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1.
Workplace Health Saf ; 68(3): 155, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989875

RESUMEN

An estimated 11 million women in the United States have been raped while drunk or drugged. Occupational health nurses can offer education and sound advice to workers and international business travelers on how to protect themselves.


Asunto(s)
Intoxicación Alcohólica , Víctimas de Crimen , Violación/prevención & control , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Femenino , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas , Enfermería del Trabajo/métodos , Violación/estadística & datos numéricos
2.
BMC Fam Pract ; 20(1): 168, 2019 12 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801466

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Violence against women (VAW) has many impacts on health, but the role of the primary healthcare physicians in the intervention program is lacking. This research aimed to explore the primary healthcare physician role in a comprehensive intervention program of VAW in Malang City, Indonesia. METHODS: This qualitative research was conducted using a phenomenology approach. A focused group discussion followed by in-depth interviews were carried out involving six primary healthcare physicians in Puskesmas (Primary Healthcare Center) and two stakeholders. Legal document related to VAW was reviewed to measure up the role of the primary healthcare physicians. RESULT: Our study revealed that the role of physicians in primary healthcare centers on the VAW intervention program was limited. This was due to the insufficient knowledge of the physicians on the VAW program, physicians' constraint on counseling skill, unsupportive infrastructure, and a limited number of physicians in Puskesmas. Some barriers related to the VAW program management were also discovered and needed intervention at the decision-maker level. CONCLUSION: The role of primary healthcare physicians in the comprehensive intervention of the VAW program is not optimum. The source of the problem involves the physician capability and program management aspects in all levels of decision-makers. Local government awareness and commitment are needed to improve the overall management of the VAW intervention program in this city.


Asunto(s)
Rol del Médico , Médicos de Atención Primaria , Violencia/prevención & control , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Violencia Doméstica/prevención & control , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Trata de Personas/prevención & control , Humanos , Indonesia , Entrevistas como Asunto , Violación/prevención & control
3.
Torture ; 29(2): 81-89, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670706

RESUMEN

This paper outlines the narratives of a female and male survivor of sexual violence. It draws attention to the benefits of assisting survivors break their silence as a strategy to overcome the sequelae of shame that accompanies these acts. The two cases illustrate that both men and women experience sexual violation as de-humanising and assisting them to access and make meaning of their memories can be empowering. The need to develop a screening tool to assist survivors access treatment in a timely manner and further develop appropriate strategies incorporating both individual and group sessions is highlighted.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Cualitativa , Violación/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Tortura/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Violación/prevención & control , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Sobrevivientes , Tanzanía
5.
Am J Mens Health ; 13(6): 1557988319882589, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779511

RESUMEN

Globally, rape is regarded as the most demoralizing type of trauma, and it has negative implications for victims and their families. Although rape affects the community in general, there is a paucity of literature on rape victimization of men. As a result, the types of rape experienced by them are not understood, and thus it is often difficult to develop contextually relevant interventions to prevent male rape and to support male rape victims. The objective of this study was to first determine and then describe, the types of rape experienced by men. An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) qualitative approach was used to collect and analyze data from a purposive sample of 11 participants, using semistructured individual interviews. The findings of the study reveal six themes and related subthemes as six types and related subtypes of rape experienced by men as follows: acquaintance rape, including familial rape; stranger rape; gang rape, including corrective-gang rape, drug-facilitated gang rape, pack-hunting rape, women retributive rape (or women vengeance) for violence experienced from men; homophobic rape; prison rape, including transactional rape and gang initiation rape; and armed rape. The findings reveal the different contexts or settings where men are vulnerable to rape. This highlights the possibilities for the development of context-specific sexual violence prevention interventions for men, which include self-defense training and awareness campaigns specific to rape victimization of men. Furthermore, future studies are recommended to expose this pandemic. Activism is advocated to stop the silence around this public and social health issue.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevención Primaria/organización & administración , Violación/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Problemas Sociales/ética , Adolescente , Adulto , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Narración , Evaluación de Necesidades , Violación/prevención & control , Violación/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/prevención & control , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Sexual/ética , Problemas Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Sudáfrica , Adulto Joven
6.
Violence Against Women ; 25(13): 1522-1542, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506025

RESUMEN

A Woman in Berlin (1954) has undoubtedly shaped global understanding of wartime rape. The present article focuses on the diarist's use of humor to process her disorientation, assert her subjectivity, and build affective links with other victims. I consider how the diary's tone influenced its reception and thus how aesthetic analysis might illuminate the conditions under which stories about sexual violence become audible, as well as the ways in which the "cultural politics of emotion" (to quote the title of Sarah Ahmed's 2004 study) can both foster and obstruct human rights projects.


Asunto(s)
Política , Violación/psicología , Segunda Guerra Mundial , Adulto , Berlin , Libros/historia , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Derechos Humanos/historia , Derechos Humanos/lesiones , Derechos Humanos/psicología , Humanos , Periodismo/instrumentación , Periodismo/tendencias , Violación/prevención & control
7.
Violence Against Women ; 25(11): 1290-1308, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379296

RESUMEN

Québec university communities are facing intensified pressure to address the incidence of sexual violence on campus. The ESSIMU (Enquête Sexualité, Sécurité et Interactions en Milieu Universitaire) survey (2016) revealed that one third of respondents (students and employees from six universities, all genders combined) reported having experienced at least one form of sexual violence since arriving at university, committed by someone affiliated with the same university. As the issue is becoming increasingly institutionalized, a process that often erodes activism, this article highlights the role feminist activism has played in placing sexual violence on university campuses on the political agenda. From the dual perspective of feminist activists and researchers on the ESSIMU team, the article explores the backdrop of this mobilization, and the network of feminist resistance that fostered the ESSIMU study, itself a significant contribution to the increased recognition of sexual violence in universities. It also considers the role of university and government institutions in (re)producing such violence and the role of media in making it a public issue.


Asunto(s)
Cultura Organizacional , Violación/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Feminismo , Humanos , Masculino , Quebec , Violación/prevención & control , Violación/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades/organización & administración , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos
8.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 25(4): 242-257, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291205

RESUMEN

Sexual violence is a significant and devastating issue for men and women throughout the world. Its consequences are not only disastrous for victims of sexual violence but are also extremely costly (estimated cost of $41,000 per rape) for society. Successful treatment of sexual offenders is therefore an important goal for society as well as for victims and offenders themselves. Over the years, multiple treatment approaches for sex offenders have been developed. Treatment programs range from the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model, which focuses on providing tailored treatment for high-risk and low-risk offenders, to psychodynamic models. This article presents an overview for clinicians of state-of-the-art offender treatment, describing the most common treatment approaches, in particular the RNR model, cognitive-behavioral programs (relapse prevention programs, sexual offender treatment programs), psychodynamic approaches (transference-focused psychotherapy, mentalization-based therapy), the Good Lives Model, as well as pharmacological options. In addition, it provides an evaluation of the various treatment programs. However, given the fact that most acts of sexual violence will never be reported to the police, the question arises if treating convicted perpetrators is enough. Do we need rather-in terms of preventive work-a program for potential sexual offenders and men with delinquent sexual fantasies? Given the prevalence of sexual violence and its impact on victims, society, and the medical community, it would be remiss not to try to reach potential/unconvicted perpetrators. This article offers novel ideas and a project the goal of which is to prevent sexual offenses against women by introducing the "I CAN CHANGE" program from Hannover Medical School.


Asunto(s)
Delitos Sexuales/prevención & control , Adulto , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Pedofilia/prevención & control , Pedofilia/psicología , Pedofilia/terapia , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Psicoterapia Psicodinámica , Violación/prevención & control , Violación/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/psicología
9.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0213359, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170151

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Gender-based violence (GBV) is a crucial global health problem among all age groups, including adolescents. This study describes incidences of GBV, as well as factors associated with sexual assault, among female adolescents in class six living in urban informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: Study participants were interviewed using a structured survey instrument focusing on experiences of GBV, including emotional, physical, and sexual violence, and corresponding perpetrators, as well as gender attitudes, alcohol use, self-efficacy, and previous sexual experiences. Summary statistics and clustered bootstrap confidence intervals were calculated for social behaviors and violence rates. Stepwise logistic regression identified variables associated with an adolescent's experience of sexual assault. FINDINGS: In this population 7·2% of adolescent girls reported being raped in the prior twelve months, with 11·1% of these rape victims reporting over five experiences. Among the 21·3% who report having had a boyfriend, 38·1% reported emotional, physical, and/or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV). Boyfriends were identified most often as perpetrators, accounting for 46·3% of reported lifetime rapes. Previous experience of physical (p = <0·001) or emotional (p<0·001) IPV and home violence (p<0·001) were risk factors for being raped, while high self-efficacy (p<0·001) was a protective factor. INTERPRETATION: Sexual assault and GBV are major challenges in this highly-disadvantaged population. Novel prevention efforts are needed for this age group, as prevention is often targeted at older adolescents. Prevention efforts should focus on assaults by perpetrators known to adolescents, especially boyfriends, and may need to account for the adolescents' previous experience of, and exposure to, violence.


Asunto(s)
Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/prevención & control , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Kenia , Masculino , Prevalencia , Violación/prevención & control , Violación/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Delitos Sexuales/prevención & control
10.
J Health Commun ; 24(3): 328-338, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038010

RESUMEN

Alcohol-facilitated sexual assault is a serious problem on college campuses, and bystander intervention has been shown to be a successful method in reducing sexual assaults. Although there are a number of factors associated with individuals' intentions to intervene in sexual assault situations, the media's cultural scripts that link alcohol consumption to sexual success may play a role. Alcohol advertisements, in particular, routinely portray women as sexual objects and often link alcohol consumption to sexual success; therefore, exposure to such content may be negatively associated with people's intentions to intervene in alcohol-facilitated sexual assault situations. Thus, the current study investigated if exposure to and perceptions of objectified images of women in alcoholic beverage advertisements were associated with college students' intentions to intervene in alcohol-facilitated sexual assault situations. Undergraduate college students (N = 1208) were randomly assigned to view three alcohol advertisements that either included highly-objectified or low-objectified women, and then they reported their perceptions of the women in each of the alcohol advertisements and their intentions to intervene in sexual assault situations. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that individuals' perceptions of alcohol advertisements moderate the relationship between exposure to objectifying alcohol advertisements and intentions to intervene in sexual assault situations.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Bebidas Alcohólicas , Intención , Violación/prevención & control , Violación/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos , Universidades , Adulto Joven
13.
J Adolesc Health ; 64(6): 746-752, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850309

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: We identify trajectories of young women's willingness to refuse unwanted sex, assess racial, socioeconomic, and attitudinal variation across trajectory groups, and describe the sexual and relationship behaviors of different trajectory groups. METHODS: Panel data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life study facilitate a latent class analysis identifying trajectories of women's willingness to refuse unwanted sex, followed by bivariate analyses illuminating demographic, attitudinal, experiential, and behavioral correlates of each trajectory. RESULTS: Three trajectories emerge confident (stable high), moderate (slightly declining moderate), and reluctant (low-U). Socially advantaged women were most likely to follow a confident trajectory. Black women, socially disadvantaged women, women with early sexual debut, women with early births, and women who adhere to rape myths were most likely to follow a reluctant trajectory. Women whose trajectory was moderate spent the most time in relationships and had sex most often. CONCLUSIONS: How much young women are willing to refuse unwanted sex and how this willingness changes during the transition to adulthood vary with key characteristics of their demographic background, earlier sexual experiences, and perceptions of rape. The trajectories by which this willingness evolves further correspond with sexual and relationship behaviors during the transition to adulthood. Greater research on whether willingness to refuse unwanted sex affects behavior and/or vice versa is needed to more fully understand the diversity of women's sexual experiences and to develop effective interventions for improving women's willingness to refuse unwanted sex.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Coerción , Grupos de Población Continentales , Violación/prevención & control , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Femenino , Humanos , Conducta Sexual , Adulto Joven
14.
Violence Against Women ; 25(14): 1739-1758, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729867

RESUMEN

This study used a cognitive dissonance mechanism that required college students to write essays dispelling previously endorsed rape myth beliefs. Results indicate that participants in the cognitive dissonance condition reported less rape myth endorsement at a 2-week follow-up than the control group. Effect sizes were large. The cognitive dissonance condition also led to more sustained internal motivation to respond in a nonsexist manner and earlier identification of sexually coercive behavior. Counter-attitudinal advocacy appears to result in sustained decreases in endorsement of rape-supportive attitudes, which could lead to safer communities for women by altering beliefs predictive of sexual assault perpetration.


Asunto(s)
Disonancia Cognitiva , Violación/prevención & control , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivación , Violación/psicología , Violación/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/psicología , Adulto Joven
15.
Violence Against Women ; 25(15): 1783-1805, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672397

RESUMEN

This study used Uganda Demographic Health Survey data (2011) to examine the role of women's empowerment in reducing HIV risk among married women who experienced sexual violence in Uganda. The sample size was 8,674 ever-married women aged 15-49 years. Significant differences were revealed for marital rape, women's empowerment variables, and reducing HIV risk according to sociodemographic characteristics. Women's labor force participation partially mediated the relationship between sexual violence and reducing HIV risk, but decision making did not. Findings highlight the need for the development and implementation of policies and programs to address marital rape and reduce HIV risk within institutions of marriage.


Asunto(s)
Empoderamiento , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Matrimonio/psicología , Violación/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución de Chi-Cuadrado , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Matrimonio/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Violación/psicología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Uganda
16.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 23(4): 108-123, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227746

RESUMEN

Rape is an endemic criminal sexual behaviour in Nigeria and its perpetration not only violates survivors' dignity but also compromises their health and wellbeing. The rape-related data used in this traditional literature review are derived mainly from small-scale surveys conducted in Nigeria. The deviant behaviour could be perpetrated against both males and females of various socio-demographic characteristics; however, it is young females that are disproportionately more affected. The determinants of rape include factors that are associated with adverse social, cultural and economic conditions. In Nigeria the prevention and control of the practice involve stakeholders such as parents, Non-governmental Organisations, religious institutions, government ministries as well as government agencies that constitute the criminal justice system. The criminal justice system uses existing legal statutes on rape to arrest, prosecute, adjudicate, and punish offenders. The barriers to the control and prevention of rape in Nigeria include the following: inappropriate perception; social stigmatization; under-reporting; and cumbersome legal requirements needed to establish a case of rape. Strategies with potentials for curbing rape in the country include public enlightenment, multi-sectoral action, advocacy, amendment of rape-related laws; training targeted at personnel in health care and criminal justice systems and formulation of evidence-based policies.


Asunto(s)
Legislación como Asunto , Violación/prevención & control , Violación/psicología , Estereotipo , Femenino , Humanos , Aplicación de la Ley , Masculino , Nigeria
17.
Ghana Med J ; 53(4): 279-286, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116339

RESUMEN

Background: Non-consensual Sex (NCS) is a worldwide problem with far reaching effects on the survivors. This study explored the experiences of rape and attempted rape (AR) survivors in a tertiary institution in Nigeria. Methods: In-depth interviews with fourteen survivors of rape and AR were used to explore the context of experience of NCS, its consequences and help-seeking. Interviewees consisted two males and five females for each form of NCS who were identified during the quantitative aspect of the study. Interviews were subjected to content analysis. Results: Mean age of the respondents was 22.3±2.5 years. Context of non-consensual sexual experiences varied with sex. Female survivors reported use of physical violence on them by their perpetrators while males reported verbal threats, nudity, forceful hugging and kissing. Means of escape adopted by survivors of AR varied between the sexes. Female AR survivors used physical force as a means of escape while males employed deception/plea. Perpetrators were majorly acquaintances of the survivors. Consequences of the experiences reported include physical injuries and pregnancy among females and psychological disturbances among males. Majority, both males and females did not report, nor seek help due to shame and did not know appropriate methods of preventing future experience. Conclusion: Although both males and females reported they have experienced rape and AR, the context of the experiences and consequences reported varied between both sexes and most did not know how to prevent future experience. This call for urgent development of gender sensitive sexual violence prevention programmes to address this phenomenon. Funding: The study received grant support from The Gates Institute, John Hopkins University Baltimore, USA through The Centre for Population and Reproductive Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Búsqueda de Ayuda , Violación/psicología , Sobrevivientes/psicología , Heridas y Traumatismos/etiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Reacción de Fuga , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/etiología , Nigeria , Embarazo , Embarazo no Deseado , Violación/prevención & control , Vergüenza , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Adulto Joven
18.
J Interpers Violence ; 34(8): 1703-1733, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27296051

RESUMEN

Sexual coercion has gained researchers' attention as an underreported form of sexual abuse or harm. The percentage of male and female college students who reported engaging in sexual coercion was as high as 82% for verbally coercive behaviors over the course of a year. Guided by heterosexual scripting theory and the integrated model of behavioral prediction, we examine potential factors associated with college students' intentions to sexually coerce or to intervene when friends plan to sexually coerce (bystander intention). Factors included young college students' beliefs about rape myth acceptance, perceived norms, efficacy to reduce sexual-assault risk, and exposure to men's and women's magazines. As predicted, results indicate rape myth acceptance was positively associated with intentions to sexually coerce, and negatively associated with bystander intentions to intervene. Students' efficacy to reduce sexual-assault risk was negatively associated with intentions to sexually coerce, and positively associated with bystander intentions. Exposure to the heterosexual scripts in men's magazines, which connect sexual prowess to masculinity, was associated with intentions to sexually coerce. Exposure to magazines was not associated with bystander intentions to intervene. Overall, an understanding of the independent contribution of these factors toward sexual coercion and intervention has implications for dating violence prevention programming.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad , Heterosexualidad/psicología , Violación/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Adulto , Coerción , Femenino , Conducta de Ayuda , Humanos , Intención , Masculino , Masculinidad , Salud del Hombre , Violación/prevención & control , Conducta Sexual , Facilitación Social , Adulto Joven
19.
Sex Abuse ; 31(3): 263-269, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30215294

RESUMEN

In recent years, the problem of campus-based sexual assault has emerged as a prominent matter of concern for institutions of higher education. Amid expanded media attention and a shifting policy landscape, many institutions have grappled with programmatic and legal challenges related to systems of investigation and adjudication of sexual assault cases. Meanwhile, many have worked to develop and deploy proactive preventive measures including those involving bystander engagement, peer-driven interventions, sexual assault awareness campaigns, self-defense programs, and the innovative use of social media and other technology. In this context, there is a growing need for high-quality empirical research that can shed light on the extent and nature of campus sexual assault; evaluate existing institutional systems and processes; and promote the development, testing, and evaluation of novel approaches that respond to unmet needs and challenges. As an introduction to a special journal issue devoted to this nascent but rapidly emerging field of inquiry, this article offers context and perspective on the vital role that research can play in the development and advancement of effective policies and strategies to prevent and effectively respond to campus-based sexual assault.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen , Violación/prevención & control , Delitos Sexuales/prevención & control , Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Sobrevivientes , Femenino , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Paritario , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos
20.
Violence Against Women ; 25(8): 999-1017, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449266

RESUMEN

The current study explores the significance of race and gender on bystander attitudes before and after an online bystander intervention program to prevent sexual assault. A diverse sample of 750 college students participated in an online intervention and participants' perceived bystander intervention ability and intent were assessed. The interaction of participant race and gender had a marginally significant impact on bystander ability and intent baseline scores. Furthermore, when analyzing gain scores from pre- to posttest, there was a significant race by gender interaction. Specifically, Latinx and Black men had higher preintervention scores, and White men had higher gains postintervention. Relevant cultural and social factors and directions for future research are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Efecto Espectador , Identidad de Género , Intención , Factores Raciales/estadística & datos numéricos , Violación/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Percepción , Violación/psicología , Violación/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Enseñanza/psicología , Enseñanza/normas , Enseñanza/estadística & datos numéricos , Universidades/organización & administración , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos
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