated in the Day Oncology Unit over the study dates. Of these, 1182 (45%) made an unplanned ED presentation within 28 days of receiving systemic cancer therapy. One hundred and twenty-two (12%) patients attended the ED on two or more occasions within 28 days; while 112 (10%) patients attended the ED four or more times (within 28 days of receiving systemic cancer therapy) within any given 12 month period. Being born outside of Australia was independently related to making an unplanned ED presentation within 28 days of receiving anti-cancer therapy (p < .01) as was being diagnosed with head and neck (p = .03), upper gastrointestinal (p < .001), colorectal (p < .001), lung (p < .001), skin (p < .001) or breast cancer (p = .01). CONCLUSIONS: This study identified a subgroup of cancer patients for whom an ED presentation is more likely. Better understanding of socio-demographic and disease related characteristics associated with the risk of an ED presentation may help inform targeted follow up of patients, to mitigate potentially avoidable ED presentation and optimize outcomes of care.


Asunto(s)
Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias/terapia , Estudios de Cohortes , Demografía , Femenino , Hospitales Públicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Alta del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Victoria
13.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 257-264, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383310

RESUMEN

Wild birds are known reservoirs of bacterial and viral pathogens, some of which have zoonotic potential. This poses a risk to both avian and human health, since spillover into domestic bird populations may occur. In Victoria, wild-caught cockatoos trapped under licence routinely enter commercial trade. The circovirus Beak and Feather Disease Virus (BFDV), herpesviruses, adenoviruses and Chlamydia psittaci have been identified as significant pathogens of parrots globally, with impacts on both aviculture and the conservation efforts of endangered species. In this study, we describe the results of surveillance for psittacid herpesviruses (PsHVs), psittacine adenovirus (PsAdV), BFDV and C. psittaci in wild cacatuids in Victoria, Australia. Samples were collected from 55 birds of four species, and tested using genus or family-wide polymerase chain reaction methods coupled with sequencing and phylogenetic analyses for detection and identification of known and novel pathogens. There were no clinically observed signs of illness in most of the live birds in this study (96.3%; n = 53). Beak and Feather Disease Virus was detected with a prevalence of 69.6% (95% CI 55.2-80.9). Low prevalences of PsHV (1.81%; 95% CI 0.3-9.6), PsAdV (1.81%; 95% CI 0.3-9.6), and C. psittaci (1.81%; 95% CI 0.3-9.6) was detected. Importantly, a novel avian alphaherpesvirus and a novel avian adenovirus were detected in a little corella (Cacatua sanguinea) co-infected with BFDV and C. psittaci. The presence of multiple potential pathogens detected in a single bird presents an example of the ease with which such infectious agents may enter the pet trade and how novel viruses circulating in wild populations have the potential for transmission into captive birds. Genomic identification of previously undescribed avian viruses is important to further our understanding of their epidemiology, facilitating management of biosecurity aspects of the domestic and international bird trade, and conservation efforts of vulnerable species.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Aves/epidemiología , Loros/virología , Psitacosis/veterinaria , Virosis/veterinaria , Virus/aislamiento & purificación , Alphaherpesvirinae/patogenicidad , Animales , Aviadenovirus/patogenicidad , Enfermedades de las Aves/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Aves/virología , Chlamydophila psittaci , Circovirus/patogenicidad , Coinfección/microbiología , Coinfección/veterinaria , Coinfección/virología , ADN Viral/genética , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Loros/microbiología , Prevalencia , Psitacosis/epidemiología , Victoria/epidemiología , Virosis/epidemiología , Virus/clasificación
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426732

RESUMEN

Introduction: Infectious disease surveillance in Victoria, Australia is based upon a legislated requirement for doctors and laboratories to notify suspected or diagnosed cases of specific conditions to the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). The department undertakes regular audits of notification practices in Victoria typically every two years. The objective of this particular audit was to describe notification practices in 2016 and 2017, assess the effect of enhanced surveillance programs (ESPs) on Indigenous status data completeness and provide a baseline assessment that can be used to monitor the impact of a recent legislative change to notification requirements for several of the notifiable diseases which came into effect on 1 September 2018. Methods: Notified cases reported to DHHS between 1 January 2016 and 31 December 2017 which met the confirmed and probable national case definitions were analysed by year, notifier type (doctor-only, laboratory-only, or both) and condition category (urgent versus routine). For three notifiable conditions (gonococcal infection and hepatitis B and hepatitis C of unspecified duration) Indigenous status completeness was compared pre- and post ESP commencement. Results: The number of notified cases in Victoria increased 50% from 76,904 in 2016 to 115,318 in 2017 with a 277% increase in notified influenza alone. Almost half of cases were notified by both laboratory and doctor. Indigenous status was more likely to be complete following the introduction of ESPs (relative risk, RR 1.36 (95%CI: 1.33 - 1.40) p>0 .001). Discussion: DHHS Victoria experienced a 1.5-fold increase in notified cases in 2017 compared with 2016, which was almost entirely attributable to influenza. For three notifiable conditions which had ESPs introduced during this period, Indigenous status reporting significantly improved. Indigenous identifiers on pathology request forms and data linkage are both interventions which are being considered to improve Indigenous status reporting in Victoria.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Notificación de Enfermedades , Gonorrea/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Humanos , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Grupo de Ascendencia Oceánica , Vigilancia de la Población , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Factores de Tiempo , Victoria/epidemiología
15.
J Sci Med Sport ; 22(11): 1213-1218, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420294

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To present the first comprehensive epidemiological profile of hospital-treated injuries sustained by female cricketers from 2002-2003 to 2013-2014 in Victoria, Australia. DESIGN: Analysis of routinely collected hospital data (detailed case-series). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of hospital-treatment data associated with cricket injuries sustained by women between 1 July 2002 and 30 June 2014, inclusive were extracted from databases held by the Victorian Injury Surveillance Unit in Australia. RESULTS: Over the 12-year period, 668 cases were treated in Victoria. Of these, 547 were emergency department (ED)-presentations. There were 121 hospital-admissions, of which, the length of stay was <2 days for 78.5% cases. All cases were treated and released, and no fatalities were reported. The 10-14 year age group most frequently presented to ED (19.9%) and were most commonly admitted to hospital (16.5% of the total admissions). Fractures were the most common cause of hospital-admissions (47.1%) but only accounted for 17.2% of the ED-presentations. Dislocations, sprains and strains, were the most common (36.4%) cause of ED-presentations. The head was the most commonly injured anatomical location (27.8% of ED-presentations and 28.1% of hospital-admissions), followed by the wrist and hand (27.8% ED-presentations and 17.4% hospital-admissions). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide the first overview of the nature of injuries requiring hospital attendance in female cricketers, and a foundation to inform the development of targeted injury prevention programs for female cricketers.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas/epidemiología , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Fracturas Óseas/epidemiología , Humanos , Luxaciones Articulares/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Esguinces y Distensiones/epidemiología , Victoria
16.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 193, 2019 08 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438922

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies of dental antibiotic prescribing show that overprescribing is a worldwide occurrence. The aim of this study was to assess prescribing practices of general dentists in Australia for antibiotics, analgesics and anxiolytics and to determine the extent to which prescribing is in accordance with current guidelines. METHODS: A structured questionnaire was sent to 1468 dentists in Victoria and Queensland in July-August 2018. The questionnaire covered demographics, clinical conditions where dentists prescribe antibiotics, non-clinical factors which influence prescribing, and medicines for anxiolysis and pain relief. Responses were scored using a system based on the current Australian therapeutic guidelines. Logistic regression was used to determine the relative importance of independent variables on inappropriate prescribing. RESULTS: Three hundred eighty-two responses were received. Overall, 55% of overprescribing of antibiotics was detected, with a range of 13-88% on a routine or occasional basis depending on the scenario. Between 16 and 27% of respondents inappropriately preferenced analgesics over anti-inflammatories for dental pain; 46% of those who prescribed anxiolytic medicines did so inappropriately, with varying regimens and choices outside the guidelines. Years of practice was the main demographic factor influencing prescribing, with recent graduates (0-5 years) generally scoring better than their colleagues for antibiotic prescribing (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Future interventions could be directed towards the appropriate role and use of antibiotics, shortfalls in knowledge and appropriate choices of medicines for pain relief and anxiolysis. Given that the most overprescribing occurred for localised swellings (88%), this area could be focused on in continuing education as well as ensuring it is addressed in undergraduate teaching. Continuing education on the appropriate use of medicines can be targeted at more experienced dentists as well as patients, especially those who expect antibiotics instead of treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: University of Melbourne Human Ethics Sub-Committee; ID: 1750768.1 .


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Odontólogos , Pautas de la Práctica en Odontología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Queensland , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Victoria
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416245

RESUMEN

(1) Background: Childhood overweight and obesity is a significant and preventable problem worldwide. School environments have been suggested to be plausible targets for interventions seeking to improve the quality of children's dietary intake. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which the current characteristics of the school food environment were associated with primary school students' dietary intake and Body Mass Index (BMI) z scores in a representative sample in regional Victoria. (2) Methods: This study included 53 schools, comprising a sample of 3,496 students in year levels two (aged 7-8 years), four (9-10 years) and six (11-12 years). Year four and six students completed dietary questionnaires. Principals from each school completed a survey on school food environment characteristics. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between students' dietary intake and school food environment scores, controlling for confounders such as socio-economic status, school size and sex. Food environment scores were also analysed against the odds of being healthy weight (defined as normal BMI z score). (3) Results: Mixed associations were found for the relationship between students' dietary intake and food environment scores. Meeting the guidelines for vegetable intake was not associated with food environment scores, but students were more likely (OR: 1.68 95% CI 1.26, 2.24) to meet the guidelines if they attended a large school (>300 enrolments) and were female (OR: 1.28 95% CI: 1.02, 1.59). Healthy weight was not associated with school food environment scores, but being a healthy weight was significantly associated with less disadvantage (OR: 1.24 95% CI 1.05, 1.45). Conclusion: In this study, the measured characteristics of school food environments did not have strong associations with dietary intakes or BMI among students.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Ingestión de Alimentos , Servicios de Alimentación/estadística & datos numéricos , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Victoria/epidemiología
18.
Aust Vet J ; 97(9): 333-335, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328255

RESUMEN

To inform future anthrax surveillance and response activities and to revitalise the communication strategy for producers and their communities, seven dairy farmers in the Goulburn-Murray region of Victoria participated in a Design Thinking process to create a better method to share information about the annual probability of anthrax in their region. Design Thinking is a structured, user-centric design process that begins with intentionally un-structured interviews. Following each interview, transcripts are disassembled into common themes identified by clustering similar statements from these interviews. This short contribution presents these themes re-framed into eight core statements. These statements provide a framework for the remainder of the Design Thinking process but in isolation provide a reference for stake-holding agencies seeking to maximise farmer participation in surveillance programs for early anthrax detection, to encourage active farmer participation during a response and to minimise any anthrax-associated stigma by affected farmers post-response.


Asunto(s)
Carbunco/psicología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/psicología , Agricultores/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Animales , Carbunco/prevención & control , Carbunco/veterinaria , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/microbiología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/prevención & control , Industria Lechera , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Ganado , Victoria
19.
Aust Vet J ; 97(9): 301-307, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328260

RESUMEN

Chronic enteropathy (CE) in dogs is common worldwide, but little data is available from Australia. The aim of this study was to describe treatment response and long-term outcome in a cohort of dogs with CE. Dogs were prospectively enrolled at Murdoch University and the University of Melbourne. After diagnostic investigation to rule out diseases other than CE, dogs underwent sequential therapeutic trials until achieving a clinical response (diet then antibiotics, and finally immunosuppressants). Success was defined as 75% reduction of clinical severity for a minimum of five weeks. A total of 21 dogs were enrolled, and 19 completed the study. One dog was euthanised for lack of response to treatment and one excluded for lack of owner compliance. Most dogs responded to diet (n = 10), followed by antibiotics (n = 7) and immunosuppressants (n = 2). Long-term remission (median 21.1 months, [3.0-44.7]) was achieved in eight out of ten dietary responders without additional treatment. In contrast, only two dogs with antibiotic response remained in long-term remission, of which one needed on-going antibiotic treatment. Longer term remission was achieved in the two dogs treated with immunosuppressants with on-going low dose therapy. This study concludes that most dogs referred for CE in Australia respond to dietary treatment (even after previous dietary interventions), and remission is long-term compared to dogs treated with an antibiotic. Furthermore, the need for long-term antibiotics in some dogs to maintain response may lead to antibiotic resistance. This study supports adequate dietary trials for CE in dogs, and a need for alternative second-line treatments.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros/dietoterapia , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/veterinaria , Animales , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Australia , Enfermedad Crónica , Estudios de Cohortes , Enfermedades de los Perros/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Perros/tratamiento farmacológico , Perros , Femenino , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/dietoterapia , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/veterinaria , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Victoria
20.
Med Care ; 57(9): 718-722, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295163

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In addition to providing injured workers with biomedical treatment, health care providers (HCPs) can promote return to work (RTW) through various communications. OBJECTIVES: To test the effect of several types of HCP communications on time loss following injury. RESEARCH DESIGN: The authors analyzed survey and administrative claims data from a total of 730 injured workers in Victoria, Australia. Survey responses were collected around 5 months postinjury and provided data on HCP communication and confounders. Administrative claim records provided data on compensated time loss postsurvey. The authors conducted multivariate zero-inflated Poisson regressions to determine both the odds of having future time loss and its duration. MEASURES: Types of HCP communications included providing an estimated RTW date, discussing types of activities the injured worker could do or ways to prevent a recurrence, and contacting other RTW stakeholders. Each was measured in isolation as well as modified by a low-stress experience with the HCP. Time loss was the count of cumulative compensated work absence in weeks, accrued postsurvey. RESULTS: RTW dates reduced the odds of future time loss [odds ratio, 0.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.09-0.82] regardless of the stressfulness of the experience. Communications that predicted shorter durations of time loss only did so with low-stress experiences: RTW date [incidence rate ratio (IRR), 0.56; 95% CI, 0.50-0.63], stakeholder contact (IRR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.70-0.87), and prevention discussions (IRR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78-0.98). CONCLUSIONS: HCPs may reduce time loss through several types of communication, particularly when stress is minimized. RTW dates had the largest and most robust effect.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud/psicología , Traumatismos Ocupacionales/psicología , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Reinserción al Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto , Comunicación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Estudios Prospectivos , Reinserción al Trabajo/psicología , Victoria
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