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1.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(11)2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139302

RESUMEN

The International Health Regulations 2005 (IHR) is a legally binding framework which requires 196 WHO Member States to take actions to prevent, protect against, control and provide public health response to the international spread of disease. Improving IHR compliance provides grounds for better health system strengthening, which is key to moving countries closer towards Universal Health Coverage. Multisectoral, collaborative working within and across sectors is fundamental to improving IHR (2005) compliance, and for that, governance is the best lever of the health system. This paper highlights the importance of the relationship between governance and IHR in the context of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which follow the fundamental principle of interdependence; SDGs interlink with one another. We consider governance (SDG 16) and how it influences the IHR capacity of SDG 3 (health and well-being for all at all ages). This paper considers the successes of the Myanmar Ministry of Health and Sports thus far in improving IHR compliance and highlights that an even greater focus on health system governance would lead to more sustainable outcomes. Nurturing an institutional culture with enforced rules, which are conducive for improved accountability through inclusive participation would further improve Myanmar IHR strengthening efforts. Without those principles of good governance, the developed IHR capacities cannot be sustained or owned by Myanmar people. This has now become even more urgent given the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Programas de Gobierno , Humanos , Mianmar/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vigilancia de la Población
2.
Biomedica ; 40(Supl. 2): 96-103, 2020 10 30.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152193

RESUMEN

Introduction: The COVID pandemic is a challenge for public health surveillance and an opportunity to assess its strengths and weaknesses to improve the response. Objective: To evaluate the performance of the Colombian public health surveillance system during the first 50 days of the COVID-19 pandemic in the country. Materials and methods: We analyzed the data published between March 6 and April 24, 2020, by the Instituto Nacional de Salud and the World Health Organization (WHO). We evaluated: i) the quality of the data according to the fulfillment of Benford's law, and ii) the timeliness of the information measured as the difference in dates between the data generated by the Instituto Nacional de Salud and WHO's situational reports. We assessed the fulfillment of Benford's law using the p values of the log-likelihood ratio, the chi square or Moreno's exact tests. Results: Until April 24 there were 4,881 cases of COVID-19 in Colombia. During most of the first 50 days of the pandemic, Benford's law was fulfilled except the first days of the epidemic. The difference between Instituto Nacional de Salud and WHO reports largely depends on the different reporting times. Conclusion: In general, the Colombian public health surveillance system fulfilled Benford's law suggesting that there was quality in the data. Future studies comparing the performance of the departments and districts will improve the diagnosis of the Colombian surveillance system.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Recolección de Datos/normas , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población , Salud Pública , Colombia/epidemiología , Recolección de Datos/métodos , Recolección de Datos/estadística & datos numéricos , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Internet , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Control de Calidad , Distribuciones Estadísticas , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología
3.
Biomedica ; 40(Supl. 2): 131-138, 2020 10 30.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152196

RESUMEN

Introduction: Public health surveillance together with good sanitary decisions is essential for the proper management of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Objective: To compare the performance of Colombian departments based on the quality of the data and to build the national ranking. Materials and methods: We analyzed the accumulated cases published between March 6 and September 1, 2020, by the Instituto Nacional de Salud. To achieve comparability, the analyses considered the day the first case was diagnosed as the first analysis date for each department. The fulfillment of Benford's law was assessed with p-values in the log-likelihood ratio or chi-square tests. The analysis was completed with the lethality observed in each department and then the performance ranking was established. Results: Bogotá and Valle del Cauca had optimal public health surveillance performance all along. The data suggest that Antioquia, Nariño, and Tolima had good containment and adequate public health surveillance after the economic opening beginning on June 1, 2020. Conclusion: We obtained the ranking of the departments regarding the quality of public health surveillance data. The best five departments can be case studies to identify the elements associated with good performance.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población , Benchmarking , Colombia/epidemiología , Notificación de Enfermedades , Geografía Médica , Humanos , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Distribuciones Estadísticas , Análisis de Supervivencia , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
4.
Biomedica ; 40(Supl. 2): 188-197, 2020 10 30.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152203

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is a public health problem on a scale unprecedented in the last 100 years, as has been the response focused on the rapid genomic characterization of SARS-CoV-2 in virtually all regions of the planet. This pandemic emerged during the era of genomic epidemiology, a science fueled by continued advances in next-generation sequencing. Since its recent appearance, genomic epidemiology included the precise identification of new lineages or species of pathogens and the reconstruction of their genetic variability in real time, evidenced in past outbreaks of influenza H1N1, MERS, and SARS. However, the global and uncontrolled scale of this pandemic created a scenario where genomic epidemiology was put into practice en masse, from the rapid identification of SARS-CoV-2 to the registration of new lineages and their active surveillance throughout the world. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the availability of genomic data on circulating pathogens in several Latin America and the Caribbean countries was scarce or nil. With the arrival of SARS-CoV-2, this scenario changed significantly, although the amount of available information remains scarce and, in countries such as Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile, the genomic information of SARS-CoV-2 was obtained mainly by research groups in genomic epidemiology rather than the product of a public health surveillance policy or program. This indicates the need to establish public health policies aimed at implementing genomic epidemiology as a tool to strengthen surveillance and early warning systems against threats to public health in the region.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Genoma Viral , Difusión de la Información , Epidemiología Molecular/tendencias , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población , ARN Viral/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ARN , Secuencia de Bases , Región del Caribe , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Planificación en Desastres , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología , Epidemiología Molecular/métodos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/virología , Utilización de Procedimientos y Técnicas , Salud Pública , RNA-Seq , Desarrollo Sostenible , Virosis/epidemiología
5.
Malar J ; 19(1): 410, 2020 Nov 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198754

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the past decade substantial reduction in malaria morbidity and mortality has been observed through well-implemented case management and vector control strategies. India has also achieved a significant reduction in malaria burden in 2018 and has committed to eliminate malaria by 2030. The Mandla Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project (MEDP) was started in 2017 in 1233 villages of District Mandla to demonstrate malaria elimination in a tribal district with hard-to-reach areas was possible using active and passive surveillance, case management, vector control, and targeted information, education and communication campaigns. An operational plan was developed to strengthen the existing surveillance and malaria elimination systems, through fortnightly active case detection to ensure that all cases including those that are introduced into the communities are rapidly identified and treated promptly. The plan also focused on the reduction of human-mosquito contact through the use of Long-Lasting Insecticial Nets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual Spray (IRS). The operational plan was modified in view of the present COVID-19 pandemic by creating systems of assistance for the local administration for COVID-related work while ensuring the operational integrity of malaria elimination efforts. RESULTS: The use of MEDP study design and operational plan, with its built-in management control systems, has yielded significant (91%) reduction of indigenous cases of malaria during the period from June 2017 to May 2020. The malaria positivity rate was 0.33% in 2017-18, 0.13% in 2018-19, and 0.06% in 2019-20. Mass screening revealed 0.18% malaria positivity in September-October 2018, followed by 0.06% in June 2019, and 0.03% in December 2019, and these were mostly asymptomatic cases in the community. The project has been able to sustain the gains of the past three years during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: This paper provides the study design and the operational plan for malaria elimination in a high-burden district of Central India, which presented difficulties of hard to reach areas, forest malaria, and complex epidemiology of urban and rural malaria. The lessons learned could be used for malaria elimination efforts in rest of the country and other parts of South Asia with comparable demography and epidemiology.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Prestación de Atención de Salud/métodos , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Malaria/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Altitud , Animales , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Enfermedades Endémicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Bosques , Instituciones de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Mosquiteros Tratados con Insecticida , Malaria/epidemiología , Control de Mosquitos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Lluvia , Población Rural , Población Urbana
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(46): 1748-1752, 2020 Nov 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211676

RESUMEN

Pakistan and Afghanistan are the only countries where wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) is endemic (1,2). In 2019, Pakistan reported 147 WPV1 cases, approximately 12 times the number reported in 2018. As of September 15, 72 cases had been reported in 2020. Since 2019, WPV1 transmission has also spread from Pakistan's core poliovirus reservoirs (Karachi, Peshawar, and Quetta block) to southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Punjab, and Sindh provinces. Further, an outbreak of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2), first detected in July 2019, has caused 22 paralytic cases in 2019 and 59 as of September 15, 2020, throughout the country. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has substantially reduced delivery of polio vaccines through essential immunization (formerly routine immunization) and prevented implementation of polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs)* during March-July 2020. This report describes Pakistan's progress in polio eradication during January 2019-September 2020 and updates previous reports (1,3,4). The Pakistan polio program has reinitiated SIAs and will need large, intensive, high-quality campaigns with strategic use of available oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs)† to control the surge and widespread transmission of WPV1 and cVDPV2.


Asunto(s)
Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Poliomielitis/prevención & control , Vigilancia de la Población , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Esquemas de Inmunización , Lactante , Pakistán/epidemiología , Poliomielitis/epidemiología , Vacunas contra Poliovirus/administración & dosificación , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147428

RESUMEN

Abstract: Since the introduction of COVID-19-related public health measures, notifications for most nationally notifiable diseases have declined when compared to previous years. Physical distancing, travel restrictions, and emphasis on hygiene are likely to have affected the number of expected notifications, with the greatest reductions observed among disease spread via person-to-person contact such as influenza, and among overseas-acquired infections such as dengue virus and measles. However, quantifying the magnitude of the effect of COVID-19 public health measures on communicable diseases in Australia will be difficult, due to confounding factors such as: changes in testing priorities in laboratories; diversion of resources to the COVID-19 response; changes in health-seeking behaviours; greater utilisation of telehealth practices; and financial impacts such as income loss and ability to afford healthcare. It is considered likely that these other factors will have also impacted notification numbers.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población , Viaje , Distribución por Edad , Australia/epidemiología , Notificación de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e043411, 2020 10 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060093

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare the epidemiological characteristics and transmission dynamics in relation to interventions against the COVID-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in mainland China. DESIGN: Comparative study based on a unique data set of COVID-19 and SARS. SETTING: Outbreak in mainland China. PARTICIPANTS: The final database included 82 858 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 5327 cases of SARS. METHODS: We brought together all existing data sources and integrated them into a comprehensive data set. Individual information on age, sex, occupation, residence location, date of illness onset, date of diagnosis and clinical outcome was extracted. Control measures deployed in mainland China were collected. We compared the epidemiological and spatial characteristics of COVID-19 and SARS. We estimated the effective reproduction number to explore differences in transmission dynamics and intervention effects. RESULTS: Compared with SARS, COVID-19 affected more extensive areas (1668 vs 230 counties) within a shorter time (101 vs 193 days) and had higher attack rate (61.8 vs 4.0 per million persons). The COVID-19 outbreak had only one epidemic peak and one epicentre (Hubei Province), while the SARS outbreak resulted in two peaks and two epicentres (Guangdong Province and Beijing). SARS-CoV-2 was more likely to infect older people (median age of 52 years), while SARS-CoV tended to infect young adults (median age of 34 years). The case fatality rate (CFR) of either disease increased with age, but the CFR of COVID-19 was significantly lower than that of SARS (5.6% vs 6.4%). The trajectory of effective reproduction number dynamically changed in relation to interventions, which fell below 1 within 2 months for COVID-19 and within 5.5 months for SARS. CONCLUSIONS: China has taken more prompt and effective responses to combat COVID-19 by learning lessons from SARS, providing us with some epidemiological clues to control the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tasa de Supervivencia/tendencias , Adulto Joven
9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(9): 1424-1427, 2020 Sep 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076592

RESUMEN

Brucellosis is a neglected zoonosis, which not only endangers health of the people but also affects the development of animal husbandry, tourism and international trade as well as food safety. In the past two decades, great progress has been achieved in the prevention and control of both human and animal brucellosis, however, tremendous challenges still exists in the control and eradication of brucellosis, especially in the developing countries. In recent years, along with the increase of livestock breeding and animal or related product trade, human contacts with livestock has increased, resulting in the expansion of brucellosis endemic areas. In China, the brucellosis endemic areas are mainly distributed in Inner Mongolia and adjacent provinces, which might be explained by a lot of reasons, such as the development of animal husbandry, emerging and re-emerging of brucellosis endemic area and the movement of infection sources and degree of paid-attention. This paper summarizes the current status and progress in brucellosis prevention/control and surveillance in China and puts forward suggestions for the future improvement.


Asunto(s)
Brucelosis , Vigilancia de la Población , Brucelosis/epidemiología , Brucelosis/prevención & control , China/epidemiología , Humanos
10.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(9): 1509-1513, 2020 Sep 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076608

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand the detection capacities of the laboratories in medical institutions in national sexually transmitted disease (STD) surveillance areas in China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the applications of STD tests in laboratories of the medical institutions in 105 STD surveillance areas in China, the proportion of each STD test application was calculated and the differences among medical institutions were compared. Results: In 752 medical institutions, the proportions of Treponema pallidum serological test and non-Treponema pallidum serological test applications were 97.5% (733/752) and 91.4% (687/752), respectively. The proportions of gonococcal culture and Chlamydia trachomatis nucleic acid test applications were 48.4% (364/752) and 23.4% (176/752), respectively. The application proportions of all tests for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) were less than 40%. In medical institutions at provincial, prefectural and county levels, the application proportions of serological tests of Treponema and non-Treponema were all more than 90%, and the application proportions of gonococcal culture were 66.9% (83/124), 46.9% (197/420) and 47.4% (82/173) respectively, the application proportions of Chlamydia trachomatis nucleic acid test were 29.0% (36/124), 25.0% (105/420) and 19.7% (34/173) respectively. The application proportions of syphilis and gonorrhea tests and chlamydia nucleic acid test in public medical institutions were higher than those in private/joint venture medical institutions and higher in dermatological specialized hospitals than those in general hospitals and maternal and child health centers. The application proportions of STD tests in medical institutions in eastern China and central southern China were generally higher than those in other areas, and the lowest was found in northwestern China. Conclusions: Serological tests for syphilis have been carried out widely in medical institutions in all STD surveillance areas in China, but there were insufficient use of tests for gonococcal culture and Chlamydia trachomatis nucleic acid. The application proportions of STD tests vary in medical institutions at different levels and with different types and ownerships, and the development of STD testing is unbalanced in different areas. It is necessary to strengthen the capacity building of gonococcal culture and Chlamydia trachomatis nucleic acid test, and strengthen the capacity building of STD testing in grassroots, private/joint venture medical institutions and those in underdeveloped western areas.


Asunto(s)
Laboratorios , Vigilancia de la Población , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , China/epidemiología , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología
11.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 165, 2020 10 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079274

RESUMEN

In this study, the risk of fatality after hip fracture but not the risk of subsequent hip fractures was higher among men. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to analyze the risk factors for subsequent hip fractures and fatality after an initial hip fracture among Koreans older than 50 years of age using information in the national claims database. METHODS: Our study was conducted using data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database from 2007 to 2016. A total of 16,915 Korean patients aged ≥ 50 years with a first hip fracture in 2012 were followed for 4 years. Data on fracture, comorbidity, and prescription variables were retrieved from the national registry. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the risk factors affecting subsequent hip fractures and fatality after the initial hip fracture. RESULTS: A total of 952 patients had subsequent hip fractures, and 6793 patients died. The cumulative incidence rates were 1.3% after 1 year and 5.6% after 4 years. Old age, renal disease, dementia, and Parkinson's disease were associated with a higher risk of subsequent hip fractures. The fatality rate after the initial hip fracture was 1.6 times higher among men than among women. Certain risk factors for fatality, such as pneumonia after fracture, cerebrovascular disease, mild liver disease, renal disease, and malignancy, were more prevalent among men. CONCLUSION: During the study period, the risk of fatality after hip fracture but not the risk of subsequent hip fractures was higher among men. The gender difference in fatality might be explained by the larger burden of comorbid diseases among men.


Asunto(s)
Demencia/complicaciones , Fracturas de Cadera/mortalidad , Enfermedades Renales/complicaciones , Enfermedad de Parkinson/complicaciones , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/estadística & datos numéricos , Causas de Muerte , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Fracturas de Cadera/etnología , Fracturas de Cadera/etiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía , Vigilancia de la Población , República de Corea/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Distribución por Sexo , Factores Sexuales
12.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 167, 2020 10 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083938

RESUMEN

Tryptophan metabolites influence bone. We aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary tryptophan and bone health in a population-based sample of men and women. Following adjustment for age, dietary tryptophan was not associated with bone quantity or quality, suggesting a non-critical role of superfluous tryptophan on the skeleton. PURPOSE: Tryptophan metabolites, such as serotonin, influence bone. We sought to determine the relationship between dietary intake of tryptophan and bone health in a population-based study of men and women. METHODS: Participants (1033 women and 900 men, aged 20-98 years) enrolled in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study (GOS) were investigated. Dietary information was collected using a validated questionnaire. Tryptophan levels were calculated (mg/day) in accordance with Food Standards Australia and New Zealand and dichotomised according to the median. Bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm2) was measured at the spine (postero-anterior projection) and total hip using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Stiffness index (SI), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS) were derived from quantitative heel ultrasound. Linear regression models were used to test associations between dietary tryptophan and bone health, after adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: Tryptophan intakes ranged from 112 to 3796 mg/day (median 1035) in men and 115-2869 mg/day (median 885) in women. In men older than 45 years and women, a high tryptophan intake was associated with greater hip BMD compared to participants with a low tryptophan intake (p = 0.002 and p = 0.04, respectively); however, these relationships were attenuated by age (all p > 0.05). Participants with high tryptophan intake had greater BUA and SI compared to participants with low tryptophan intake (men; BUA, p = 0.02 and SI, p = 0.02, and women; BUA, p = 0.03 and SI, p = 0.08), yet also attenuated by age (all p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: No association was found between tryptophan intake and bone health in this population, which suggests a non-critical role of superfluous tryptophan consumption on the skeleton.


Asunto(s)
Densidad Ósea , Talón/diagnóstico por imagen , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Triptófano/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Australia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nueva Zelanda/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Triptófano/sangre , Ultrasonografía , Adulto Joven
13.
Anticancer Res ; 40(11): 6381-6385, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109576

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: Asian Americans (AA) are one of the largest and fastest growing minority groups in the United States consisting of 18 million people. This population is an ethnically diverse group that tends to be classified as one cohort resulting in hidden survival disparities among AA subgroups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The National Cancer Data Base was queried for patients of Korean, Japanese or Filipino ancestry with gastric adenocarcinoma or esophageal adenocarcinoma between 2004 and 2013. RESULTS: A total of 28,213 patients met the inclusion criteria: 1,542 with gastric adenocarcinoma and 26,671 with esophageal adenocarcinoma. The Korean group with gastric cancer (0.42) showed improved 5-year survival over the Japanese (0.31) and Filipino (0.21; p<0.001) groups. CONCLUSION: A significant difference in survival exists among AA subgroups signifying a need to acknowledge the heterogeneity of AA in future studies. Thus, individual-specific medicine with respect to race-related outcomes is extremely important.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/epidemiología , Americanos Asiáticos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiología , Adenocarcinoma/patología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Manejo de Datos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Femenino , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias Gástricas/patología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1464-1468, 2020 Oct 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031360

RESUMEN

Wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) transmission is ongoing only in Afghanistan and Pakistan (1). Following a decline in case numbers during 2013-2016, the number of cases in Afghanistan has increased each year during 2017-2020. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress toward polio eradication in Afghanistan during January 2019-July 2020 and updates previous reports (2,3). Since April 2018, insurgent groups have imposed bans on house-to-house vaccination. In September 2019, vaccination campaigns in areas under insurgency control were restarted only at health facilities. In addition, during March-June 2020, all campaigns were paused because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The number of WPV1 cases reported in Afghanistan increased from 21 in 2018 to 29 in 2019. During January-July 2020, 41 WPV1 cases were reported as of August 29, 2020 (compared with 15 during January-July 2019); in addition, 69 cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2), and one case of ambiguous vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (aVDPV2) (isolates with no evidence of person-to-person transmission or from persons with no known immunodeficiency) were detected. Dialogue with insurgency leaders through nongovernmental and international organizations is ongoing in an effort to recommence house-to-house campaigns, which are essential to stopping WPV1 transmission in Afghanistan. To increase community demand for polio vaccination, additional community health needs should be addressed, and polio vaccination should be integrated with humanitarian services.


Asunto(s)
Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Poliomielitis/prevención & control , Vigilancia de la Población , Adolescente , Afganistán/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Programas de Inmunización , Esquemas de Inmunización , Lactante , Poliomielitis/epidemiología , Poliovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Vacuna Antipolio Oral/administración & dosificación , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
16.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 30(3): 030901, 2020 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071558

RESUMEN

Introduction: The 2019 Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been characterized as a pandemic, representing a serious global public health emergency. Serological tests have been proposed as reliable tools for detecting Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in infected patients, especially for surveillance or epidemiological purposes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the agreement between the IgM/IgG rapid assays, based on lateral flow immunochromatographic assay, and the fully automated 2019-nCoV IgM and IgG, based on chemiluminescence immunoassay. Materials and methods: SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were measured with the BIOSYNEX COVID-19 BSS IgM/IgG test (BIOSYNEX, Illkirch-Graffenstaden, France) and the MAGLUMI CLIA (IgM and IgG) (SNIBE - Shenzhen New Industries Biomedical Engineering, Shenzhen, China) in 70 serum samples from patients with PCR-confirmed diagnosis. The strength of the agreement of the two methods was calculated by using the Cohen Kappa index. Results: The results showed a good grade of concordance between the two immunoassays with a Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.71 (95%CI: 0.54-0.87) for IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and 0.70 (95%CI: 0.53-0.87) for IgM SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. In addition, the rapid assays BIOSYNEX COVID-19 BSS for detecting SARS-CoV-2 antibodies showed a positive likelihood ratio (LR) of 10.63 (95%CI: 2.79-40.57) for IgG and a LR of 6.79 (95%CI: 2.93-15.69) for IgM. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the immunochromatographic rapid IgM/IgG test and the chemiluminescence IgM and IgG immunoassay have a good degree of concordance, suggesting that both could be considered as useful tools for epidemiologic surveillance.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoensayo , Mediciones Luminiscentes , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vigilancia de la Población , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087023

RESUMEN

Nationally, there was a continuing downward trend in notifications of COVID-19. The daily average number of cases for this reporting period was 14 compared to an average of 23 cases per day in the previous fortnight. There were 192 cases of COVID-19 and 23 deaths this fortnight, bringing the cumulative case count to 27,344 and 898 deaths. While the majority of cases in this reporting period were from Victoria (60%; 116/192), there continues to be a decrease in cases in this state resulting from public health interventions. During this fortnight, 66% (127/192) of all cases were reported as locally acquired, with the majority reported from Victoria (108/127). The highest proportion of overseas-acquired cases was reported in New South Wales (75%; 38/51), followed by Western Australia (22%; 11/51). Although testing rates declined, they remain high overall at 9.2 tests per week per 1,000 persons. There was variability in the testing rate by jurisdiction, with testing rates depending on the epidemic context. The overall positivity rate for the reporting period was 0.05%, with Victoria reporting a positivity rate of 0.08% for this reporting period. In all other jurisdictions the positivity rate was ≤ 0.06%.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Notificación de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Australia/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Variación Genética , Genoma Viral , Genómica , Salud Global , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
18.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(9): 1005-1010, 2020 Sep 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047790

RESUMEN

Background: COVID-19 is now well documented in the Eastern Mediterranean Region; however, the incidence, mortality and fatality rates differ by country. Aims: The study aimed to describe the COVID-19 pandemic in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, assessing the incidence, mortality-related and fatality rate in different countries, in comparison with the worldwide mean. Methods: Data were sourced from the Worldometer surveillance page and from governmental reporting channels. Data were exported and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 23.0). Results: In the Eastern Mediterranean Region, the testing frequency is heterogeneous between countries, in addition to the reported cases and death. Very few data are available from countries with political instability and security problems (Yemen, Syrian Arab Republic and Sudan), particularly for the testing frequency. Overall, despite similar rates of testing, there was a significantly lower incidence in the Eastern Mediterranean Region versus the rest of the world, in addition to a lower mortality per million-population, particularly in countries with low to moderate testing rates. However, in countries with higher testing than the world average, there is a higher incidence, a lower mortality, but an unexpected higher fatality rate. Conclusion: The overall testing frequency was similar in the Eastern Mediterranean Region compared to the rest of the world; this would be expected to lead to a similar cumulative incidence and case fatality rate. Nevertheless, the average incidence was 70% lower than the rest of the world, and mortality per million-population was lower (90%). Moreover, in Gulf Cooperation Council high-testing countries, a similar case-fatality rate to other countries in the Region was noted, but was higher than the world average, although expected to be lower. Further studies are necessary to explain discrepancies in incidence, mortality and fatality rates among countries; principally, environmental, genetic and managerial reasons should be investigated.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , África del Norte/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Humanos , Incidencia , Medio Oriente/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Organización Mundial de la Salud
19.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 152, 2020 10 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006016

RESUMEN

The incidence rate of hip fracture in Tottori Prefecture tended to increase until 2018 in men, but it did not increase after 2010 in women. By type of fracture, the incidence rate of femoral neck fractures also increased over time in men, but no other changes were observed from 2010. PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to determine the sex-, age-, and fracture-type-specific incidence rates of hip fractures in Tottori Prefecture between 2007 and 2018 and to compare the results with our past results to identify changes over time. METHODS: All hip fractures in people aged 35 years or older living in Tottori Prefecture were surveyed from 2007 to 2018 throughout the entire prefecture, and the age- and sex-specific incidence rates were calculated. The incidence rates from 1986 to 1988, 1992 to 1994, 1998 to 2000, and 2004 to 2006 previously reported were used for the analysis. RESULTS: In men, the age-adjusted number of patients adjusted by demographic structure based on the mean incidence rate for each 3-year period from 1986 to 2018 showed an increase in incidence over time compared with the incidence for 1986-1988 (p < 0.001). In women, the incidence rose over time compared with the incidence for 1986-1988 until 2004-2006 (p < 0.001), and no further increase was observed from 2010. The age-specific incidence rates of neck fracture in men were higher in 2010-2012 and 2016-2018 compared with 2004-2006 (p < 0.001), but those in women showed no increase with time. Those of trochanteric fracture did not change over time in either men or women. CONCLUSION: The hip fracture incidence rate in Tottori Prefecture, Japan, tended to increase until 2018 in men, but it did not increase after 2010 in women.


Asunto(s)
Fracturas del Cuello Femoral/epidemiología , Fracturas de Cadera/epidemiología , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Fracturas del Cuello Femoral/etnología , Fracturas de Cadera/etnología , Humanos , Fracturas del Húmero/epidemiología , Incidencia , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Distribución por Sexo
20.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(10): 1414-1418, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047699

RESUMEN

Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional gastrointestinal disease. The prevalence of IBS is estimated to be 11.2% worldwide and even though it is not a life-threatening condition, it affects the quality of life and results in an economic burden on the healthcare system. According to the Rome III criteria, IBS is described as abdominal pain that improves with defecation and the onset of the pain is associated with a change in stool frequency or consistency that cannot be explained by any biochemical or structural abnormality. Aim: To document the epidemiology of IBS and its associated risk factors in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in the central region of Saudi Arabia, carried out by distributing an online self-administered semi-structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed online in social media and websites. The sample size was 426 participants with a precision of ± 5% and 95% confidence interval (CI). The questionnaire included demographic characters such as age, gender, occupation, and marital status. The questionnaire also included body mass index (BMI), smoking, family history of IBS, Rome III criteria for diagnosing IBS, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) for anxiety and depression. Results: A total of 426 (230 [54%] male and 196 [46%] female) participants were enrolled in the study. According to Rome III criteria, 130 had IBS and the prevalence was 30.5%. Univariate analysis showed that gender, anxiety, depression, and low physical activity are statistically significant variables with symptomatic IBS (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In this study, a high prevalence of IBS in the Central Saudi Arabia population was observed along with the presence of some modifiable risk factors, yet, the sample size was small which shows the need for more studies in this area particularly on the general population.


Asunto(s)
Dolor Abdominal/etiología , Síndrome del Colon Irritable/epidemiología , Síndrome del Colon Irritable/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Dolor Abdominal/epidemiología , Adulto , Ansiedad/complicaciones , Ansiedad/etnología , Ansiedad/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/complicaciones , Depresión/etnología , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Síndrome del Colon Irritable/fisiopatología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vigilancia de la Población , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Conducta Sedentaria , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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