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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 77-84, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-190652

RESUMEN

Motivational strategies are among the most promising approaches to improve the effectiveness of batterer intervention programs (BIPs). An individualized motivational plan (IMP) is one of these motivational strategies. The present study aimed to explore whether adding an IMP to a standard BIP improved the participant-facilitator working alliance and participants' protherapeutic behaviors. To this end a randomized controlled trial was conducted. One hundred fifty-three men convicted of intimate partner violence were randomly assigned to either a standard BIP (control condition, n = 79) or a standard BIP plus IMP (experimental condition, n = 74). Working alliance (i.e., general working alliance, agreement, and bond) was assessed with the Working Alliance Inventory-Observer, short version. Protherapeutic behaviors (i.e., assumption of responsibility, participant role behavior, and group value) were assessed with the Observational Coding of Protherapeutic Group Behavior. Both working alliance and protherapeutic behaviors were assessed by an external observer early and late in intervention. Our results showed that both general working alliance and agreement and bond, were significantly higher in the standard BIP plus IMP intervention condition, both early and late in intervention. All protherapeutic behaviors were significantly higher in the standard BIP plus IMP early in intervention, and also late in intervention for assumption of responsibility and group value. Our findings have important practical implications as our results clearly showed that a motivational strategy tool such as the IMP improves key intervention processes (i.e., working alliance and protherapeutic behaviors) in BIPs, therefore increasing their effectiveness


Las estrategias motivacionales se encuentran entre los enfoques más prometedores para mejorar la eficacia de los programas de intervención con maltratadores. El plan motivacional individualizado (PMI) es una de estas estrategias motivacionales. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo explorar si añadir un plan motivacional individualizado a un programa estándar de intervención con maltratadores mejora la alianza de trabajo facilitador-participante y la conducta proterapéutica de los participantes. Para ello se realizó un ensayo clínico aleatorizado. Ciento cincuenta y tres hombres condenados por violencia de género fueron asignados aleatoriamente bien a un programa estándar de intervención con maltratadores (condición control, n = 79) o bien a un programa estándar de intervención con maltratadores más PMI (condición experimental, n = 74). La alianza de trabajo (i.e., alianza general, acuerdo y vínculo) se evaluó con la versión breve del Working Alliance Inventory-Observer. Las conductas proterapéuticas (i.e., asunción de responsabilidad, rol conductual del participante y valoración del grupo) fueron evaluadas con el Observational Coding of Protherapeutic Group Behavior. Tanto la alianza de trabajo como las conductas proterapéuticas fueron evaluadas por un observador externo al principio y al final de la intervención. Los resultados mostraron que tanto la alianza de trabajo general como el acuerdo y el vínculo fueron significativamente mayores en la condición experimental, tanto al principio como al final de la intervención. La expresión de todas las conductas proterapéuticas al inicio de la intervención fue significativamente mayor en la condición experimental, así como al final de la intervención para la asunción de responsabilidad y la valoración del grupo. Los resultados tienen importantes implicaciones prácticas, puesto que muestran con claridad que una estrategia motivacional como el PMI mejora procesos clave de la intervención con maltratadores (i.e., la alianza de trabajo y las conductas proterapéuticas), mejorando por lo tanto la efectividad de estos programas


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Violencia de Género/prevención & control , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Procesos de Grupo , Motivación , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Factores Socioeconómicos
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751890

RESUMEN

Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been declared a global epidemic by the World Health Organization. Although the attention paid to both the perpetrators and victims of gender-based violence has increased, scientific research is still lacking in regard to the representations of operators involved in interventions and management. Therefore, the following study explores how the representations of operators affect how gender violence can be managed and combatted through an ecological approach to this phenomenon, in addition to highlighting the roles of organizational-level services and their cultural and symbolic substrates. In total, 35 health and social professionals were interviewed and textual materials were analyzed by thematic analysis. The evidence suggests that services contrasting gender-based violence utilize different representations and management approaches. The authors hope that these differences can become a resource, rather than a limitation, when combatting gender-based violence through the construction of more integrated networks and a greater dialogue among different services, in order to make interventions designed to combat gender-based violence more effective.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Género , Personal de Salud , Violencia de Pareja , Servicio Social , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Femenino , Violencia de Género/prevención & control , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/prevención & control , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos de Investigación , Violencia
5.
Index enferm ; 29(1/2): 51-55, ene.-jun. 2020. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-197427

RESUMEN

La Mutilación Genital Femenina (MGF) es considerada un tipo de violencia de género. Se realiza generalmente en la infancia, afectando gravemente la salud de estas niñas y mujeres. OBJETIVO PRINCIPAL: analizar los protocolos sanitarios creados para prevenir la MGF en España. METODOLOGÍA: Se ha realizado una búsqueda documental consultando las webs oficiales del gobierno central y de las Comunidades Autónomas. Se incluyeron protocolos sobre la actuación y prevención ante la MGF. RESULTADOS PRINCIPALES: 5 guías fueron seleccionadas tras excluir protocolos que no fueran exclusivamente sanitarios y aquellos anteriores al 2009. Estas guías comparten pautas de prevención para profesionales de la salud en función de la edad de la niña en riesgo. CONCLUSIÓN PRINCIPAL: para prevenir la MGF, las guías analizadas defienden una formación sanitaria transversal, incluyendo aspectos éticos y jurídicos. Proponen recursos para realizar la entrevista y pautas de actuación según edad


OBJECTIVE: Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is considered a type of gender-based violence. It is usually done in childhood, seriously affecting the health of these girls and women. The objective of this work is to analyze the health protocols created to prevent FGM in Spain. METHODS: A documentary research has been carried out by consulting the official websites of the central government and the Autonomous Regions. Spanish protocols on action and prevention against FGM were included. RESULTS: 5 guides were selected after excluding protocols that were not exclusively sanitary and those prior to 2009. These guides share prevention guidelines for health professionals based on the age of the girl at risk. CONCLUSIONS: In order to prevent FGM, the analyzed guides defend transversal health training, including ethical and legal aspects. They propose resources to conduct the interview and guidelines for action according to age


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Circuncisión Femenina/enfermería , Violencia de Género/prevención & control , Protocolos/análisis , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Atención Primaria de Salud , Evaluación de Resultados de Acciones Preventivas , Evaluación en Enfermería , Personal de Salud/normas , Grupos de Riesgo
6.
Dev World Bioeth ; 20(2): 65-68, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267607

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic exposes underlying inequalities in our socio-economic and health systems, such as gender-based violence (GBV). In emergencies, particularly ones that involve quarantine, GBV often increases. Policymakers must utilize community expertise, technology and existing global guidelines to disrupt these trends in the early stages of the COVID-19 epidemic. Gender norms and roles relegating women to the realm of care work puts them on the frontlines in an epidemic, while often excluding them from developing the response. It is critical to value women's roles in society and include their voices in the decision-making process to avoid unintended consequences and ensure a comprehensive response that caters to the needs of the most vulnerable groups.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Violencia de Género , Política de Salud , Violencia de Pareja , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Femenino , Violencia de Género/prevención & control , Recursos en Salud/provisión & distribución , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/prevención & control , Pandemias
7.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231644, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315332

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Gender-based violence is a global public health crisis, which has health, social, and economic impacts on survivors. In Ghana, responding to and preventing sexual violence on university campuses, has become a priority area. However, data are lacking on the healthcare provider response to students who have experienced sexual violence. The purpose of this study was to conduct a situational analysis to better understand the healthcare provider response to sexual violence in Cape Coast, Ghana. METHODS: First, an observational facility assessment about healthcare services for survivors of sexual violence was conducted at two hospitals serving university students in Cape Coast, Ghana. Next, healthcare providers at the two hospitals completed: 1) a 113-item questionnaire about healthcare services, knowledge, and attitudes related to sexual violence and 2) in-depth semi-structured interviews describing their experiences providing healthcare to survivors of sexual violence. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were computed, and thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. RESULTS: Both sites lacked supplies, including pre-packed rape kits, post-exposure HIV prophylaxis, and informational handouts on medications and support services for survivors. Further, healthcare providers lacked training on gender-based violence, including best practices for caring for survivors and evidence collection procedures. Providers described the clinical management for survivors of sexual violence, including providers' role in reporting sexual violence to authorities, medical forensic exams, reproductive and sexual health services, and referral for mental healthcare. Finally, providers described a number of barriers to survivors accessing post-assault healthcare, including stigma and structural barriers, such as cost of medical supplies and lack of privacy within the healthcare facilities. CONCLUSIONS: The current healthcare response to sexual violence in Ghana is limited by lack of supplies, knowledge, and training for healthcare providers. Personal and structural barriers may prevent survivors from accessing needed healthcare following sexual violence.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Género/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/prevención & control , Adulto , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Femenino , Violencia de Género/psicología , Ghana/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Hospitales , Humanos , Masculino , Violación/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Sobrevivientes/psicología
9.
JAMA Pediatr ; 174(3): 241-249, 2020 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930358

RESUMEN

Importance: Adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) and sexual violence (SV) reported among adolescents point to the need for prevention among middle school-age youths. Objective: To test an athletic coach-delivered relationship abuse and sexual violence prevention program among middle school male athletes. Design, Setting, and Participants: An unblinded cluster randomized clinical trial from spring 2015 to fall 2017 at 41 middle schools (38 clusters). The study included 973 male middle school athletes (ages 11-14 years; grades 6-8; participation rate 50%) followed up for 1 year (retention 86%). Interventions: Coaching Boys Into Men (CBIM) is a prevention program that trains athletic coaches to talk to male athletes about (1) respectful relationship behaviors, (2) promoting more gender-equitable attitudes, and (3) positive bystander intervention when harmful behaviors among peers are witnessed. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in positive bystander behaviors (ie, intervening in peers' disrespectful or harmful behaviors); secondary outcomes were changes in recognition of what constitutes abusive behavior, intentions to intervene, gender-equitable attitudes, and reduction in recent ARA/SV perpetration (at end of sports season and 1-year follow up). Results: Of the 973 participants, 530 were white (54.5%), 282 were black (29.0%), 14 were Hispanic (1.4%), and the remainder were multiracial, other race/ethnicity, or not reported. Positive bystander behaviors increased at end of sports season and at 1-year follow-up (relative risk, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.06-2.16 and 1.53; 95% CI, 1.10-2.12, respectively) as did recognition of abuse (mean risk difference, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.01-0.27 and 0.14; 95% CI, 0.00-0.28, respectively). At 1-year follow-up, among those who ever dated, athletes on teams receiving CBIM had lower odds of reporting recent ARA/SV perpetration (odds ratio, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.09-0.65). Gender attitudes and intentions to intervene did not differ between study arms. In exploratory intensity-adjusted and per protocol analyses, athletes on teams receiving CBIM were more likely to report positive bystander behaviors and to endorse equitable gender attitudes and less likely to report ARA and sexual harassment perpetration 1 year later. Conclusions and Relevance: An athletic coach-delivered program for middle school male athletes is an effective strategy for reducing relationship abuse among younger adolescents. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02331238.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/educación , Violencia de Género/prevención & control , Mentores , Servicios de Salud Escolar/organización & administración , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente , Análisis por Conglomerados , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Modelos Educacionales , Grupo Paritario , Pennsylvania
11.
Violence Against Women ; 25(16): 2024-2046, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718530

RESUMEN

This article is a conversation between two academic experts, Callie Rennison and Nikki Jones, who endeavor to sum up what has been accomplished in eliminating violence against women in the United States during the 25 years of the journal's existence. Domestic violence, rape, and sexual harassment are discussed. Although prevalence rates are down in domestic violence, rape and sexual harassment remain persistent problems. Looking at violence against women from an analysis of President Trump voters in the 2016 U.S. presidential election, Rennison and Jones observe the extent to which the current ideas and attitudes of women-both young and old-will need to change before violence can be eliminated. Rather than viewing events in the United States as totally negative, they see them as presenting new opportunities for greater understanding of violence against women and for new methods of prevention and perpetrator accountability.


Asunto(s)
Becas/métodos , Violencia de Género/tendencias , Defensa del Paciente/psicología , Investigación/tendencias , Violencia de Género/prevención & control , Violencia de Género/psicología , Humanos , Defensa del Paciente/tendencias
13.
Violence Against Women ; 25(14): 1635-1656, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640536

RESUMEN

The World Health Organization encourages a "gender transformative" paradigm for preventing violence against women and girls. Gender transformative interventions engage men and boys to reflect critically on-and then to challenge and change-gender-inequitable attitudes and behaviors. To interpret the mixed findings of research evaluating such programs, we review the "social norms" model that informs the paradigm. We bolster the paradigmatic conceptualization of social norms through insights about how exposure to trauma shapes gendered patterns of victimization and perpetration, about gendered violence from research on homophobic bullying, and about transforming local regimes of gender accountability.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Género/prevención & control , Acoso Escolar/psicología , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Violencia de Género/psicología , Humanos
15.
Eval Program Plann ; 77: 101721, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606720

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Our goal was to determine whether an economic and social empowerment intervention implemented in Zambézia Province, Mozambique reduced girls' vulnerability to HIV. We use this experience to discuss challenges of evaluating real-world interventions. METHODS: Two rounds of data were collected from 885 girls, 13-19 years, for this clustered, non-equivalent (two-stage) cohort trial. We used multi-level exact matching and difference-in-differences estimation to estimate intervention effects on two outcomes: girls' knowledge of gender-based violence and school attendance. RESULTS: Estimates of two outcomes analysed indicated no statistically significant intervention effects. Preliminary analysis of data from the intervention group revealed this study was unable to obtain accurate measures for five outcomes related to HIV vulnerability. CONCLUSIONS: Although our study did not find evidence of impact on the a priori selected outcomes, we report on our experience implementing this robust methodologic design and describe how the challenges encountered in this program setting affected our ability to attain results. We recommend prospective evaluation designs with random allocation be accommodated early during planning. When not possible, quasi-experimental studies should collect data from large samples. To reduce measurement bias, biological endpoints such sexually transmitted infections should serve as primary outcomes for programs intending to reduce sexual behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Empoderamiento , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Adolescente , Femenino , Violencia de Género/prevención & control , Violencia de Género/psicología , Infecciones por VIH/etiología , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Mozambique/epidemiología , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Adulto Joven
16.
Bioethics ; 33(8): 908-913, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532848

RESUMEN

This article reflects on the challenges of developing academic research that is undertaken to create social change. I describe the ways that my research has been generated and guided by activism. Even though the descriptor of my research interests is generally gender-based violence and mental health, my research is situated within an ongoing political discourse that fundamentally opposes and normatively challenges ideologies such as those implemented at a governmental level during the Taliban regime in Afghanistan that continue to have power over Afghan women's lives. I critique the emergence of two research projects that work with women survivors of violence and develop trauma therapeutic interventions using traditional storytelling. My positionality as a woman of Muslim origin and an academic in the U.K. resulted in inescapable juxtapositions and the necessary blurring of the boundaries between personal and professional viewpoints as well as highlighting the potency of traumatic stories in contexts of conflict, oppression, silencing and marginalization. I go on to explain why I have a moral obligation as an ethicist working in global health, with resources and expertise, to systematically develop my research questions and objectives in accordance with the end-goal of tackling and deconstructing harmful ideologies and practices towards women and girls in societies marred by the violent complexities of national and international conflicts.


Asunto(s)
Bioética , Violencia de Género/ética , Violencia de Género/prevención & control , Derechos Humanos/ética , Activismo Político , Sexismo/ética , Adolescente , Adulto , Afganistán , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reino Unido , Adulto Joven
17.
Eval Program Plann ; 77: 101715, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539645

RESUMEN

Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of gender-based violence (GBV) programs is challenging in humanitarian settings. To address these challenges, we used SenseMaker® as a mixed methods M&E tool for GBV services and programs in Lebanon. Over a three-month period in 2018, a total of 198 self-interpreted stories were collected from women and girls accessing GBV programs from six service providers across five locations. The resultant mixed-methods analysis provided holistic and nuanced insights on how perceived benefits differed by type of GBV program, how motivations for accessing programs differed by location, and how feelings while accessing programs differed by participant nationality. SenseMaker reinforced the intersectionality between events leading up to the accessed services, the experiences of accessing the services, and subsequent outcomes as a result of having accessed the services, helping to contextualize the findings within the broader experiences of participating women and girls. Limited literacy and technology skills among participants proved to be a challenge and future work should investigate how technology might facilitate use of the tool among participants with lower literacy and technology skills in addition to exploring the feasibility and added value of SenseMaker as an M&E tool in acute humanitarian settings.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Género/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Violencia de Género/psicología , Violencia de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Refugiados/educación , Refugiados/psicología , Siria/etnología , Adulto Joven
18.
AIDS ; 33(14): 2219-2236, 2019 11 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373916

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE(S): This study explored the effectiveness of gender-based violence (GBV) interventions on young people living with or affected by HIV in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We pre-registered a protocol, then searched 13 databases and grey literature. We screened randomized and quasi-experimental studies (n = 2199) of young people (aged 10-24) living with or affected by HIV in LMICs. Outcomes were GBV and/or GBV-related attitudes. We appraised the data for risk of bias and quality of evidence. Narrative syntheses and multilevel random effects meta-analyses were conducted. RESULTS: We included 18 studies evaluating 21 interventions. Intervention arms were categorized as: sexual health and social empowerment (SHSE; n = 7); SHSE combined with economic strengthening (n = 4); self-defence (n = 3); safer schools (n = 2); economic strengthening only (n = 2); GBV sensitization (n = 2) and safer schools and parenting (n = 1). Risk of bias was moderate/high and quality of evidence low. Narrative syntheses indicated promising effects on GBV exposure, but no or mixed effects on GBV perpetration and attitudes for self-defence and GBV sensitization interventions. Safer school interventions showed no effects. For SHSE interventions and SHSE combined with economic strengthening, meta-analyses showed a small reduction in GBV exposure but not perpetration. Economic-only interventions had no overall effect. CONCLUSION: SHSE, SHSE plus and self-defence and gender sensitization interventions may be effective for GBV exposure and GBV-related attitudes but not for GBV perpetration. However, the quality of evidence is poor. Future intervention research must include both boys and girls, adolescents living with HIV and key populations.


Asunto(s)
Países en Desarrollo , Violencia de Género/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Servicios de Salud Escolar/organización & administración , Adolescente , Niño , Humanos , Pobreza , Instituciones Académicas , Adulto Joven
19.
Violence Against Women ; 25(11): 1352-1369, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379292

RESUMEN

Faculty have played an important role in the ongoing efforts to confront gender-based violence on college campuses, as teachers, researchers, advocates, and policy advisors. Nevertheless, few institutions have welcomed faculty activism on this issue, especially when it took the form of vocal support for survivor-led efforts to transform campus policies and culture. This article examines the nature and scope of faculty involvement in confronting gender-based violence on college campuses across North America between 2014 and 2018. Our analysis of the range of roles and responsibilities faculty have assumed and the challenges and obstacles they have faced is informed by our own involvement with the U.S.-based group, Faculty Against Rape (FAR), which is dedicated to supporting faculty involvement in confronting gender-based violence on campus. Informed by the context of the #MeToo and #TimesUp movements on one hand, and the changes in Federal and State protections for student survivors in the Trump-DeVos era on the other, the article concludes with a list of best practices for faculty involvement.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Conductista/métodos , Docentes/psicología , Violencia de Género/psicología , Terapia Conductista/estadística & datos numéricos , Docentes/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia de Género/prevención & control , Violencia de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Universidades/organización & administración , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos
20.
Violence Against Women ; 25(11): 1370-1387, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379293

RESUMEN

This article explores the intersection of teaching about gender-based violence and contingent employment. Drawing upon Patricia Hill Collins's (1986) theory of the outsider-within to illuminate how power differentials, access, and resources as insiders or outsiders shape knowledge production and ways of knowing, seeing, and being, the author applies this lens to the experience of contingent faculty. Relying on perspectives in feminist pedagogy, autoethnographic methods, and case studies of students studying trauma, this article exposes layers of personal and institutional brokenness. In delving into the connection of emotion and social structure, this article is intended for people interested in higher education's role and responsibility in preventing and responding to gender-based violence, the emotional life of the classroom, feminist pedagogy on trauma, mental health crisis in higher education, and overreliance on contingent laborers in higher education.


Asunto(s)
Educación/métodos , Empleo/métodos , Docentes/clasificación , Violencia de Género/prevención & control , Educación/tendencias , Empleo/psicología , Docentes/psicología , Docentes/normas , Femenino , Feminismo , Violencia de Género/psicología , Humanos , Distrés Psicológico , Estudiantes/psicología
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