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1.
Rehabilitación (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 58(2): 1-14, abril-junio 2024. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-232118

RESUMEN

La pandemia de COVID-19 ha afectado a la población, perjudicando especialmente a los miembros de aquellos grupos sociales en situación de mayor vulnerabilidad. Estas poblaciones específicas, como aquellas con alguna dependencia funcional, podrían verse más afectadas por los efectos de la pandemia del COVID-19. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este artículo fue describir las intervenciones para preservar la salud general, mantener la función y la independencia y prevenir la infección por COVID-19 para los adultos con dependencia funcional (ADF). Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en bases de datos. Se revisaron los títulos y los resúmenes de cada publicación para determinar su relevancia. Dos revisores independientes accedieron a los artículos de texto completo para determinar su elegibilidad después de la selección inicial. Las búsquedas se realizaron en septiembre de 2021 y se actualizaron en enero y julio de 2022. La información encontrada se clasificó en 3 categorías: 1) ADF durante la pandemia de COVID-19; 2) ADF durante la pandemia de COVID-19 según una condición específica (condiciones neurológicas, discapacidades/deficiencias sensoriales y deterioro cognitivo), y 3) Adultos mayores con dependencia funcional. Los adultos con dependencia enfrentaron dificultades y barreras durante la pandemia por COVID-19. Las autoridades de cada país deben garantizar que los ADF tengan acceso a los servicios de rehabilitación en tiempos de crisis sanitaria. Además, es necesario aumentar la capacidad de los servicios de rehabilitación en tiempos de crisis como pandemias. De igual manera, se sugiere el fortalecimiento de estrategias como la telerehabilitación para evitar el deterioro o agravamiento de la funcionalidad de las personas dependientes. (AU)


The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world population, especially people from social groups in a situation of greater vulnerability among people with some functional dependency. Therefore, the aim of this review was to describe interventions during the pandemic to preserve general health, maintain function and independence, and prevent COVID-19 infection for functionally dependent adults (FDA). A systematic search in databases was carried out. Titles and abstracts of each publication were reviewed for relevance. Full-text articles were accessed by two independent reviewers. The information found was classified into three categories: 1) FDA during the COVID-19 pandemic, 2) FDA during the COVID-19 pandemic according to a specific condition (neurological conditions, sensory disabilities/impairments, and cognitive impairment), and 3) Older adults with functional dependence. The FDAs have faced difficulties and barriers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Strengthening strategies such as telerehabilitation is suggested to avoid deterioration or aggravation of the functionality of dependent people. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Actividades Cotidianas , Vida Independiente , Instituciones de Vida Asistida , Envejecimiento , Cuidadores
2.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 39(4): e6085, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622754

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is to assess if daily use of hypnotics increases mortality, aspiration pneumonia and hip fracture among relatively healthy individuals aged 75 years or older who lead independent lives in the community. METHOD AND PATIENTS: Of the adults aged 75 years or older residing in Hokkaido prefecture of Japan (n = 705,538), those who did not meet several exclusion criteria were eligible for generating propensity score-matched cohorts (n = 214,723). Exclusion criteria included co-prescribed medications acting on the central nervous system, diagnoses of malignant neoplasm, dementia, depression, etc. We compared 33,095 participants who were prescribed hypnotics for daily use (hypnotic group) with a propensity score-matched cohort without a prescription (control group). Participants were followed for more than 42 months. RESULTS: During the 42-month follow-up period, the incidence of the three outcome measures in the hypnotics group was significantly higher than that in the control group (aspiration pneumonia p < 0.001, hip fracture p = 0.007, and all-cause mortality p < 0.001). Sensitivity analyses utilizing inverse probability weighting demonstrated hazard ratios of 1.083 [1.023-1.146] for mortality, 1.117 [1.014-1.230] for aspiration pneumonia, and 1.720 [1.559-1.897] for hip fracture. Meanwhile, the attribute risk differences were 2.7, 1.5, and 1.0 per 1000 patient-years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although daily use of hypnotics increased the risk of three events, their attribute risk differences were fewer than 3.0 per 1000 patient-years. The results will help provide guidance on whether it is reasonable to prescribe hypnotics to geriatric population aged 75 or older leading independent lives in the community. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN-CTR UMIN000048398.


Asunto(s)
Fracturas de Cadera , Neumonía por Aspiración , Humanos , Anciano , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/efectos adversos , Vida Independiente , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios de Cohortes , Japón/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Fracturas de Cadera/epidemiología
3.
Int J Older People Nurs ; 19(3): e12609, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622947

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) offers a standardized international terminology to operationalize function management across multiple domains, but the summary score of the ICF qualifier scale provides limited information on the comparison of personal abilities and functioning difficulties. OBJECTIVES: To enhance the interpretative power of the ICF-based Health-oriented Personal Evaluation for the community-dwelling older person (iHOPE-OP) scale through the implementation of the item response theory (IRT) modelling. METHODS: This cross-sectional, multi-centre study administrated 161 ICF categories (58 on body functions, 15 on body structures, 60 on activities or participation and 28 on environmental factors) to evaluate the functional level of 338 older citizens (female = 158, male = 180) residing in community or supportive living facilities. The validation process encompassed assessing the IRT model fitness and evaluating the psychometric properties of the IRT-derived iHOPE-OP scale. RESULTS: The age of participants ranged from 60 to 94.57, with the mean age of 70. The analysis of non-parametric and parametric models revealed that the three-parameter logistic IRT model, with a dichotomous scoring principle, exhibited the best fit. The 53-item iHOPE-OP scale demonstrated high reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.9729, Guttman's lambda-2 = 0.9749, Molenaar-Sijtsma Statistic = 0.9803, latent class reliability coefficient = 0.9882). There was a good validity between person abilities and the Barthel Index (p < .001, r = .83), as well as instrumental activities of daily living (p < .001, r = .84). CONCLUSIONS: IRT methods generate the reliable and valid iHOPE-OP scale with the most discriminable and minimal items to represent the older person's functional performance at a comprehensive level. The use of the Wright map can aid in presby-functioning management by visualizing item difficulties and person abilities. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Considering the intricate and heterogeneous health status of older persons, a single functional assessment tool might not fulfil the need to fully understand the multifaceted health status. For use in conjunction with the IRT and ICF framework, the reliable and valid iHOPE-OP scale was developed and can be applied to capture presby-functioning. The Wright map depicts the distribution of item difficulties and person abilities on the same scale that facilitates person-centred goal setting and tailors intervention.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Vida Independiente , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Clasificación Internacional del Funcionamiento, de la Discapacidad y de la Salud , Evaluación de la Discapacidad , Estudios Transversales , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
4.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 36(1): 96, 2024 Apr 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630352

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The role of serum uric acid (SUA) in the development of adverse health outcomes in advanced age is still uncertain. AIMS: The aim of the study was to assess the association of disability with SUA levels in older community-dwelling subjects. METHODS: We assessed the association of disability with SUA in all 351 inhabitants of Tuscania (Italy) aged 75+. Functional ability was estimated using the instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). RESULTS: In logistic regression, increasing SUA levels were associated with disability (OR = 1.22; 95%CI = 1.01-1.48; P = .036), after adjusting. The association was independent of both gender and age (P for interaction > 0.050). SUA levels above 5.5 mg/dL best predicted disability. CONCLUSIONS: In older subjects, SUA levels are associated with disability; the cut off level above 5.5 mg/dL might be adopted in pharmacological trials aiming at reducing the incidence and progression of disability by reducing SUA, and for identifying subjects at increased risk of disability.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Ácido Úrico , Humanos , Anciano , Vida Independiente , Italia/epidemiología
5.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300818, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573888

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have highlighted the association between lower limb muscle strength and falls in older adults. However, a comprehensive understanding of the specific influence of each lower limb muscle group on fall occurrences remains lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the impact of knee, ankle, and hip muscle strength and power on falls in older adults, with the goal of identifying which muscle groups are more predictive of fall risk in this population. METHODS: This longitudinal observational study enrolled 94 community-dwelling older adults. Muscle strength and power of the ankle's plantiflexors and dorsiflexors, knee flexors and extensors, and hip flexors, extensors, adductors, and abductors were assessed using a Biodex System 4 Pro® isokinetic dynamometer. Fall occurrences were monitored through monthly telephone contact over a year. RESULTS: Participants, with a median age of 69 years (range 64-74), included 67% women, and 63.8% reported a sedentary lifestyle. Among them, 45,7% of older adults were classified as fallers. Comparative analyses revealed that non-fallers displayed significantly superior isokinetic muscle strength in the hip abductors and adductors, along with higher muscle power in the hip abductors, hip flexors, and knee flexors compared to fallers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that a 1 Nm/Kg increase in hip abductor strength reduced the chance of a fall by 86.3%, and a 1 Watt increase in hip flexor power reduced the chance of a fall by 3.6%. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that hip abductor strength and hip flexor power can be considered protective factors against falls in independent older adults in the community. These findings may contribute to developing effective fall-prevention strategies for this population.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes por Caídas , Vida Independiente , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano , Persona de Mediana Edad , Masculino , Estudios Longitudinales , Accidentes por Caídas/prevención & control , Extremidad Inferior/fisiología , Músculo Esquelético/fisiología , Fuerza Muscular/fisiología
6.
BMC Pulm Med ; 24(1): 169, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589830

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The association of physical activity (PA) and lung function (LF) varies from no measurable effect to delayed LF decline. We assessed the association between accelerometery-assessed PA and LF in a sample of apparently healthy, community-dwelling subjects. METHODS: We included two cross-sectional studies using data from the PneumoLaus study (2014-17 and 2018-21), conducted in Lausanne, Switzerland. PA was assessed by accelerometry and categorised as inactivity, light, moderate or vigorous. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced volume capacity (FVC) and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) were measured by spirometry and expressed in percentage of predicted value (PV). RESULTS: Overall, 1'910 (54.7% women, 62.0 ± 9.7 years) and 1'174 (53.4% women, 65.8 ± 9.5 years) participants were included in the first and the second surveys, respectively. In both surveys, moderate and vigorous PA showed a weak but significant correlation with FEV1 in percentage (PV) (R = 0.106 and 0.132 for the first and 0.111 and 0.125 for the second surveys, p < 0.001). Similar correlations with FVC (p < 0.001) were found. Associations held irrespective of smoking status and remained after multivariable adjustment. Fewer associations were detected between LF and light PA or between MMEF and PA. CONCLUSION: Moderate and vigorous intensity PA are associated with increased LF regardless of smoking status in apparently healthy community-dwelling European population. These associations are statistically but not clinically significant due to the small correlation coefficients (R < 0.30), corresponding to a weak association.


Asunto(s)
Vida Independiente , Pulmón , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Capacidad Vital , Estudios Transversales , Volumen Espiratorio Forzado , Espirometría , Ejercicio Físico
7.
Neurology ; 102(9): e209402, 2024 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593394

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD) eligible for treatment with the recently FDA-approved lecanemab based on data from a population-based sample of 70-year-olds and extrapolate an estimation of individuals eligible in Europe and the United States. METHODS: Participants from the Gothenburg H70 Birth Cohort Study with clinical data, CSF-amyloid beta 42, and brain MRI analysis were evaluated for eligibility to receive lecanemab treatment according to FDA-approved recommendations, noting factors requiring special consideration. Results were used to extrapolate the number of eligible individuals in Europe and the United States using public demographic data. RESULTS: Thirty (10.3%) of 290 participants met the indication for treatment of whom 18 (6.2%) were eligible and did not present factors requiring special consideration. Our estimate that 6.2% of all 70-year-olds in the full cohort are eligible for treatment extrapolates to an approximation that around 5.9 million Europeans and 2.2 million US residents could be eligible. DISCUSSION: Information on proportion of individuals eligible for AD treatment with lecanemab in the general public is limited. We provide information on 70-year-olds in Sweden and extrapolate these data to Europe and the United States. This study opens for larger studies on this proportion and implementation of lecanemab treatment.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Péptidos beta-Amiloides , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Estudios de Cohortes , Vida Independiente , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/epidemiología
8.
Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi ; 61(1): 68-79, 2024.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583973

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study investigated the factors associated with oral frailty among community-dwelling older adults. In particular, we compared the factors between individuals in the young-old and old-old groups and clarified the differences between the two groups. METHODS: We measured the basic attributes, body composition, grip strength, gait function, oral function, cognitive function, and daily living function using the Kihon checklist in older people living independently in T City, Aichi Prefecture. The risk of oral frailty was assessed using the Oral Frailty Screening and Evaluation Form (OFI-8), and the measurement results were compared between two groups: those with and those without risk. To identify the factors associated with oral frailty, we performed a multivariate analysis with the risk of oral frailty as the dependent variable and a univariate analysis separately for the young-old and old-old groups. RESULTS: The mean age of the 100 subjects was 76.6±4.6 years old. Forty-four subjects were at risk of oral frailty, and 55 subjects were not at risk. The high-risk group had significantly higher rates of polypharmacy, depression, and a slow walking speed than the no-risk group. The risk factors associated with oral frailty were living alone, polypharmacy, and depression. The risk factors for oral frailty were a poor ambulatory function in the young-old and a poor ambulatory function, decline in the cognitive function, and depression in the old-old. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that the risk factors for oral frailty differ between older individuals in the young-old and old-old groups and that age-appropriate support is necessary to prevent oral frailty in older people.


Asunto(s)
Fragilidad , Humanos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Vida Independiente , Anciano Frágil , Evaluación Geriátrica , Marcha
9.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 321, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580924

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As a common psychological problem among older adults, fear of falling was found to have a wide range prevalence in different studies. However, the global prevalence of it was unknown and a lack of the large sample confirmed its risk factors. OBJECTIVES: To report the global prevalence of fear of falling and to explore its risk factors among older adults for further developing precise interventions to systematically manage FOF. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted by PRISMA guidelines. METHODS: Searches were conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and the manual search in August 20, 2022, updated to September 2, 2023. Observational studies published in English were included and two researchers independently screened and extracted the data. Fixed or random effects mode was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of and risk factors for fear of falling. Heterogeneity resources were analyzed by subgroup and sensitivity analysis. Publication bias was assessed through funnel plots, Egger's test and Begg's test. RESULTS: A total of the 153 studies with 200,033 participants from 38 countries worldwide were identified. The global prevalence of fear of falling was 49.60%, ranging from 6.96-90.34%. Subgroup analysis found the estimates pooled prevalence of it was higher in developing countries (53.40%) than in developed countries (46.7%), and higher in patients (52.20%) than in community residents (48.40%). In addition, twenty-eight risk factors were found a significant associations with fear of falling, mainly including demographic characteristics, physical function, chronic diseases and mental problems. CONCLUSION: The global prevalence of FOF was high, especially in developing countries and in patients. Demographic characteristics, Physical function, chronic diseases and mental problems were a significant association with FOF. Policy-makers, health care providers and government officials should comprehensively evaluate these risk factors and formulate precise intervention measures to reduce FOF. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered in the International Database of Prospectively Registered Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO): CRD42022358031.


Asunto(s)
Miedo , Vida Independiente , Humanos , Anciano , Prevalencia , Miedo/psicología , Factores de Riesgo , Enfermedad Crónica
10.
Nurs Open ; 11(4): e2162, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581183

RESUMEN

AIM: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Advance Care Planning Readiness Scale (ACPRS-C) within the context of community-dwelling older adults with chronic diseases residing in suburban counties in China. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional survey. METHODS: The research method employed in this study is characterized as a methodological study. Self-reported survey data were collected among community-dwelling older adults with chronic diseases residing in suburban counties in China. Including the following psychometric characteristics, item analysis was performed using the decision value method and Pearson's correlation analysis. Content validity was assessed through expert panel evaluation. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was determined by calculating Cronbach's alpha coefficient and corrected item-total correlation. Additionally, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was utilized to assess the construct validity of the ACPRS-C. RESULTS: A total of 228 older adults participated in this psychometric study from August to October 2023. The item content validity index ranged from 0.80 to 1.00, while the scale content validity index was 0.945. The scale demonstrated excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.931), and the correlation between items and total score was satisfactory. The structural validity was deemed robust (CFA model fit: chi-square/df = 1.121, comparative fit index = 0.992). CONCLUSION: The ACPRS-C is a scale with strong psychometric properties to assess the ACP readiness within the context of community-dwelling older adults with chronic diseases residing in suburban counties in China. Its reliability and validity hold considerable significance for both research and clinical practice.


Asunto(s)
Vida Independiente , Humanos , Anciano , Psicometría , Estudios Transversales , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Enfermedad Crónica
11.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612975

RESUMEN

Aging-related sarcopenia exerts harmful impacts on muscle mass, strength, and physical mobility. Protein supplementation has been demonstrated to augment efficacy of resistance training (RT) in elderly. This study compared the relative effects of different protein supplements on muscle mass, strength, and mobility outcomes in middle-aged and older individuals undergoing RT. A comprehensive search of online databases was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the efficacy of protein supplement plus RT in untrained community-dwelling adults, hospitalized, or institutionalized residents who suffered acute or chronic health conditions. Network meta-analysis (NMA) was performed using a frequentist method for all analyses. Treatment effects for main outcomes were expressed as standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). We used the surface-under-the cumulative-ranking (SUCRA) scores to rank probabilities of effect estimation among all identified treatments. Meta-regression analyses were performed to identify any relevant moderator of the treatment efficacy and results were expressed as ß with 95% credible interval (CrI). We finally included 78 RCTs (5272 participants) for analyses. Among the six protein sources identified in this NMA, namely whey, milk, casein, meat, soy, and peanut, whey supplement yielded the most effective treatments augmenting efficacy of RT on muscle mass (SMD = 1.29, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.62; SUCRA = 0.86), handgrip strength (SMD = 1.46, 95% CI: 0.92, 2.00; SUCRA = 0.85), and walking speed (SMD = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.39, 1.07; SUCRA = 0.84). Participant's health condition, sex, and supplementation dose were significant factors moderating the treatment efficacy on muscle mass (ß = 0.74; 95% CrI: 0.22, 1.25), handgrip strength (ß = -1.72; 95% CrI: -2.68, -0.77), and leg strength (ß = 0.76; 95% CrI: 0.06, 1.47), respectively. Our findings suggest whey protein yields the optimal supplements to counter sarcopenia in older individuals undergoing RT.


Asunto(s)
Entrenamiento de Fuerza , Sarcopenia , Anciano , Persona de Mediana Edad , Humanos , Metaanálisis en Red , Vida Independiente , Sarcopenia/terapia , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Suplementos Dietéticos , Músculos
12.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613024

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to determine the association between muscle strength, adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) and cognitive function in community-dwelling elderly. General data, data of body composition and anthropometric parameters, clinical and laboratory findings, cognitive test questionnaires (Mini-Mental State Examination-MMSE, Trail Making Test-TMT, Symbol Digit Modalities Test-SDMT), and nutritional assessments (Mini Nutritional Assessment-MNA, Mediterranean Diet Serving Score-MDSS) were obtained for each study participant. Handgrip strength (HS) was used as one of the key parameters for defining probable sarcopenia, among the Short Physical Performance Battery test (SPPB) (for defining physical activity) and the strength, assistance with walking, rising from a chair, climbing stairs, and falls questionnaire (SARC-F). Our cross-sectional study involved 114 participants aged ≥ 60 years, and two-thirds of the participants were female (76.3% vs. 23.7%). Probable sarcopenia was found in 34.7% of them. Using bivariate regression analysis, cognitive deficit among the sarcopenic population was associated with the following groups of collected data: (a) sociodemographic-associated factors-advanced age (OR: 1.07; p = 0.004), single marital status (OR: 3.25; p = 0.03), and low level of education (OR: 0.22; p < 0.003); (b) behavioral-associated factors-duration of institutionalization (OR: 1.05; p = 0.007), performance of heavy physical work (OR: 6.26; p = 0.001), low physical activity (OR: 0.08; p = 0.002), and risk of malnutrition (OR: 3.87; p = 0.005); (c) disease-related factors-loss of appetite (OR: 2.24; p = 0.04), information processing speed (OR: 0.88; p < 0.001), blood pressure systolic/diastolic variables (OR: 0.96/0.96; p = 0.002/0.02), medications (OR: 1.19; p = 0.005), predictive sarcopenia score ≥ 4 (OR: 3.1; p = 0.003), and low muscle strength (OR: 0.92; p = 0.002). Cognitive preservation among the sarcopenic population was associated with married status (OR: 0.23; p = 0.20), a high level of education (OR: 0.18; p = 0.002), smoking (OR: 0.33; p = 0.02), high physical activity (OR: 0.07; p < 0.001), and dietary habits using poultry (OR: 0.12; p = 0.004). The results suggest a significant association between sarcopenia and cognitive function in community-dwelling elderly, highlighting the need for regular nutritional interventions in this special population.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Mediterránea , Sarcopenia , Anciano , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Sarcopenia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Fuerza de la Mano , Vida Independiente , Cognición
13.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 39(4): e6086, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613138

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: There is a paucity of population-level data on marijuana use and mental health and functioning in older adults. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data (n = 910) from a well-characterized cohort, the Monongahela-Youghiogheny Healthy Aging Team (MYHAT) study. MYHAT is an age-stratified random sample of the population age 65 years and older from a small-town in the USA. Half the sample was female and half were over 75 (Mean age = 77). Most participants were non-Hispanic White. Marijuana use was assessed by self-report and symptoms of mood disorders were screened using the modified Centers for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder screener. Cognition was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination and a neuropsychological test battery; functioning using the OARS Activities of Daily Living and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; and overall assessment using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR®). RESULTS: One in five MYHAT participants had a history of marijuana use and 5% reported recent use, primarily for pain (41%) and recreation/relaxation (37%). Recent use was associated with cigarette and alcohol use, symptoms of depression or anxiety, and impairments in attention. CONCLUSIONS: Twenty-percent of community-dwelling older adults living in a US state where recreational marijuana use is illegal had a history of marijuana use. Recent marijuana use was less common but, consistent with prior research, associated with other substance use and poorer mental health.


Asunto(s)
Uso de la Marihuana , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Femenino , Humanos , Anciano , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Actividades Cotidianas , Estudios Transversales , Vida Independiente , Proyectos de Investigación
14.
Am J Occup Ther ; 78(3)2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602705

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: The importance of developing age-friendly environments is globally recognized. However, few clinical trials have comprehensively evaluated physical and social components of environments and examined the effects of offering support. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the effectiveness of occupational therapy-based comprehensive environmental support for community-dwelling older adults. DESIGN: A single-blind parallel-groups randomized controlled trial with blinded participants. SETTING: Eight community-based settings under the long-term-care insurance system in regional towns and cities throughout Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty older adults age ≥65 yr who were new users of adult day care or adult day health care and allocated by stratified block randomization on the basis of age. INTERVENTION: Comprehensive environmental support was provided to participants for 3 mo according to results on the Comprehensive Environmental Questionnaire for older adults (CEQ) to make improvements in environmental factors participants wanted to change to create a more satisfying life. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was the Japanese Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) score at 3 mo postrandomization. Additionally, scores on the Short-Form Six-Dimension utility index were calculated. RESULTS: The experimental group showed significant improvements in the SF-36's Role/Social Component Summary (p = .005) and Role-Physical (p = .02), Role-Emotional (p = .01), and Mental Health (p = .05) domains, with moderate effect sizes. The number needed to treat was 3.46, showing statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Occupational therapy-based comprehensive environmental support based on CEQ scores was effective, resulting in moderate improvements in health-related quality of life among community-dwelling older adults. Plain-Language Summary: Older adults experience a decline in physical and mental functions along with changes in social relationships. These problems make it challenging for older adults to perform valuable occupations, thus reducing their quality of life. This study demonstrated that occupational therapy based on the Comprehensive Environmental Questionnaire for older adults can improve health-related quality of life among community-dwelling older adults. Our findings pave the way for the development of an effective compensatory intervention model in occupational therapy practice.


Asunto(s)
Vida Independiente , Calidad de Vida , Humanos , Anciano , Método Simple Ciego , Emociones , Relaciones Interpersonales
15.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602739

RESUMEN

Non-invasive brain stimulations have drawn attention in remediating memory decline in older adults. However, it remains unclear regarding the cognitive and neural mechanisms underpinning the neurostimulation effects on memory rehabilitation. We evaluated the intervention effects of 2-weeks of neurostimulations (high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation, HD-tDCS, and electroacupuncture, EA versus controls, CN) on brain activities and functional connectivity during a working memory task in normally cognitive older adults (age 60+, n = 60). Results showed that HD-tDCS and EA significantly improved the cognitive performance, potentiated the brain activities of overlapping neural substrates (i.e. hippocampus, dlPFC, and lingual gyrus) associated with explicit and implicit memory, and modulated the nodal topological properties and brain modular interactions manifesting as increased intramodular connection of the limbic-system dominated network, decreased intramodular connection of default-mode-like network, as well as stronger intermodular connection between frontal-dominated network and limbic-system-dominated network. Predictive model further identified the neuro-behavioral association between modular connections and working memory. This preliminary study provides evidence that noninvasive neurostimulations can improve older adults' working memory through potentiating the brain activity of working memory-related areas and mediating the modular interactions of related brain networks. These findings have important implication for remediating older adults' working memory and cognitive declines.


Asunto(s)
Memoria a Corto Plazo , Estimulación Transcraneal de Corriente Directa , Vida Independiente , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Sistema Límbico
16.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300224, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593158

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity (SO) have emerged as significant contributors to negative health outcomes in the past decade. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of probable sarcopenia, sarcopenia, and SO in a community-dwelling population of 1151 adults aged ≥55 years in Lima, Peru. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between 2018 and 2020. Sarcopenia was defined as the presence of low muscle strength (LMS) and low muscle mass (LMM) according to European (EWGSOP2), US (FNIH) and Asian (AWGS2) guidelines. We measured muscle strength by maximum handgrip strength and muscle mass using bioelectrical impedance analyzer. SO was defined as a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 and sarcopenia. RESULTS: The study participants had a mean age of 66.2 years (SD 7.1), age range between 60 to 92 years old, of which 621 (53.9%) were men. Among the sample, 41.7% were classified as obese (BMI ≥30.0 kg/m²). The prevalence of probable sarcopenia was estimated to be 22.7% (95%CI: 20.3-25.1) using the EWGSOP2 criteria and 27.8% (95%CI: 25.2-30.4) using the AWGS2 criteria. Sarcopenia prevalence, assessed using skeletal muscle index (SMI), was 5.7% (95%CI: 4.4-7.1) according to EWGSOP2 and 8.3% (95%CI: 6.7-9.9) using AWGS2 criteria. The prevalence of sarcopenia based on the FNIH criteria was 18.1% (95%CI: 15.8-20.3). The prevalence of SO, considering different sarcopenia definitions, ranged from 0.8% (95%CI: 0.3-1.3) to 5.0% (95%CI: 3.8-6.3). CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal substantial variation in the prevalence of sarcopenia and SO, underscoring the necessity for context-specific cut-off values. Although the prevalence of SO was relatively low, this result may be underestimated. Furthermore, the consistently high proportion of probable sarcopenia and sarcopenia point to a substantial public health burden.


Asunto(s)
Sarcopenia , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Anciano , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Sarcopenia/epidemiología , Vida Independiente , Estudios Transversales , Perú/epidemiología , Fuerza de la Mano/fisiología , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/epidemiología , Prevalencia
17.
J Frailty Aging ; 13(2): 139-148, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616370

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The intricate relationship between social determinants, e.g., social frailty, biomarkers and healthy aging remains largely unexplored, despite the potential for social frailty to impact both intrinsic capacity (IC) and functional ability in the aging process. DESIGN: Retrospective longitudinal cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants aged 50+ years from the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS) in Taiwan, stratified into three age groups: 50-64, 65-74 and 75+. MEASUREMENTS: Social frailty was defined based on a score derived from four domains: exclusion from general resources, social resources, social activity, and fulfillment of basic social needs. The scores were categorized as score=0 (no social frailty), 1 (social pre-frailty), and 2+ (social frailty). Multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models were employed to examine the dose-responsive relationship between social frailty, low IC, functional and psychological health, and mortality. RESULTS: Of 1015 study participants, 24.9% and 7.9% were classified as social pre-frailty and social frailty, respectively. No significant differences were observed in most biomarkers between those with social frailty and those without. A dose-responsive relationship was found between social frailty and increased risk of low IC (social pre-frailty: aOR 2.20 [95% CI 1.59-3.04]; social frailty: 5.73 [3.39-9.69]). Similar results were found for functional and psychological health. However, no significant association between social frailty and all-cause mortality was found at the 4-year follow-up (social pre-frailty: aHR 1.52 [95% CI 0.94-2.43]; social frailty: 1.59 [0.81-3.09]). CONCLUSIONS: The significant association between social frailty and low IC, functional limitations, cognitive declines, and depressive symptoms underscores the pressing need for research on intervention strategies to enhance healthy aging in the lifespan course.


Asunto(s)
Fragilidad , Envejecimiento Saludable , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Vida Independiente , Fragilidad/diagnóstico , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Biomarcadores
18.
J Frailty Aging ; 13(2): 163-171, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616373

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Loneliness is highly prevalent among older adults and is associated with frailty. Most studies consider loneliness in isolation without consideration for structural and functional measures of social relationships - and longitudinal studies are scarce. OBJECTIVES: This study examined longitudinal associations between loneliness and frailty and analyzed how structural and functional social measures influence these associations. DESIGN: Linear mixed effects models examined longitudinal associations between loneliness and frailty assessed with the frailty index (scale 0-100). Models were adjusted for baseline age, gender, education, depressive symptoms, global cognition, and structural (e.g., social network, marital status), and functional social measures (e.g., social, cognitive, and physical activity, and social support). PARTICIPANTS: Loneliness and frailty data from 1,931 older adults without dementia at baseline from the Rush Memory and Aging Project were examined (mean age 79.6 ± 7.7 years, 74.9% female). MEASUREMENTS: Baseline loneliness assessed by the de Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale was the predictor of interest. RESULTS: Frailty increased significantly over a mean follow-up period of 4.6 years. Effects of loneliness on frailty were modified by marital status. Loneliness predicted an additional accumulation of 0.37 and 0.34 deficits on the frailty index per year in married and widowed individuals respectively, compared to those who were not lonely (married: p=0.009, CI 0.09, 0.64; widowed: p=0.005, CI 0.1, 0.58). Loneliness did not predict frailty progression in unmarried individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Loneliness predicts frailty progression, highlighting the importance of social determinants on physical health in aging.


Asunto(s)
Fragilidad , Viudez , Femenino , Humanos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Masculino , Fragilidad/diagnóstico , Fragilidad/epidemiología , Vida Independiente , Soledad , Envejecimiento
19.
J Frailty Aging ; 13(2): 116-124, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616367

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To compare the discriminative capabilities for the manifestation of sarcopenia or physical frailty between serum creatinine- and cystatin C-derived indices among community-dwelling older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Primary Care and Community. PARTICIPANTS: We utilized a subset of data from the Frail Elderly in the Sasayama-Tamba Area (FESTA) study, which was initiated in 2015 to gather comprehensive information on various health-related parameters among community-dwelling older individuals (age ≥65 years). MEASUREMENTS: Five serum creatinine-cystatin C based indices including the Sarcopenia Index, the serum creatinine/cystatin C ratio, the disparity between serum cystatin-C-based and creatinine-based estimated GFR, the total body muscle mass index (TBMM), and the prediction equation for skeletal muscle mass index (pSMI) were employed. Sarcopenia and physical frailty were identified based on the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria and the revised Japanese version of the Cardiovascular Health Study criteria, respectively. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the discriminative abilities of these tools. RESULTS: In the analysis of 954 participants, 52 (5.5%) were identified with sarcopenia and 35 (3.7%) with physical frailty. Regarding sarcopenia discrimination, TBMM and pSMI both exhibited area under the curve (AUC) values exceeding 0.8 for both men and women. Concerning the identification of physical frailty, AUC values ranged from 0.61 to 0.77 for males and 0.50 to 0.69 for females. In the multivariate logistic regression analyses, only TBMM and pSMI consistently displayed associations with sarcopenia, irrespective of sex (P<0.001, respectively). On the other hand, no consistent associations were observed between the indices and physical frailty. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a robust association of a serum creatinine- and cystatin C-derived indices, especially TBMM and pSMI, with sarcopenia among community-dwelling older adults. Conversely, the application of these indices for the screening of physical frailty has its constraints, necessitating further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Fragilidad , Sarcopenia , Anciano , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Cistatina C , Creatinina , Estudios Transversales , Fragilidad/diagnóstico , Fragilidad/epidemiología , Vida Independiente , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Sarcopenia/epidemiología
20.
J Frailty Aging ; 13(2): 179-183, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616375

RESUMEN

Frailty is a state of increased vulnerability that can lead to premature death. While various clinical tools effectively measure frailty in individual care, their applicability at the population-level is limited. However, in the era of big-data, administrative databases serve as valuable sources for medication-based research and population surveillance. This narrative scoping review synthesizes the literature on tools used within administrative databases to detect frailty in community-dwelling older adults. The 17 identified publications explore four tools that meet the criteria of the Rockwood and Mitnitski frailty index model. Despite variations in the deficits they incorporate, all tools appear to be valuable for identifying frailty and predicting the risk of adverse events. Using those tools within administrative databases can be useful for research and surveillance purposes.


Asunto(s)
Fragilidad , Humanos , Anciano , Fragilidad/diagnóstico , Fragilidad/epidemiología , Vida Independiente
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