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1.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 20, 2021 02 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541357

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is little information on care-seeking patterns for sexual assault and domestic violence during the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this study was to examine the changes in emergency department (ED) admissions for sexual assault and domestic violence since the COVID-19 pandemic was declared. METHODS: Observational ED admissions data from The Ottawa Hospital were analyzed from March 4 to May 5 (62 days) in 2020 (COVID-19 period) and compared to the same period in 2018 (pre-COVID-19). Total and mean weekly admissions were calculated for all-cause ED admissions and for sexual and domestic violence cases. A Poisson regression (without offset term) was used to calculate the weekly case count ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between the two time periods. Case characteristics were compared using chi-square tests, and percent differences were calculated. RESULTS: Compared to pre-COVID-19, total ED admissions dropped by 1111.22 cases per week (32.9% reduction), and the Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence Program cases dropped 4.66 cases per week. The weekly case count ratio for sexual assault cases was 0.47 (95% CI 0.79-0.27), equivalent of 53.49% reduction in cases, and 0.52 (95% CI 0.93-0.29), equivalent to a 48.45% reduction in physical assault cases. The characteristics of presenting cases were similar by age (median 25 years), sex (88.57% female), assault type (57.14% sexual assault, 48.57% physical assault), and location (31.43% patient's home, 40.00% assailant's home). There was a significant increase in psychological abuse (11.69% vs 28.57%) and assaults occurring outdoors (5.19% vs 22.86%). CONCLUSION: This study found a decrease in ED admissions for sexual assault and domestic violence during COVID-19, despite societal conditions that elevate risk of violence. Trends in care-seeking and assault patterns will require ongoing monitoring to inform the provision of optimal support for individuals experiencing violence, particularly as countries begin to re-open or lock-down again.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Violencia Doméstica/tendencias , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/tendencias , Pandemias , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Delitos Sexuales/tendencias , Adulto , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/tendencias , Violencia Doméstica/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Ontario/epidemiología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Adulto Joven
2.
Sci Adv ; 7(6)2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547077

RESUMEN

Despite numerous journalistic accounts, systematic quantitative evidence on economic conditions during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic remains scarce for most low- and middle-income countries, partly due to limitations of official economic statistics in environments with large informal sectors and subsistence agriculture. We assemble evidence from over 30,000 respondents in 16 original household surveys from nine countries in Africa (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Rwanda, Sierra Leone), Asia (Bangladesh, Nepal, Philippines), and Latin America (Colombia). We document declines in employment and income in all settings beginning March 2020. The share of households experiencing an income drop ranges from 8 to 87% (median, 68%). Household coping strategies and government assistance were insufficient to sustain precrisis living standards, resulting in widespread food insecurity and dire economic conditions even 3 months into the crisis. We discuss promising policy responses and speculate about the risk of persistent adverse effects, especially among children and other vulnerable groups.


Asunto(s)
/economía , Países en Desarrollo/economía , Empleo/tendencias , Renta/tendencias , Pandemias/economía , Adulto , África/epidemiología , Agricultura/economía , Asia/epidemiología , Niño , Colombia/epidemiología , Violencia Doméstica , Recesión Económica , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Programas de Gobierno/economía , Humanos , Masculino , Estaciones del Año , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e20200631, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533806

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to know the strategies to cope with domestic violence against women disseminated by digital media at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: a documentary study with a qualitative approach. The search took place from March 11 to April 30, 2020, from four sources: newspapers and online portals, social network, official government pages and third sector portals. Thematic content analysis of the findings was performed. RESULTS: seventy-seven strategies were identified in the journalistic press, 93 in the social network, 45 in government portals and 40 in third sector organizations. From analysis, three empirical categories emerged: Strategies for communication with women; Strategies adopted by customer service; Strategies to inform the population. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: most of strategies were adaptations of existing services, centered on the reporting of violence by women.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Comunicación , Violencia Doméstica/psicología , Difusión de la Información/métodos , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias
6.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591654

RESUMEN

The article presents the results of project targeted to identify specifics of transformation of domestic violence while anti-pandemic measures are in force. The sociological survey was organized on the basis of the Crisis center for women in difficult life situations (Belgorod region, Russia). The sampling consisted of 46 women aged from 20 to 45 years endured domestic violence. The primary information was collected using semi-structured interview technique. Also, semi-structured interviews of experts from among sociologists and crisis center personnel were carried out. It is established that COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted on family relationships. The conditions of forced isolation and anti-pandemic measures observance significantly increase risk of domestic violence.


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Federación de Rusia/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 88, 2021 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509103

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, pregnant women bear considerable physical and psychological stress because of their special conditions, which combined with other stress factors such as violence, makes their situation even more critical. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of domestic violence and its relationship with quality of life in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed with the participation of 250 pregnant women in the obstetrics clinic of 29-Bahman Hospital, Tabriz city. Using a three-part questionnaire consisting of the socio-demographic and obstetrics information, the domestic violence questionnaire developed by WHO, and the SF-12 quality of life questionnaire, the required information was collected. A general linear model was then used to determine the relationship between domestic violence and quality of life, while adjusting the socio-demographic and obstetrics information. RESULTS: According to the data, more than one-third of pregnant women (35.2 %) had experienced domestic violence. The most common type of violence experienced was emotional violence (32.8 %), followed by sexual violence (12.4 %), and physical violence (4.8 %). The mean score of the physical health department of quality of life in the group of women exposed to violence (50.21) was lower compared to the unexposed group (53.45), though there was no significant difference between them (P = 0.25). However, the mean score of the mental health department of quality of life in women exposed to violence (46.27) was significantly lower compared to unexposed women (61.17) (P < 0.001). Based on the general linear model, the mean score for quality of life in the mental health dimension was significantly higher among unexposed women compared to those exposed to violence (ß = 9.3, 95 %CI: 3.5 to 15.0, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicate a high prevalence of domestic violence and its relationship with a low quality of life during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the findings signify the importance of screening pregnant women in terms of domestic violence in respective centers as well as the necessity of conducting proper interventions to address domestic violence to improve the quality of life in women.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Violencia Doméstica/psicología , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Calidad de Vida , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Irán , Salud Mental , Abuso Físico/psicología , Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/psicología , Prevalencia , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
8.
Psico (Porto Alegre) ; 51(3): 33346, 21 jan. 2021.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147701

RESUMEN

El presente estudio ha tenido como objetivo realizar una revisión sistemática y meta-análisis sobre alteraciones en funciones cognitivas en mujeres maltratadas. Se ha contado con una muestra inicial de 643 registros obtenidos de las bases de datos: Medline, ERIC, PsycInfo, CNAIL, Proquest y Scielo. Su análisis llevó a la retención de 12 artículos sobre los que se ha centrado el estudio. Los resultados de la síntesis cualitativa indican que la atención, lenguaje, memoria, habilidades visoespaciales, función ejecutiva, velocidad motora y rendimiento educativo se encuentran alteradas en las mujeres maltratadas, con mayor evidencia de deterioro en las áreas de atención, memoria y funciones ejecutivas. Los resultados del meta-análisis sugieren presencia de daño cerebral en estas mujeres y una especial afectación de la memoria y funciones ejecutivas. Estos resultados avalan la existencia de alteraciones en funciones cognitivas en las mujeres que han sido víctimas de maltrato.


O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão sistemática e meta-análise das alterações nas funções cognitivas em mulheres agredidas. Para arealização do estudo, foi utilizada uma amostra inicial de 643 registos nas bases de dados: Medline, ERIC, PsycInfo, CNAIL, Proquest e Scielo. O procedimentode seleção levou à retenção de 12 artigos nos quais o estudo se centrou. Os resultados da síntese qualitativa indicam que a atenção, a linguagem, a memória, as habilidades visuoespaciais, a função executiva, a velocidade motora e o desempenho educacional estão alterados em mulheres agredidas, com maior evidência de deterioração nas áreas de atenção, memória e funções executivas.Os resultados da meta-análise sugerem a presença de dano cerebral nessas mulheres e um comprometimento especial da memória e das funções executivas. Estes resultados sustentam a existência de alterações nas funções cognitivas das mulheres vítimas de abuso.


The present study aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on alterations in cognitive functions in battered women. We selected an initial sample of 643 records obtained from the databases: Medline, ERIC,PsycInfo, CNAIL, Proquest and Scielo. Following the study selection procedureled to the retention of 12 articles on which the study has focused. The results of the qualitative synthesis indicate that attention, language, memory, visuospatial skills, executive function, motor speed and educational performance are altered in battered women, with greater evidence of deterioration in the areas of attention, memory and executive functions. The results of the meta-analysis suggest presence of brain damage in these women and a special affectation of the memory and executive functions. These results support the existence of alterations in cognitive functions in women who have been victims of abuse.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Mujeres Maltratadas , Mujeres/psicología , Violencia Doméstica
9.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 10, 2021 Jan 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461593

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The Covid-19 pandemic affects maternal health both directly and indirectly, and direct and indirect effects are intertwined. To provide a comprehensive overview on this broad topic in a rapid format behooving an emergent pandemic we conducted a scoping review. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted to compile evidence on direct and indirect impacts of the pandemic on maternal health and provide an overview of the most significant outcomes thus far. Working papers and news articles were considered appropriate evidence along with peer-reviewed publications in order to capture rapidly evolving updates. Literature in English published from January 1st to September 11 2020 was included if it pertained to the direct or indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the physical, mental, economic, or social health and wellbeing of pregnant people. Narrative descriptions were written about subject areas for which the authors found the most evidence. RESULTS: The search yielded 396 publications, of which 95 were included. Pregnant individuals were found to be at a heightened risk of more severe symptoms than people who are not pregnant. Intrauterine, vertical, and breastmilk transmission were unlikely. Labor, delivery, and breastfeeding guidelines for COVID-19 positive patients varied. Severe increases in maternal mental health issues, such as clinically relevant anxiety and depression, were reported. Domestic violence appeared to spike. Prenatal care visits decreased, healthcare infrastructure was strained, and potentially harmful policies implemented with little evidence. Women were more likely to lose their income due to the pandemic than men, and working mothers struggled with increased childcare demands. CONCLUSION: Pregnant women and mothers were not found to be at higher risk for COVID-19 infection than people who are not pregnant, however pregnant people with symptomatic COVID-19 may experience more adverse outcomes compared to non-pregnant people and seem to face disproportionate adverse socio-economic consequences. High income and low- and middle-income countries alike faced significant struggles. Further resources should be directed towards quality epidemiological studies. The Covid-19 pandemic impacts reproductive and perinatal health both directly through infection itself but also indirectly as a consequence of changes in health care, social policy, or social and economic circumstances. The direct and indirect consequences of COVID-19 on maternal health are intertwined. To provide a comprehensive overview on this broad topic we conducted a scoping review. Pregnant women who have symptomatic COVID-19 may experience more severe outcomes than people who are not pregnant. Intrauterine and breastmilk transmission, and the passage of the virus from mother to baby during delivery are unlikely. The guidelines for labor, delivery, and breastfeeding for COVID-19 positive patients vary, and this variability could create uncertainty and unnecessary harm. Prenatal care visits decreased, healthcare infrastructure was strained, and potentially harmful policies are implemented with little evidence in high and low/middle income countries. The social and economic impact of COVID-19 on maternal health is marked. A high frequency of maternal mental health problems, such as clinically relevant anxiety and depression, during the epidemic are reported in many countries. This likely reflects an increase in problems, but studies demonstrating a true change are lacking. Domestic violence appeared to spike. Women were more vulnerable to losing their income due to the pandemic than men, and working mothers struggled with increased childcare demands. We make several recommendations: more resources should be directed to epidemiological studies, health and social services for pregnant women and mothers should not be diminished, and more focus on maternal mental health during the epidemic is needed.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Materna , Salud Materna , Pandemias , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Lactancia Materna , Parto Obstétrico , Violencia Doméstica , Femenino , Equidad de Género , Humanos , Salud Mental , Embarazo
11.
Rev. crim ; 62(3): 65-77, sep.-dic. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144421

RESUMEN

Resumen Esta investigación se ocupa del análisis del inciso 3 del artículo I de la Ley 1959 de 2019 que modifica el artículo 229 de la Ley 599 de 2000 frente al principio constitucional de derecho penal de acto en el ordenamiento jurídico colombiano, siendo este un principio que se proyecta a partir de la Teoría del Garantismo como una garantía de la dignidad humana y el derecho fundamental de la libertad de las personas. Para lograr el objetivo se realizó una investigación eminentemente jurídica, enmarcada en un tipo de estudio correlacional, a través de los métodos del análisis y la síntesis. Se analiza en primer lugar el contenido normativo del principio de derecho penal de acto para determinar el lugar que ocupa dentro del engranaje de las garantías penales en Colombia, después, se identifican los elementos del tipo penal de la violencia intrafamiliar en el ordenamiento jurídico colombiano, luego, se estudian las razones legislativas esgrimidas para establecer la reincidencia en el delito de violencia intrafamiliar. Se concluye que el legislador extralimitó sus funciones y configuró una norma inválida en términos garantistas, lo que implica un desbordamiento de los límites del ius puniendi del Estado.


Abstract This study analyzes subsection 3 of article 1 of Law 1959/2019, which amended article 229 of Law 599/2000, regarding the constitutional criminal principle of action in the Colombian legal system. Said principle is based on the Theory of Guarantees, as a guarantee for human dignity and people's fundamental right to freedom. To this end, a solely juridical study was carried out, in the framework of a study of correlations, using the methods of analysis and synthesis. Firstly, the legal content of the criminal law principle of action is reviewed, in order to determine its place in the framework of criminal guarantees in Colombia. Then, the criminal elements of intra-family violence in the Colombian legal system are identified, to subsequently study the arguments made by the legislators to establish recidivism in the crime of intra-family violence. We conclude by arguing that the legislators overreached their functions and designed a law that is invalid in terms of providing guarantees, which implies going beyond the Government's ius puniendi limits.


Resumo Esta investigação trata da análise do parágrafo 3° do artigo 1 ° da Lei 1959 de 2019 que altera o artigo 229 da Lei 599 de 2000, em relação ao princípio constitucional do direito penal do fato no ordenamento jurídico colombiano, sendo este um princípio projetado a partir da Teoria do Garantismo como garantia da dignidade humana e do direito fundamental da liberdade das pessoas. Para atingir o objetivo, foi realizada uma investigação eminentemente jurídica, enquadrada num tipo de estudo correlacional, através dos métodos de análise e síntese. Em primeiro lugar, analisa-se o conteúdo normativo do princípio do direito penal do fato para determinar o lugar que ocupa dentro do mecanismo de garantias penais na Colômbia. A seguir, são identificados os elementos do tipo penal da violência doméstica no ordenamento jurídico colombiano. Depois, são estudadas as razões legislativas apresentadas para estabelecer a reincidência no crime de violência doméstica. Conclui-se que o legislador extrapolou suas funções e configurou uma norma inválida nos termos de garantistas, o que implica em extravasamento dos limites do ius puniendi do Estado.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Violencia Doméstica , Constitución y Estatutos , Derecho Penal , Reincidencia
12.
BMJ ; 371: m4795, 2020 12 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323386
13.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 44(6): 429-435, 2020 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378467

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To compare the prevalence of parafunctional habits, erosive tooth wear and occurrence of tooth injuries among children being under the care of Social Welfare Centre and children treated in the Department of Children's Dentistry of the Medical University of Warsaw. STUDY DESIGN: The study contains environmental and medical interviews, record-based analysis and clinical examination. Parafunctional habits were rated on the base of dental interviews and clinical examinations. The occlusal surfaces were evaluated by visual examination using modified tooth wear index (TWI). Tooth injuries were reported from a medical interview labeled using Andreasen classification. The consent of the bioethics committee and guardians of children participated in the study was obtained. RESULTS: The study involved 782 patients, including 404 children from dysfunctional families (average age 11,4 ± 3,7) and 378 from ordinary families-control group (8,53 ± 3,92). In the study group we observed higher prevalence of erosive tooth wear (44,66% vs 18,02% p=0,000), dental trauma (9,4% vs 3,44% p=0,001) and a presence of parafunctional habits (67,8% vs 20,4 % p=0,000). CONCLUSION: The occurrence of parafunctional habits, erosive tooth wear and tooth injuries may be an indicator of domestic violence and a component of maltreated child syndrome.


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica , Erosión de los Dientes , Traumatismos de los Dientes , Desgaste de los Dientes , Adolescente , Niño , Hábitos , Humanos , Prevalencia , Erosión de los Dientes/epidemiología , Erosión de los Dientes/etiología , Traumatismos de los Dientes/epidemiología , Desgaste de los Dientes/epidemiología , Desgaste de los Dientes/etiología
14.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 39: e2020267, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146295

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Social isolation is currently identified as the best way to prevent the infection by the new coronavirus. However, for some social groups, such as children and adolescents, this measure carries a contradiction: the home, which should be the safest place for them, is also a frequent environment of a sad aggravation: domestic violence. This study aims to evaluate the notifications of interpersonal/self-inflicted violence available in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases in the State of Santa Catarina (southern Brazil), for the juvenile age group, before and during the new coronavirus pandemics. METHODS: Cross-sectional, descriptive study of violence against children and adolescents (from 0 to 19 years) notified by health professionals by completing and entering the occurrence in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases of the State of Santa Catarina in 11 weeks in which the social isolation measure was instituted as mandatory, comparing with the same period before this measure. RESULTS: During the study period, 136 municipalities in Santa Catarina made 1,851 notifications. There was a decrease of 55.3% of them in the isolation period, and the difficulties encountered in seeking protection and assistance institutions were listed. CONCLUSIONS: The society needs to be aware of possible cases of violence in the children and adolescent population. It is important to provide accessible, effective, and safe ways for complaints and notifications, as well as a quick response to the cases, aiming at protecting victims and minimizing damages to prevent the perpetuation of the violence.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños , Bienestar del Niño , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Violencia Doméstica , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adolescente , Salud del Adolescente/tendencias , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud del Niño/tendencias , Estudios Transversales , Recolección de Datos/métodos , Recolección de Datos/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia Doméstica/prevención & control , Violencia Doméstica/tendencias , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Evaluación de Necesidades , Pandemias
15.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241658, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147259

RESUMEN

New Zealand's early response to the novel coronavirus pandemic included a strict lockdown which eliminated community transmission of COVID-19. However, this success was not without cost, both economic and social. In our study, we examined the psychological wellbeing of New Zealanders during the COVID-19 lockdown when restrictions reduced social contact, limited recreation opportunities, and resulted in job losses and financial insecurity. We conducted an online panel survey of a demographically representative sample of 2010 adult New Zealanders in April 2020. The survey contained three standardised measures-the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), the GAD-7, and the Well-Being Index (WHO-5)-as well as questions designed specifically to measure family violence, suicidal ideation, and alcohol consumption. It also included items assessing positive aspects of the lockdown. Thirty percent of respondents reported moderate to severe psychological distress (K10), 16% moderate to high levels of anxiety, and 39% low wellbeing; well above baseline measures. Poorer outcomes were seen among young people and those who had lost jobs or had less work, those with poor health status, and who had past diagnoses of mental illness. Suicidal ideation was reported by 6%, with 2% reporting making plans for suicide and 2% reporting suicide attempts. Suicidality was highest in those aged 18-34. Just under 10% of participants had directly experienced some form of family harm over the lockdown period. However, not all consequences of the lockdown were negative, with 62% reporting 'silver linings', which included enjoying working from home, spending more time with family, and a quieter, less polluted environment. New Zealand's lockdown successfully eliminated COVID-19 from the community, but our results show this achievement brought a significant psychological toll. Although much of the debate about lockdown measures has focused on their economic effects, our findings emphasise the need to pay equal attention to their effects on psychological wellbeing.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Violencia Doméstica/psicología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Suicidio/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/virología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Depresión/virología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nueva Zelanda/epidemiología , Distrés Psicológico , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/virología , Adulto Joven
16.
Dent Traumatol ; 36(6): 685-691, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245628

RESUMEN

Domestic violence against women remains one of the most difficult obstacles in the growth of civilization. The maxillofacial region is commonly involved, and injuries are complex to characterize and manage due to diverse presentations, underlying physiological changes and sometimes an association with pregnancy complications, creating a challenge for the operating surgeon. This case report discusses the clinical presentation of maxillofacial injuries sustained by a pregnant woman who also had obstetric complications. The management of such trauma by a multidisciplinary squad led by the maxillofacial surgery team is outlined. Increasing awareness among oral healthcare providers for the early identification of interpersonal abuse along with timely intervention and adequate referral is important. Close monitoring and follow-up are also mandatory.


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica , Traumatismos Maxilofaciales , Femenino , Humanos , Traumatismos Maxilofaciales/diagnóstico , Traumatismos Maxilofaciales/terapia , Embarazo
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e24361, 2020 11 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108315

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Family violence (including intimate partner violence/domestic violence, child abuse, and elder abuse) is a hidden pandemic happening alongside COVID-19. The rates of family violence are rising fast, and women and children are disproportionately affected and vulnerable during this time. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide a large-scale analysis of public discourse on family violence and the COVID-19 pandemic on Twitter. METHODS: We analyzed over 1 million tweets related to family violence and COVID-19 from April 12 to July 16, 2020. We used the machine learning approach Latent Dirichlet Allocation and identified salient themes, topics, and representative tweets. RESULTS: We extracted 9 themes from 1,015,874 tweets on family violence and the COVID-19 pandemic: (1) increased vulnerability: COVID-19 and family violence (eg, rising rates, increases in hotline calls, homicide); (2) types of family violence (eg, child abuse, domestic violence, sexual abuse); (3) forms of family violence (eg, physical aggression, coercive control); (4) risk factors linked to family violence (eg, alcohol abuse, financial constraints, guns, quarantine); (5) victims of family violence (eg, the LGBTQ [lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning] community, women, women of color, children); (6) social services for family violence (eg, hotlines, social workers, confidential services, shelters, funding); (7) law enforcement response (eg, 911 calls, police arrest, protective orders, abuse reports); (8) social movements and awareness (eg, support victims, raise awareness); and (9) domestic violence-related news (eg, Tara Reade, Melissa DeRosa). CONCLUSIONS: This study overcomes limitations in the existing scholarship where data on the consequences of COVID-19 on family violence are lacking. We contribute to understanding family violence during the pandemic by providing surveillance via tweets. This is essential for identifying potentially useful policy programs that can offer targeted support for victims and survivors as we prepare for future outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Violencia Doméstica/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Aprendizaje Automático no Supervisado , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia Doméstica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Femenino , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/legislación & jurisprudencia , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/estadística & datos numéricos
19.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 117(31-32): 534-541, 2020 Aug 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087241

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), intimate partner violence is among the major risks to women's health around the world. Men, too, can be victims of domestic violence; like female victims, they tend to present initially with their injuries to a family physician or an emergency room. Domestic violence against men is thus a relevant issue for physicians of all specialties. METHODS: This review is based on publications retrieved by a comprehensive, selective search in the PubMed database and with the Google Scholar search service, as well as on a retrospective analysis of data on the injured persons, the aggressors, and the nature of the violence that was experienced and the injuries that were sustained. RESULTS: The studies identified by the search yielded prevalence rates of 3.4% to 20.3% for domestic physical violence against men. Most of the affected men had been violent toward their partners themselves. 10.6-40% of them reported having been abused or maltreated as children. Alcohol abuse, jealousy, mental illness, physical impairment, and short relationship duration are all associated with a higher risk of being a victim of domestic violence. The reported consequences of violence include mostly minor physical injuries, impaired physical health, mental health problems such as anxiety or a disruptive disorder, and increased consumption of alcohol and/or illegal drugs. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of violence against men and the risk factors for it have been little studied to date. It would be desirable for preventive measures to be further developed and for special help to be made available to the affected men.


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Parejas Sexuales
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