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2.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1372-1392, out.-dez. 2019.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-995106

RESUMEN

En el presente artículo se reconstruye la trama específica en la que surgió la categoría mujer golpeada en la psicología argentina, en una peculiar circulación entre sociedad civil y Estado. Desde el enfoque de la historia crítica de la psicología junto a los aportes de la historia reciente, se analiza el proceso de recepción que se produjo en el escenario local, en el entrecruzamiento de la agenda de los derechos humanos con el ideario feminista. Se analiza cómo la violencia de género fue incluida en la agenda gubernamental, en los espacios de activismo feminista y en la producción teórica de la psicología. Se da cuenta de las solidaridades y diferencias entre estos ámbitos, poniendo en evidencia los entramados representacionales y valorativos implicados en los usos de diferentes categorías.(AU)


Neste artigo, reconstruímos a maneira como a categoria mulher maltratada surgiu na psicologia argentina, numa circulação peculiar entre a sociedade civil e o Estado. A partir da abordagem da história crítica da psicologia com as contribuições da história recente, analisamos a recepção no cenário local, na interligação da agenda de direitos humanos com o ideário feminista. Analisamos como a violência de gênero foi incluída na agenda governamental, no ativismo feminista e na produção teórica da psicologia. Incluímos a solidariedade e as diferenças entre essas áreas, levando em conta as representações e valores envolvidos nos usos das diferentes categorias.(AU)


In this article, we reconstruct the way in which the battered woman category emerged in Argentine psychology, in a peculiar circulation between civil society and the State. From the approach of the critical history of psychology to the contributions of recent history, we analyze the reception in the local scene, in the interconnection of the human rights agenda with the feminist ideology. We analyzed how gender violence was included in the governmental agenda, in feminist activism and in the theoretical production of psychology. We include solidarity and the differences between these areas, taking into account the representations and values involved in the uses of the different categories.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Violencia contra la Mujer , Violencia de Género/psicología , Psicología/historia , Mujeres Maltratadas/psicología
3.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 27(2): 1665161, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589098

RESUMEN

In March 2011, the Myanmar Government transitioned to a nominally civilian parliamentary government, resulting in dramatic increases in international investments and tenuous peace in some regions. In March 2015, Community Partners International, the Women's Refugee Commission, and four community-based organisations (CBOs) assessed community-based sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services in eastern Myanmar amidst the changing political contexts in Myanmar and Thailand. The team conducted 12 focus group discussions among women of reproductive age (18-49 years) with children under five and interviewed 12 health workers in Kayin State, Myanmar. In Mae Sot and Chiang Mai, Thailand, the team interviewed 20 representatives of CBOs serving the border regions. Findings are presented through the socioecological lens to explore gender-based violence (GBV) specifically, to examine continued and emerging issues in the context of the political transition. Cited GBV includes ongoing sexual violence/rape by the military and in the community, trafficking, intimate partner violence, and early marriage. Despite the political transition, women continue to be at risk for military sexual violence, are caught in the burgeoning economic push-pull drivers, and experience ongoing restrictive gender norms, with limited access to SRH services. There is much fluidity, along with many connections and interactions among the contributing variables at all levels of the socioecological model; based on a multisectoral response, continued support for innovative, community-based SRH services that include medical and psychosocial care are imperative for ethnic minority women to gain more agency to freely exercise their SR rights.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Género/psicología , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Normas Sociales , Adolescente , Adulto , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Violencia de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mianmar , Política , Investigación Cualitativa , Salud Reproductiva , Servicios de Salud Reproductiva , Salud Sexual , Adulto Joven
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(7): 2531-2542, 2019 Jul 22.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340271

RESUMEN

This article analyzes the effect of violence against women on their self-perception of health, based on the population of Brazilian women aged between 20 and 49 years of age, using data from the 2013 National Health Survey. The results indicate that more than 80% of women who suffered violence caused by an individual in the last 12 months prior to the survey, reported the most severe being psychological and/or physical aggression. The worst health reports were higher among women who reported violence suffered at the hands of a person known to them, in the case of residents in rural areas. With respect to residents of urban locations, there were reports of violence perpetrated by an unknown aggressor. Based on these results, it can be inferred that women who are victims of violence have a worse self-perception of health vis-à-vis those who were not victims of violence.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Género/psicología , Estado de Salud , Autoimagen , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(7): 2659-2666, 2019 Jul 22.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340283

RESUMEN

The scope of this study is to analyze the social representations of the male aggressor from the perspective of the female victim of aggression. It is a qualitative and representational study conducted, using free narrative as the data-gathering tool, with twenty women who were under the protection of the Reference Center in Natal in the State of Rio Grande do Norte. ALCESTE 2010 software was used to analyze the textual data. Three thematic categories were developed for the purpose: i) The imprisonment of women; ii) Violence and its significance; iii) Breaking the cycle of violence. From the perspective of the female victim of aggression, the social representations of the behavior of the male aggressor are entrenched in the social role of males in the family and in society. In this way, it represents a model of dominant masculinity that in turn reinforces family structures and the repetition of roles.


Asunto(s)
Agresión/psicología , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Violencia de Género/psicología , Percepción Social , Adulto , Recolección de Datos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidad
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 897, 2019 Jul 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286914

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While gender-based violence (GBV) has been shown to increase women's risk of HIV acquisition, the role of GBV in the HIV testing to care continuum is less clear. Clarifying how GBV may act as a barrier to accessing HIV services, treatment and care - such as anti-retroviral treatment (ART) or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) - will not only provide insights into how to best meet individual women's HIV care needs, but also inform public health oriented HIV epidemic control strategies. METHODS: Through a comprehensive scoping review, we synthesized and analyzed existing evidence regarding the influence of GBV on engagement in PrEP and the HIV care continuum among women living with HIV, including members of key populations (female sex workers, transgender women and women who use drugs). We explored PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science for peer-reviewed studies published in 2003-2017. Of the 279 sources identified, a subset of 51 sources met the criteria and were included in the scoping review. RESULTS: Studies were identified from 17 countries. The majority of studies utilized quantitative cross-sectional designs (n = 33), with the rest using longitudinal (n = 4), qualitative (n = 10) or mixed methods (n = 4) designs. Taken together, findings suggest that GBV impedes women's uptake of HIV testing, care, and treatment, yet this can vary across different geographic and epidemic settings. Substantial gaps in the literature do still exist, including studies on the impact of GBV on engagement in PrEP, and research among key populations. CONCLUSIONS: This scoping review contributes to our knowledge regarding the role GBV plays in women's engagement in PrEP and the HIV care continuum. Findings reveal the need for more longitudinal research to provide insights into the causal pathways linking GBV and HIV care and treatment outcomes. Research is also needed to illuminate the impact of GBV on PrEP use and adherence as well as the impact of GBV on engagement along the HIV care continuum among key populations. It is critical that programs and research keep pace with these findings in order to reduce the global burden of GBV and HIV among women.


Asunto(s)
Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Violencia de Género/psicología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Identidad de Género , VIH , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Trabajadores Sexuales/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/virología , Personas Transgénero/psicología
8.
Reprod Health ; 16(1): 93, 2019 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262331

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: One in three women experience intimate partner violence worldwide, according to many primary studies. However, systematic review and meta-analysis of intimate partner violence is very limited. Therefore, we set to summarize the findings of existing primary studies to generate evidence for informed decisions to tackle domestic violence against women in low and lower-middle income countries. METHODS: Studies were searched from main databases (Medline via PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PopLine and Web of Science), Google scholar and other relevant sources using electronic and manual techniques. Published and unpublished studies written in English and conducted among women aged (15-49 years) from 1994 to 2017 were eligible. Data were extracted independently by two authors, and recorded in Microsoft Excel sheet. Heterogeneity between included studies was assessed using I2, and publication bias was explored using visual inspection of funnel plot. Statistical analysis was carried out to determine the pooled prevalence using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. In addition, sub-group analysis was carried out by study-setting and types of intimate partner violence. RESULTS: Fifty two studies were included in the systematic review. Of these, 33 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of lifetime intimate partner violence was 55% (95% CI: 52, 59%). Of these, main categories were lifetime physical violence [39% (95% CI: 33, 45%); psychological violence [45% (95% CI: 40, 52%)] and sexual violence [20% (95% CI: 17, 23%)]. Furthermore, the pooled prevalence of current intimate partner violence was 38% (95% CI: 34, 43%). Of these, physical violence [25% (95% CI: 21, 28%)]; psychological violence [30% (95% CI: 24, 36%)] and sexual violence [7.0% (95% CI: 6.6, 7.5%)] were the pooled prevalence for the major types of intimate partner violence. In addition, concurrent intimate partner violence was 13% (95% CI: 12, 15%). Individual, relationship, community and societal level factors were associated with intimate partner violence. Traditional community gender-norm transformation, stakeholders' engagement, women's empowerment, intervention integration and policy/legal framework were highly recommended interventions to prevent intimate partner violence. CONCLUSION: Lifetime and current intimate partner violence is common and unacceptably high. Therefore, concerned bodies will need to design and implement strategies to transform traditional gender norms, engage stakeholders, empower women and integrate service to prevent violence against women. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO: 2017: CRD42017079977 .


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica/prevención & control , Violencia de Género/prevención & control , Países en Desarrollo , Violencia Doméstica/psicología , Femenino , Violencia de Género/psicología , Humanos
10.
Violence Against Women ; 25(1): 29-55, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803428

RESUMEN

Effective prevention of intimate partner violence (IPV) among adolescents and young adults is a key strategy for reducing rates of gender-based violence (GBV). Numerous initiatives have been developed and evaluated over the past 25 years. There is emerging evidence about effective strategies for universal prevention of dating violence in high school settings and effective bystander interventions on university and college campuses. In addition, there have been some effective practices identified for specific groups of youth who are vulnerable to victimization (either based on past experiences of exposure to domestic violence or previous dating victimization). At the same time, though our evidence about school and college-based interventions has grown, there are significant gaps in our knowledge of effective prevention among marginalized groups. For example, there is a lack of evidence-based strategies for preventing IPV among Indigenous youth; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning+ [LGBTQ+] youth; and young women with disabilities, even though these groups are at elevated risk for experiencing violence. Our review of the current state of evidence for effective GBV prevention among adolescents and young adults suggests significant gaps. Our analysis of these gaps highlights the need to think more broadly about what constitutes evidence. We identify some strategies and a call to action for moving the field forward and provide examples from our work with vulnerable youth in a variety of settings.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Género/psicología , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud/tendencias , Adolescente , Niño , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Femenino , Violencia de Género/prevención & control , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/prevención & control , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Masculino , Ontario , Desarrollo de Programa/métodos , Desarrollo de Programa/normas , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud/métodos , Adulto Joven
11.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 16(1): 57-65, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762216

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This theoretical review identifies physiological mechanisms by which violence against women (VAW) may increase women's susceptibility to HIV through trauma, stress, and immune dysfunction. RECENT FINDINGS: Research documents systemic and local immune responses are related to stress and trauma from abuse across the life course (i.e., childhood, IPV, adulthood re-victimization). Findings are interpreted within a theoretical framework grounded in the Social Stress Theory and the concept of toxic stress, and highlight the current state of the science connecting: (1) VAW to the physiological stress response and immune dysfunction, and (2) the physiological stress response and inflammation to HIV susceptibility and infection in the female reproductive tract. Despite a dearth of research in human subjects, evidence suggests that VAW plays a significant role in creating a physiological environment conducive to HIV infection. We conclude with a discussion of promising future steps for this line of research.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Género/psicología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Trauma Psicológico/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Niño , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Exposición a la Violencia/psicología , Femenino , Humanos
12.
J Inj Violence Res ; 11(1): 21-28, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635997

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Female Sex workers (FSWs) are a marginalized group. Although some studies have shown various types of violence against sex workers, it is a subject which needs more in-depth knowledge. METHODS: This is a conventional content study conducted on 18 street sex workers in Shiraz, Iran. RESULTS: The present study observed that sex workers had extensive experience in five forms of violence: physical, barbaric, psychological, sexual, deception and robbery. Moreover, violence was deep-rooted in their previous experiences prior to becoming a prostitute, leading to the formation of yet another type of violence, called hidden slavery with male or female pimps. CONCLUSIONS: To improve the general health of this group, it is recommended that they be supported by social institutions and be provided with psychological consultations.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Género , Trabajo Sexual/psicología , Trabajadores Sexuales , Decepción , Violencia Doméstica/prevención & control , Violencia Doméstica/psicología , Esclavización/prevención & control , Esclavización/psicología , Femenino , Violencia de Género/prevención & control , Violencia de Género/psicología , Humanos , Irán , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Abuso Físico/prevención & control , Abuso Físico/psicología , Sistemas de Apoyo Psicosocial , Investigación Cualitativa , Delitos Sexuales/prevención & control , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Trabajo Sexual/legislación & jurisprudencia , Conducta Sexual
13.
Trauma Violence Abuse ; 20(3): 428-434, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29334024

RESUMEN

Adolescent girls are at an increased risk of sexual violence, abuse, exploitation, and forced or early marriage across humanitarian contexts. In the past few years, prominent initiatives, organizations, and working groups have started to highlight the targeted needs and issues facing adolescent girls and have developed programmatic responses such as safe spaces for adolescent girls to protect and empower girls and reduce their vulnerabilities to violence or exploitation. A systematic review of academic and grey literature was conducted in September 2015 to examine the evidence base for programming that seeks to reduce violence against adolescent girls in humanitarian contexts. The authors used a Boolean search procedure to find and review 5830 records from academic journal databases, resource-hosting websites and relevant organizational websites. The inclusion criteria left us with three adolescent girl program evaluations from humanitarian settings to examine, all of which were pre/post-test evaluations that looked at changes in indicators such as social assets, self-esteem, decision making, livelihood skills and financial assets, gender norms, and feelings of safety. While these three evaluations showed promising results, overall, this systematic review demonstrates a significant gap in currently available rigorous research. Evidence is urgently needed to guide programming decisions to ensure that the emerging programs provide the level and depth of protection that adolescent girls need in humanitarian settings.


Asunto(s)
Altruismo , Violencia de Género , Adolescente , Femenino , Violencia de Género/ética , Violencia de Género/prevención & control , Violencia de Género/psicología , Humanos , Psicología Social , Normas Sociales
14.
Arch Sex Behav ; 48(2): 577-588, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291600

RESUMEN

This article analyzes the intersection of direct and indirect violence against Spanish women and unauthorized migrant women working in precarious jobs in Almeria (Spain). Specifically, it seeks to understand how unauthorized migrant women define violence, the relationship between sexual harassment and other types of direct violence (such as intimate partner violence), and structural, legal, and cultural violence. To do this, we apply a multilevel intersectional analysis focusing on 32 interviews with Spanish and unauthorized migrant women. Three levels of intersectionality are shown. In the first, the interviewees do not label verbal abuse as sexual harassment. They attribute the abuse to their work. In the second, sexual harassment seems to be tied to "respect" and not "love," which explains why sexual harassment has less devastating consequences for women than intimate partner violence. In the third, experiences of sexual harassment differ between Spanish women and unauthorized migrant women, and a combination of sexual harassment and xenophobic and racist behavior occasionally appeared.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Género , Acoso Sexual , Migrantes , Mujeres/psicología , Femenino , Violencia de Género/psicología , Violencia de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Acoso Sexual/psicología , Acoso Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , España , Migrantes/psicología , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos
15.
Psicol. USP ; 30: e180192, 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1012816

RESUMEN

Resumo O artigo apresenta os resultados de pesquisa que objetivou conhecer e discutir o trabalho da psicologia junto aos Centros Especializados de Atendimento à Mulher (CEAMs) no Rio de Janeiro. A pesquisa de campo foi realizada em três etapas: contatos telefônicos com os centros do estado; questionários digitais para os psicólogos dos CEAMs, entrevistas com psicólogas dos CEAMs do município do RJ e uma psicóloga que iniciou o trabalho da psicologia junto a mulheres em situação de violência no RJ. A partir da análise de conteúdo do material foi possível elaborar três categorias: as estruturas de trabalho dos CEAMs; o trabalho institucional da psicologia nos CEAMs; os sentidos do trabalho segundo os psicólogos que atuam nos CEAMs. A aproximação dos psicólogos que atuam nos centros possibilitou relacionar as práticas da psicologia nestes serviços e desenvolver uma discussão sobre a prática psi no âmbito dessas políticas públicas.


Résumé L'article présente les résultats de la recherche de Master dont le but a été celui de comprendre et d'examiner le rôle que la psychologie joue dans les Centres spécialisés de soutien aux Femmes (CEAMs), à Rio de Janeiro. L'enquête de terrain a été effectuée en trois moments: des contacts téléphoniques avec les Centres de l'État de Rio de Janeiro; des questionnaires numériques passés aux psychologues des CEAMs; des entretiens menés auprès des psychologues de la ville de Rio de Janeiro et avec une psychologue qui y a entamé l'assistance psychologique auprès des femmes en situation de violence. D'après l'analyse des données l'on a conçu trois catégories: les structures de travail des CEAMs; le travail institutionnel de la psychologie dans les CEAMs; les sens du travail selon les psychologues des CEAMs. La démarche des psychologues travaillant dans les centres a permis de relier les pratiques de la psychologie dans ces services et de développer une discussion sur la pratique du psi dans le contexte de ces politiques publiques.


Resumen El artículo presenta los resultados de la investigación que tuvo como objetivo conocer y discutir sobre el trabajo de la psicología junto a los centros de atención a las mujeres (CEAMs) en Río de Janeiro. La investigación de campo fue realizada en tres momentos: contactos telefónicos con los Centros gubernamentales, encuestas digitales para los psicólogos de los CEAMs y entrevistas con las psicólogas de los CEAMs de la ciudad de Río de Janeiro, asimismo con una psicóloga que inició el trabajo de la psicología junto a las mujeres en situación de violencia en el Departamento de Río de Janeiro. Desde el análisis de los resultados fue posible elaborar tres categorías: las estructuras del trabajo de los CEAMs; el trabajo institucional de la psicología en los CEAMs y los sentidos del trabajo de acuerdo con los psicólogos que trabajan en los CEAMs. La aproximación de los psicólogos que actúan en los Centros posibilitó relacionar las prácticas de la psicología en estos servicios y desarrollar una discusión sobre la práctica psi en el ámbito de esas políticas públicas.


Abstract The article shows the results of the research which motivated further knowledge and to discuss upon the psychology work in the Centers specialized in assisting women (CEAMS) in Rio de Janeiro. The field research had three stages: telephone calls to the Centers in the state; digital questionnaires to the CEAMS psychologists and interviews with the psychologists from the CEAMS in the city of Rio de Janeiro and with one psychologist who had initiated the psychology work with the women in situation of violence in RJ. Three categories were formed based on the analysis of the contents of the researched material: the working structure in the CEAMS; the institutional work of psychology in the CEAMS; the sense of the work according to the psychologists who act in the CEAMS. The approach of the psychologists who work in the Centers made it possible to relate the practices of psychology in these services and to develop a discussion about psi practice in the context of these public policies.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Violencia contra la Mujer , Violencia de Género/psicología , Política Pública , Acogimiento
17.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 27(3): 133-143, dic. 2018. graf, tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-182410

RESUMEN

Intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) is the most common form of violence suffered by women and constitutes a serious public health problem of global proportions. Public attitudes towards IPVAW are key to understanding the social context in which this type of violence occurs. Victim-blaming attitudes are among those that reflect public tolerance and acceptability of IPVAW and are often used to explain or justify IPVAW. In this study we develop and validate a new instrument to assess victim-blaming attitudes in cases of IPVAW. A sample of 1,800 participants was recruited through social media and a second sample of 50 IPVAW offenders was used for validation purposes. Through a cross-validation approach and by fitting an item response theory model to the data, we found that the latent structure of the instrument was one-dimensional and particularly informative for medium and high levels of victim-blaming attitudes. Differential item functioning analysis showed that item parameters did not differ by gender. We found, in addition, that (a) our measure was strongly related to acceptability and perceived severity of IPVAW, and also to ambivalent sexism, (b) men presented higher levels of victim-blaming attitudes than women, and (c) IPVAW offenders showed higher levels of victim-blaming attitudes than men from the general population. A five-item short version of the scale is also presented for use in studies with limited application time or space. Our findings confirm that this new scale is a reliable and valid measure to assess victim-blaming attitudes in cases of IPVAW


La violencia de género es la forma más común de violencia que sufren las mujeres y constituye un grave problema de salud pública de proporciones globales. Las actitudes públicas hacia la IPVAW son clave para entender el contexto social en el que se produce este tipo de violencia. Las actitudes que culpabilizan a las víctimas son aquéllas que reflejan la tolerancia pública y la aceptabilidad de la IPVAW y que con frecuencia se emplean para explicar o justificar ésta. En este estudio desarrollamos y validamos un nuevo instrumento para evaluar las actitudes de culpabilización de la víctima en casos de violencia de género. Se reclutó una muestra de 1,800 participantes a través de las redes sociales y se utilizó una segunda muestra de 50 hombres condenados por violencia de género con fines de validación. Mediante un enfoque de validación cruzada y ajustando un modelo de teoría de respuesta al ítem a los datos, encontramos que la estructura latente del instrumento era unidimensional y particularmente informativa para niveles medios y altos de culpabilización de las víctimas. El análisis del funcionamiento diferencial del ítem mostró que los parámetros del ítem no difirieron por género. Además, encontramos que (a) nuestra medida estaba fuertemente relacionada con la aceptabilidad y percepción de gravedad de la violencia de género, y también con el sexismo ambivalente, (b) los hombres presentaban niveles más altos de culpabilización de la víctima que las mujeres, y (c) los hombres condenados por violencia de género mostraron niveles más altos de culpabilización de la víctima que los hombres de la población general. También se presenta una versión corta de cinco ítems de la escala para su uso en estudios con tiempo de aplicación o espacio limitado. Nuestros resultados confirman que esta nueva escala es una medida fiable y válida para evaluar las actitudes de culpabilización de la víctima en casos de violencia de género


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Culpa , Violencia contra la Mujer , Violencia de Género/psicología , Sexismo , Salud Pública , Pruebas Psicológicas , Análisis de Datos
18.
Violence Against Women ; 24(14): 1739-1750, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295180

RESUMEN

The present study assessed how individuals used the #NotOkay hashtag on Twitter to respond to Donald Trump's comments about grabbing women by their genitals. We analyzed 652 tweets which included commentary about the hashtag. Three main themes emerged: (a) users' acknowledgment and condemnation of rape culture, (b) Donald Trump and the national state of sexual assault, and (c) engaging men and boys to end violence against women. Our findings emphasize that powerful political leaders can be salient symbols of rape culture, and Twitter is used as a public platform to organize and challenge problematic social discourse and call for action/change.


Asunto(s)
Política , Delitos Sexuales/tendencias , Violencia de Género/psicología , Humanos , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/tendencias , Estados Unidos
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30274141

RESUMEN

Young transgender and non-binary individuals (TNBI) are exposed to situations of discrimination and have a greater risk of violence. The purpose of this study is to analyze which protective, violence and health and well-being factors have more influence on TNBI compared to cisgender people. The sample comprised 856 youth between 14 and 25 years old. A survey including questions about sociodemographic information and protective, violence and health and well-being factors was designed ad hoc for this study. The results show the non-binary group received the least support from family and friends, higher risk of suffering cyberbullying, and many feel isolated and unhappy. TNBI have suffered more verbal attacks both inside and outside their school and physical attacks at school than cisgender young. These results are important because they may contribute to the promotion of public policies and clinical interventions that favor the integration of TNBI in our society.


Asunto(s)
Disforia de Género/psicología , Identidad de Género , Violencia de Género/psicología , Violencia de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Minoritarios/psicología , Estigma Social , Personas Transgénero/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos , España , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
20.
Reprod Health Matters ; 26(53): 48-61, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30212308

RESUMEN

Measuring mistreatment and quality of care during childbirth is important in promoting respectful maternity care. We describe these dimensions throughout the birthing process from admission, delivery and immediate postpartum care. We observed 677 client-provider interactions and conducted 13 facility assessments in Kenya. We used descriptive statistics and logistic regression model to illustrate how mistreatment and clinical process of care vary through the birthing process. During admission, the prevalence of verbal abuse was 18%, lack of informed consent 59%, and lack of privacy 67%. Women with higher parity were more likely to be verbally abused [AOR: 1.69; (95% CI 1.03,2.77)]. During delivery, low levels of verbal and physical abuse were observed, but lack of privacy and unhygienic practices were prevalent during delivery and postpartum (>65%). Women were less likely to be verbally abused [AOR: 0.88 (95% CI 0.78, 0.99)] or experience unhygienic practices, [AOR: 0.87 (95% CI 0.78, 0.97)] in better-equipped facilities. During admission, providers were observed creating rapport (52%), taking medical history (82%), conducting physical assessments (5%). Women's likelihood to receive a physical assessment increased with higher infrastructural scores during admission [AOR: 2.52; (95% CI 2.03, 3.21)] and immediately postpartum [AOR 2.18; (95% CI 1.24, 3.82)]. Night-time deliveries were associated with lower likelihood of physical assessment and rapport creation [AOR; 0.58; (95% CI 0.41,0.86)]. The variability of mistreatment and clinical quality of maternity along the birthing process suggests health system drivers that influence provider behaviour and health facility environment should be considered for quality improvement and reduction of mistreatment.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Parto Obstétrico/psicología , Violencia de Género/psicología , Calidad de la Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Respeto , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Servicios de Salud Materna/organización & administración , Cultura Organizacional , Admisión del Paciente/normas , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Privacidad , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Calidad de la Atención de Salud/normas , Factores Socioeconómicos , Salud de la Mujer , Adulto Joven
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