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3.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(11): 2370-2381, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164756

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether a digital surveillance model using Google Trends is feasible for obtaining accurate data on coronavirus disease 2019 and whether accurate predictions can be made regarding new cases. METHODS: Data on total and daily new cases in each US state were collected from January 22, 2020, to April 6, 2020. Information regarding 10 keywords was collected from Google Trends, and correlation analyses were performed for individual states as well as for the United States overall. RESULTS: Among the 10 keywords analyzed from Google Trends, face mask, Lysol, and COVID stimulus check had the strongest correlations when looking at the United States as a whole, with R values of 0.88, 0.82, and 0.79, respectively. Lag and lead Pearson correlations were assessed for every state and all 10 keywords from 16 days before the first case in each state to 16 days after the first case. Strong correlations were seen up to 16 days prior to the first reported cases in some states. CONCLUSION: This study documents the feasibility of syndromic surveillance of internet search terms to monitor new infectious diseases such as coronavirus disease 2019. This information could enable better preparation and planning of health care systems.


Asunto(s)
Información de Salud al Consumidor , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Conducta en la Búsqueda de Información , Internet/tendencias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Vigilancia en Salud Pública/métodos , Motor de Búsqueda/tendencias , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(46): 1743-1747, 2020 Nov 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211678

RESUMEN

On university campuses and in similar congregate environments, surveillance testing of asymptomatic persons is a critical strategy (1,2) for preventing transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). All students at Duke University, a private research university in Durham, North Carolina, signed the Duke Compact (3), agreeing to observe mandatory masking, social distancing, and participation in entry and surveillance testing. The university implemented a five-to-one pooled testing program for SARS-CoV-2 using a quantitative, in-house, laboratory-developed, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test (4,5). Pooling of specimens to enable large-scale testing while minimizing use of reagents was pioneered during the human immunodeficiency virus pandemic (6). A similar methodology was adapted for Duke University's asymptomatic testing program. The baseline SARS-CoV-2 testing plan was to distribute tests geospatially and temporally across on- and off-campus student populations. By September 20, 2020, asymptomatic testing was scaled up to testing targets, which include testing for residential undergraduates twice weekly, off-campus undergraduates one to two times per week, and graduate students approximately once weekly. In addition, in response to newly identified positive test results, testing was focused in locations or within cohorts where data suggested an increased risk for transmission. Scale-up over 4 weeks entailed redeploying staff members to prepare 15 campus testing sites for specimen collection, developing information management tools, and repurposing laboratory automation to establish an asymptomatic surveillance system. During August 2-October 11, 68,913 specimens from 10,265 graduate and undergraduate students were tested. Eighty-four specimens were positive for SARS-CoV-2, and 51% were among persons with no symptoms. Testing as a result of contact tracing identified 27.4% of infections. A combination of risk-reduction strategies and frequent surveillance testing likely contributed to a prolonged period of low transmission on campus. These findings highlight the importance of combined testing and contact tracing strategies beyond symptomatic testing, in association with other preventive measures. Pooled testing balances resource availability with supply-chain disruptions, high throughput with high sensitivity, and rapid turnaround with an acceptable workload.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Asintomáticas/epidemiología , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Vigilancia en Salud Pública/métodos , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Humanos , North Carolina/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Desarrollo de Programa , Universidades , Carga Viral
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 2): 4141-4150, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027350

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to analyze the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) pattern in Pernambuco before and during a COVID-19 pandemic. Ecological study conducted from January to June, 2015 to 2019 and from January 1 to June 15, 2020. The detection rates by municipality and by Regional Health of residence were calculated. The spatial area of SARS was estimated through the risk ratio. Before the pandemic, there were 5,617 cases of SARS, 187 cases/month and 23.8 cases/100 thousand inhabitants, while during the pandemic there were 15,100 cases, 2,516 cases/month and 320.3 cases/100 thousand inhabitants, which represents a 13-fold increase in detection. The following expanded (p < 0,001): the occurrence in elderly people, the collection of samples and the identification of SARS etiological agent with predominance of SARS by COVID-19. Most municipalities experienced a 20-fold higher detection than expected, suggesting a process of virus spread to the hinterlands. The excess risk associate with lower IDHM, the condition of the municipality being the headquarters of the Regional Health and the presence of a highway in the municipality. The change in the pattern of occurrence of SRAG, combined with Spatial analysis may contribute to action planning at different levels of management.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Factores de Riesgo , Análisis Espacial , Adulto Joven
7.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 139, 2020 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028400

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Health workers (HWs) are at increased risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and a possible source of nosocomial transmission clusters. Despite the increased risk, the best surveillance strategy and management of exposed HWs are not yet well known. The aim of this review was to summarize and critically analyze the existing evidence related to this topic in order to support public health strategies aimed at protecting HWs in the hospital setting. MAIN TEXT: A comprehensive computerized literature research from 1 January 2020 up to 22 May 2020 was made to identify studies analyzing the burden of infection, risk assessment, surveillance and management of HWs exposed to SARS-CoV-2. Among 1623 citation identified using MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar and manual search, we included 43 studies, 14 webpages and 5 ongoing trials. Health workers have a high risk of acquiring infection while caring for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. In particular, some types exposures and their duration, as well as the inadequate or non-use of personal protective equipment (PPE) are associated with increased infection risk. Strict infection prevention and control procedures (IPC), adequate training programs on the appropriate use of PPE and close monitoring of HWs with symptom surveillance and testing are essential to significantly reduce the risk. At the moment there is not enough evidence to provide precise indications regarding pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). CONCLUSIONS: During the spread of COVID-19 outbreak, numerous published papers investigated the epidemiology, risk assessment and prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2. However, more high-quality studies are needed to provide valid recommendations for better management and for the clinical and microbiological surveillance of healthcare personnel.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Bases de Datos Factuales , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Hospitales , Humanos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Profilaxis Posexposición , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Factores de Riesgo
8.
Am J Bioeth ; 20(10): 61-63, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016826
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(42): 1547-1548, 2020 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090982

RESUMEN

Zambia is a landlocked, lower-middle income country in southern Africa, with a population of 17 million (1). The first known cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Zambia occurred in a married couple who had traveled to France and were subject to port-of-entry surveillance and subsequent remote monitoring of travelers with a history of international travel for 14 days after arrival. They were identified as having suspected cases on March 18, 2020, and tested for COVID-19 after developing respiratory symptoms during the 14-day monitoring period. In March 2020, the Zambia National Public Health Institute (ZNPHI) defined a suspected case of COVID-19 as 1) an acute respiratory illness in a person with a history of international travel during the 14 days preceding symptom onset; or 2) acute respiratory illness in a person with a history of contact with a person with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in the 14 days preceding symptom onset; or 3) severe acute respiratory illness requiring hospitalization; or 4) being a household or close contact of a patient with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. This definition was adapted from World Health Organization (WHO) interim guidance issued March 20, 2020, on global surveillance for COVID-19 (2) to also include asymptomatic contacts of persons with confirmed COVID-19. Persons with suspected COVID-19 were identified through various mechanisms, including port-of-entry surveillance, contact tracing, health care worker (HCW) testing, facility-based inpatient screening, community-based screening, and calls from the public into a national hotline administered by the Disaster Management and Mitigation Unit and ZNPHI. Port-of-entry surveillance included an arrival screen consisting of a temperature scan, report of symptoms during the preceding 14 days, and collection of a history of travel and contact with persons with confirmed COVID-19 in the 14 days before arrival in Zambia, followed by daily remote telephone monitoring for 14 days. Travelers were tested for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, if they were symptomatic upon arrival or developed symptoms during the 14-day monitoring period. Persons with suspected COVID-19 were tested as soon as possible after evaluation for respiratory symptoms or within 7 days of last known exposure (i.e., travel or contact with a confirmed case). All COVID-19 diagnoses were confirmed using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing (SARS-CoV-2 Nucleic Acid Detection Kit, Maccura) of nasopharyngeal specimens; all patients with confirmed COVID-19 were admitted into institutional isolation at the time of laboratory confirmation, which was generally within 36 hours. COVID-19 patients were deemed recovered and released from isolation after two consecutive PCR-negative test results ≥24 hours apart. A Ministry of Health memorandum was released on April 13, 2020, mandating testing in public facilities of 1) all persons admitted to medical and pediatric wards regardless of symptoms; 2) all patients being admitted to surgical and obstetric wards, regardless of symptoms; 3) any outpatient with fever, cough, or shortness of breath; and 4) any facility or community death in a person with respiratory symptoms, and 5) biweekly screening of all HCWs in isolation centers and health facilities where persons with COVID-19 had been evaluated. This report describes the first 100 COVID-19 cases reported in Zambia, during March 18-April 28, 2020.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Trazado de Contacto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Enfermedad Relacionada con los Viajes , Zambia/epidemiología
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e23297, 2020 10 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006943

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: With the continued spread of COVID-19 in the United States, identifying potential outbreaks before infected individuals cross the clinical threshold is key to allowing public health officials time to ensure local health care institutions are adequately prepared. In response to this need, researchers have developed participatory surveillance technologies that allow individuals to report emerging symptoms daily so that their data can be extrapolated and disseminated to local health care authorities. OBJECTIVE: This study uses a framework synthesis to evaluate existing self-reported symptom tracking programs in the United States for COVID-19 as an early-warning tool for probable clusters of infection. This in turn will inform decision makers and health care planners about these technologies and the usefulness of their information to aid in federal, state, and local efforts to mobilize effective current and future pandemic responses. METHODS: Programs were identified through keyword searches and snowball sampling, then screened for inclusion. A best fit framework was constructed for all programs that met the inclusion criteria by collating information collected from each into a table for easy comparison. RESULTS: We screened 8 programs; 6 were included in our final framework synthesis. We identified multiple common data elements, including demographic information like race, age, gender, and affiliation (all were associated with universities, medical schools, or schools of public health). Dissimilarities included collection of data regarding smoking status, mental well-being, and suspected exposure to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Several programs currently exist that track COVID-19 symptoms from participants on a semiregular basis. Coordination between symptom tracking program research teams and local and state authorities is currently lacking, presenting an opportunity for collaboration to avoid duplication of efforts and more comprehensive knowledge dissemination.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/fisiopatología , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/fisiopatología , Vigilancia en Salud Pública/métodos , Autoinforme , Betacoronavirus , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
11.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(9): 953-956, 2020 09 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031079

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Physical distancing preventive measures were implemented in Mexico as a response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (CoViD-19) pandemic. School closures occurred on March 16, 2020, in 10 out of 32 Mexican states, and one week later in the remaining states. Because the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the influenza virus have similar transmission mechanisms, we aimed to evaluate the impact of physical distancing on the incidence of influenza as a proxy of the impact on SARS-CoV-2 contagion. METHODOLOGY: A national flu surveillance system was cross-sectionally analyzed and daily average percent changes (APCs) of incidence rates were calculated throught Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Greater decreasing trends (APCs -8.8, 95% CI: -12.5, -4.5; vs. -6.0, 95% CI: -9.9, -2.0; p = 0.026) were documented in the states with earlier school closures and across age groups, suggesting that earlier implementation of physical distance results in reduced SARS-CoV-2 spread. CONCLUSIONS: Physical distancing policies decrease the incidence of influenza infections in Mexico; its favorable impact on the spread of SARS-CoV-2 is commendable.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Política de Salud , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Cuarentena/métodos , Distancia Social , Aislamiento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Masculino , México/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Adulto Joven
12.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(9): 971-976, 2020 09 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031083

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The novel coronavirus infection has become a global threat affecting almost every country in the world. As a result, it has become important to understand the disease trends in order to mitigate its effects. The aim of this study is firstly to develop a prediction model for daily confirmed COVID-19 cases based on several covariates, and secondly, to select the best prediction model based on a subset of these covariates. METHODOLOGY: This study was conducted using daily confirmed cases of COVID-19 collected from the official Ministry of Health, Malaysia (MOH) and John Hopkins University websites. An Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model was fitted to the training data of observed cases from 22 January to 31 March 2020, and subsequently validated using data on cases from 1 April to 17 April 2020. The ARIMA model satisfactorily forecasted the daily confirmed COVID-19 cases from 18 April 2020 to 1 May 2020 (the testing phase). RESULTS: The ARIMA (0,1,0) model produced the best fit to the observed data with a Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) value of 16.01 and a Bayes Information Criteria (BIC) value of 4.170. The forecasted values showed a downward trend of COVID-19 cases until 1 May 2020. Observed cases during the forecast period were accurately predicted and were placed within the prediction intervals generated by the fitted model. CONCLUSIONS: This study finds that ARIMA models with optimally selected covariates are useful tools for monitoring and predicting trends of COVID-19 cases in Malaysia.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Modelos Estadísticos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Teorema de Bayes , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Predicción , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Vigilancia en Salud Pública
13.
Ann Emerg Med ; 76(4): 413-426, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012377

RESUMEN

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Emergency medical services (EMS) may serve as a key source of real-time data about the evolving health of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-affected populations, especially in low- and middle-income countries with less rapid and reliable vital statistics registration systems. Although official COVID-19 statistics in Mexico report almost exclusively inhospital mortality events, excess out-of-hospital mortality has been identified in other countries, including 1 EMS study in Italy that showed a 58% increase. Additionally, EMS and hospital reports from several countries have suggested that silent hypoxemia-low Spo2 in the absence of dyspnea-is associated with COVID-19. It is unclear, however, how these phenomena can be generalized to low- and middle-income countries. We assess how EMS data can be used in a sentinel capacity in Tijuana, a city on the Mexico-United States border with earlier exposure to COVID-19 than many low- and middle-income country settings. METHODS: In this observational study, we calculated numbers of weekly out-of-hospital deaths and respiratory cases handled by EMS in Tijuana, and estimated the difference between peak epidemic rates and expected trends based on data from 2014 to 2019. Results were compared with official COVID-19 statistics, stratified by neighborhood socioeconomic status, and examined for changing demographic or clinical features, including mean Spo2. RESULTS: An estimated 194.7 excess out-of-hospital deaths (95% confidence interval 135.5 to 253.9 deaths) occurred during the peak window (April 14 to May 11), representing an increase of 145% (95% CI 70% to 338%) compared with expected levels. During the same window, only 5 COVID-19-related out-of-hospital deaths were reported in official statistics. This corresponded with an increase in respiratory cases of 236.5% (95% CI 100.7% to 940.0%) and a decrease in mean Spo2 to 77.7% from 90.2% at baseline. The highest out-of-hospital death rates were observed in low-socioeconomic-status areas, although respiratory cases were more concentrated in high-socioeconomic-status areas. CONCLUSION: EMS systems may play an important sentinel role in monitoring excess out-of-hospital mortality and other trends during the COVID-19 crisis in low- and middle-income countries. Using EMS data, we observed increases in out-of-hospital deaths in Tijuana that were nearly 3-fold greater than increases reported in EMS data in Italy. Increased testing in out-of-hospital settings may be required to determine whether excess mortality is being driven by COVID-19 infection, health system saturation, or patient avoidance of health care. We also found evidence of worsening rates of hypoxemia among respiratory patients treated by EMS, suggesting a possible increase in silent hypoxemia, which should be met with increased detection and clinical management efforts. Finally, we observed social disparities in out-of-hospital death that warrant monitoring and amelioration.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Hipoxia/virología , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Betacoronavirus , Niño , Preescolar , Registros Electrónicos de Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , México/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Clase Social , Adulto Joven
14.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2020-10-22. (OPAS-W/BRA/PHE/COVID-19/20-129).
No convencional en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-52913

RESUMEN

[Introdução]. Este documento fornece orientações provisórias para laboratórios e outras partes interessadas envolvidas no diagnóstico da síndrome respiratória aguda grave coronavírus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As principais considerações para a coleta de amostras, teste de amplificação de ácido nucleico (NAAT), antígeno (Ag), detecção de anticorpos (Ab) e garantia de qualidade são abordados WHElab@who.int. Alterações da versão anterior: O título desta guia provisória mudou de “Testes de laboratório para COVID-19 em casos humanos suspeitos” para “Testes de diagnóstico para SARS-CoV-2”. Informações adicionais relevantes e um algoritmo de diagnóstico clínico foram adicionados ao documento. Além disso, a guia foi atualizada com novas descobertas da literatura e melhores práticas.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Prueba de Laboratorio , Vigilancia en Salud Pública
16.
Lancet HIV ; 7(10): e711-e720, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010243

RESUMEN

Despite a large and growing body of literature on sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and HIV integration, the drivers of integration of SRH and HIV services, from a health systems perspective, are not well understood. These drivers include complex so-called hardware (structural and resource) and software (values and norms, and human relations and interactions) factors. Two groups of software factors emerge as essential enablers of effective integration of SRH and HIV services that often interact with systems hardware: (1) leadership, management, and governance processes and (2) provider motivation, agency, and relationships. Evidence suggests the potential for software elements that are essential enablers to overcome some of the obstacles posed by the non-integration of health system hardware elements (eg, financing, guidelines, and commodity supplies). These enabling factors include flexible decision making, inclusive management, and support in motivating frontline staff who can work with agency as a team. Improved software, even within constrained hardware (especially in low-income and middle-income countries), can directly contribute to improved SRH and HIV service delivery.


Asunto(s)
Prestación Integrada de Atención de Salud , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Servicios de Salud Reproductiva , Salud Sexual , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Toma de Decisiones , Análisis Factorial , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Responsabilidad Social
17.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(4): e21340, 2020 10 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001831

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The magnitude and time course of the COVID-19 epidemic in the United States depends on early interventions to reduce the basic reproductive number to below 1. It is imperative, then, to develop methods to actively assess where quarantine measures such as social distancing may be deficient and suppress those potential resurgence nodes as early as possible. OBJECTIVE: We ask if social media is an early indicator of public social distancing measures in the United States by investigating its correlation with the time-varying reproduction number (Rt) as compared to social mobility estimates reported from Google and Apple Maps. METHODS: In this observational study, the estimated Rt was obtained for the period between March 5 and April 5, 2020, using the EpiEstim package. Social media activity was assessed using queries of "social distancing" or "#socialdistancing" on Google Trends, Instagram, and Twitter, with social mobility assessed using Apple and Google Maps data. Cross-correlations were performed between Rt and social media activity or mobility for the United States. We used Pearson correlations and the coefficient of determination (ρ) with significance set to P<.05. RESULTS: Negative correlations were found between Google search interest for "social distancing" and Rt in the United States (P<.001), and between search interest and state-specific Rt for 9 states with the highest COVID-19 cases (P<.001); most states experienced a delay varying between 3-8 days before reaching significance. A negative correlation was seen at a 4-day delay from the start of the Instagram hashtag "#socialdistancing" and at 6 days for Twitter (P<.001). Significant correlations between Rt and social media manifest earlier in time compared to social mobility measures from Google and Apple Maps, with peaks at -6 and -4 days. Meanwhile, changes in social mobility correlated best with Rt at -2 days and +1 day for workplace and grocery/pharmacy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates the potential use of Google Trends, Instagram, and Twitter as epidemiological tools in the assessment of social distancing measures in the United States during the early course of the COVID-19 pandemic. Their correlation and earlier rise and peak in correlative strength with Rt when compared to social mobility may provide proactive insight into whether social distancing efforts are sufficiently enacted. Whether this proves valuable in the creation of more accurate assessments of the early epidemic course is uncertain due to limitations. These limitations include the use of a biased sample that is internet literate with internet access, which may covary with socioeconomic status, education, geography, and age, and the use of subtotal social media mentions of social distancing. Future studies should focus on investigating how social media reactions change during the course of the epidemic, as well as the conversion of social media behavior to actual physical behavior.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vigilancia en Salud Pública/métodos , Distancia Social , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Número Básico de Reproducción , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
18.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(9)2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938607

RESUMEN

To mitigate the spread of COVID-19, governments throughout the world have introduced emergency measures that constrain individual freedoms, social and economic rights and global solidarity. These regulatory measures have closed schools, workplaces and transit systems, cancelled public gatherings, introduced mandatory home confinement and deployed large-scale electronic surveillance. In doing so, human rights obligations are rarely addressed, despite how significantly they are impacted by the pandemic response. The norms and principles of human rights should guide government responses to COVID-19, with these rights strengthening the public health response to COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Derechos Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Derecho a la Salud , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Privacidad , Vigilancia en Salud Pública
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22067, 2020 Sep 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925742

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Coastal areas in Malaysia can have important impacts on the livelihoods and health of local communities. Efforts by Malaysian government to develop and improve the landscape and ecosystem have been planned; however, the progress has been relatively slow because some of the coastal areas are remote and relatively inaccessible. Thus, these coastal communities face various challenges in health, healthcare and quality of life. This paper presents a study protocol to examine the health status, healthcare utilisation, and quality of life among the coastal communities. In addition, the relationship between the community and their coastal environment is examined. METHODOLOGY AND ANALYSIS: The population of interest is the coastal communities residing within the Tun Mustapha Park in Sabah, Malaysia. The data collection is planned for a duration of 6 months and the findings are expected by December 2020. A random cluster sampling will be conducted at three districts of Sabah. This study will collect 600 adult respondents (300 households are estimated to be collected) at age of 18 and above. The project is a cross sectional study via face-to-face interview with administered questionnaires, anthropometrics measurements and observation of the living condition performed by trained interviewers.


Asunto(s)
Utilización de Instalaciones y Servicios , Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Estado de Salud , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Calidad de Vida , Salud Rural , Estudios Transversales , Ecosistema , Programas de Gobierno , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología
20.
J. Health NPEPS ; 5(2)set. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1119828

RESUMEN

Objetivo: analisar os dados epidemiológicos da COVID-19 em Uberlândia e confrontá-los com as determinações municipais de abertura e fechamento comercial em diferentes momentos da pandemia. Método: trata-se de estudo epidemiológico, observacional e descritivo, utilizando dados secundários, referente aos casos notificados da COVID-19 em Uberlândia. Resultados: foram realizados 59.994 testes, sendo 14.389 positivos (23,98%) e 45.605 negativos (76,02%). Registraram-se 265 óbitos e taxa de letalidade de 1,89%. Casos confirmados apresentaram tendência de crescimento após abertura comercial, tendência de estabilização após fechamento comercial, e tendência de queda após a última reabertura comercial, acompanhada de acúmulo de testes suspeitos e queda da testagem populacional. Entre os internados diários, houve predomínio de homens (59%), maiores de 60 anos (55%) e alocados em leitos de enfermaria (55%). Conclusão: percebeu-se expressiva influência do grau de abertura comercial nos indicadores da doença, com incremento da frequência de testes positivos e óbitos, e manutenção das internações.(AU)


Objective: to analyze COVID-19's epidemiological data in Uberlândia and compare them with the municipal determinations of opening and closing of commercial's acitivities at different times of the pandemic. Method: this is an epidemiological, observational and descriptive study, using secondary data, referring to notified cases of COVID-19 in Uberlândia. Results: 59,994 tests were performed, of which 14,389 were positive (23.98%) and 45,605 negative (76.02%). There were 265 deaths and a fatality rate of 1.89%. Confirmed cases showed a growth tendency after commercial opening, a stabilization tendecy after commercial closing, and a downward tendecy after the last commercial reopening, accompanied by an accumulation of suspicious tests and a drop in population testing. Among daily inpatients, there was a predominance of men (59%), older than 60 years old (55%) and allocated to infirmary beds (55%). Conclusion: there was a significant influence of the degree of commercial opening in the indicators of the disease, with an increase in the frequency of positive tests and deaths, and maintenance of hospitalizations.(AU)


Objetivo: analizar los datos epidemiológicos de COVID-19 en Uberlândia y confrontarlos con las determinaciones municipales de apertura y cierre comercial en diferentes momentos de la pandemia. Método: se trata de un estudio epidemiológico, observacional y descriptivo, utilizando datos secundarios, referidos a los casos notificados de COVID-19 en Uberlândia. Resultados: se realizaron 59.994 pruebas, de las cuales 14.389 fueron positivas (23,98%) y 45,605 negativas (76,02%). Hubo 265 muertes y una tasa de mortalidad del 1,89%. Los casos confirmados mostraron una tendencia de crecimiento después de la apertura comercial, una tendencia de estabilización después del cierre comercial y una tendencia a la baja después de la última reapertura comercial, acompañada de una acumulación de pruebas sospechosas y una caída en las pruebas de población. Entre los internados diarios, hubo predominio de hombres (59%), mayores de 60 años (55%) y asignados a camas de enfermería (55%). Conclusión: hubo una influencia significativa del grado de apertura comercial en los indicadores de la enfermedad, con un aumento en la frecuencia de pruebas positivas y muertes, y mantenimiento de hospitalizaciones.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Epidemiología Descriptiva
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