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1.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1060, 2024 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627699

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health problem associated with countless adverse physical and mental health outcomes. It places an enormous economic and public health burden on communities. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between psychological states (such as depression or hopeless) and help-seeking experiences of IPV survivors after experiencing IPV, based on the Allegheny County Health Survey (ACHS). METHODS: Data from 2015 to 2016 Allegheny County Health Survey with N = 8,012 adults were analyzed. The 6-item version of the Kessler Psychological Stress Scale, located in Module 11 of the ACHS questionnaire, was used to measure psychological stress in participants. Module 12 of the ACHS questionnaire collected information on participants' experiences of intimate partner violence and help-seeking in the past 12 months. Descriptive statistical analysis, Pearson's chi-square or two sample independent t-tests statistical analysis, and multivariate binary logistic regression models were used to analyze the relationship between IPV experience and psychological distress. RESULTS: A total of 212 of the 8,012 participants had IPV experience, with age, marital status, education, income, and race significantly different from those without IPV experience. The psychological stress of participants feeling hopeless (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.37-2.99), restless or fidgety (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.27-2.65), perceiving everything was an effort (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.08-2.22) and worthless (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.01-2.20) was associated with the IPV experience. Help-seeking behaviors of IPV survivors were associated with psychological distress, such as hopelessness (OR = 6.71, 95% CI = 1.38-32.60). CONCLUSIONS: This study explored the association between IPV experience, help-seeking and psychological distress, and the need to expand community support. It is necessary to implement targeted interventions, enhance training of professionals, and promote the identification of early IPV cases as well as collaboration between healthcare and social support departments to reduce the occurrence of IPV or psychological distress following IPV.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Distrés Psicológico , Adulto , Humanos , Ansiedad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Factores de Riesgo
2.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1329699, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584912

RESUMEN

Background: Violence against women is a major public health problem that affects the physical, sexual, mental, and social wellbeing of more than one-third of all women worldwide. Hence the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and associated factors among married adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) belonging to the pastoralist community of Dassenech district, South Omo Zone, South Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among married AGYW in the Dassenech district from March 1, 2022, to April 1, 2022. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted to select 545 participants. The data were collected using pre-tested and standardized WHO multi-country study tools. A binary logistic regression model was fitted to identify the independent predictors of physical and sexual intimate partner violence. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to measure the effect size, and finally, a p-value<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of physical IPV among AGYW belonging to the pastoralist community of Dassenech district was 44.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 40%, 48%) and that of sexual IPV was 39.3% (95% CI: 35%, 43%). The husband only deciding for the household (AOR = 11.36; 95% CI: 6.97, 18.53), the father performing the Dimi cultural ceremony (AOR = 3.70; 95% CI: 2.22, 6.14), and frequent quarrels (AOR = 2.06; 95% CI: 1.07, 3.99) are significantly associated with physical IPV. Both partners drinking alcohol (AOR = 3.47; 95% CI: 1.94, 6.20), the husband only deciding for the household (AOR = 11.23; 95% CI: 6.91, 18.27), and frequent quarrels (AOR = 2.29; 95% CI: 1.15, 4.56) were factors significantly associated with sexual IPV. Conclusion: Physical and sexual intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem in the study area. Therefore, interventional measures to change the attitude of cultural leaders, providing education to married men and women on risky sexual behavior, and empowering women need to be prioritized to prevent the occurrence of this problem.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Parejas Sexuales , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Etiopía/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Factores de Riesgo
3.
Glob Health Action ; 17(1): 2325250, 2024 Dec 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577830

RESUMEN

Intimate partner violence (IPV) impacts women of reproductive age globally and can lead to significant negative consequences during pregnancy. This study describes an exploratory aim of a cluster randomised controlled trial designed to assess the outcomes of Group Antenatal Care (ANC) in Ghana. The purpose was to understand the effect of a healthy relationship Group ANC module on experiences of IPV and safety planning as well as to explore the relationship between self-efficacy on the experiences of IPV and safety planning. Data were collected at baseline and at 11-14 months postpartum (post). Survey measures captured reported experiences of violence, self-efficacy, and safety. The chi-square test was used to compare baseline and post scores, and a logistic regression was performed to ascertain the effects of self-efficacy on the experiences of IPV in both groups. The sample included 1,751 participants, of whom 27.9% reported IPV at baseline. Between baseline and postpartum, there was a small increase in reported emotional (6.2% vs. 4.6%) and sexual (5.4% vs. 3.2%) violence in the intervention group compared to the control group. Logistic regression demonstrated that an increasing self-efficacy score was associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing IPV. There were no changes in safety knowledge. This study found higher rates of reported sexual and emotional violence post-intervention among the intervention group. Group ANC may be just one part of a portfolio of interventions needed to address IPV at all socio-ecological levels.Paper ContextMain findings: There was no reduction in experiences of intimate partner violence or increases in safety planning among Ghanaian pregnant women participating in a Group Antenatal Care session focused on healthy relationships and safety planning.Added knowledge: Group Antenatal Care has been identified as an effective modality for providing antenatal care and facilitating conversations about sensitive topics such as intimate partner violence and safety. However, this study highlights the importance of developing multifaceted approaches to decrease the risk of intimate partner violence among women, especially during the critical times of pregnancy and postpartum.Global health impact for policy and action: Effective global health action and policy must extend beyond educational efforts, incorporating multifaceted strategies that include healthcare provider training, robust community engagement, and legislation aimed at preventing intimate partner violence, with a special focus on safeguarding the well-being of women during pregnancy and the postpartum period.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Atención Prenatal , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Ghana , Mujeres Embarazadas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298166, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578820

RESUMEN

Indigenous and Northern women in Canada experience high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV), and this is particularly true in the Northwest Territories (NWT). Adolescents are also at increased risk of IPV, which has far-reaching, lifelong effects. Indigenous youth are particularly vulnerable to IPV due to ongoing effects of intergenerational trauma caused by colonialism, racism and residential school legacies. We explored attitudes towards IPV and the healthy relationship knowledge, skills, and experiences among participants of Fostering Open eXpression among Youth (FOXY) and Strength, Masculinities, and Sexual Health (SMASH) Peer Leader Retreats in the NWT. Multi-method approaches included quantitative surveys youth completed before and immediately following retreats. Quantitative analysis from retreats (2018-2021) included 240 participants aged 12-19 (mean age 14.5) who reported ever having an intimate partner. Most were from the FOXY program (64.2%), Indigenous (69.6%) and heterosexual (66.4%). Qualitative methods included Focus Group Discussions (FGD) (n = 69) conducted with peer leaders and apprentices (n = 311) and youth and adult staff (n = 14 FGDs, n = 165 participants). We thematically analysed FGDs to explore healthy relationship knowledge and skills, alongside paired t-tests to examine pre/post retreat changes in attitudes towards IPV. Qualitative findings suggest that leadership and embodied learning were effective in equipping youth with violence prevention and healthy relationship skills. While young women were committed to sharing knowledge and skills about healthy relationships in their communities, young men resonated with values of respect and appreciated support to identify and express emotions. Participants across programmes demonstrated their belief that healthy intimate relationships have communal, relational and intergenerational benefits. Quantitatively, we found a statistically significant reduction in attitudes accepting of IPV among young women, but no changes were noted among young men. Findings contribute to emergent evidence on strengths-based, culturally-responsive IPV prevention programming. Components of effective IPV prevention programming with young men merit further exploration.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Conducta Sexual , Masculino , Adulto , Adolescente , Humanos , Femenino , Territorios del Noroeste , Parejas Sexuales , Canadá , Violencia de Pareja/prevención & control , Poder Psicológico
5.
Sante Publique ; 36(1): 23-32, 2024 04 05.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580464

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The prevention of intimate partner violence (IPV) among young people is a major challenge for public policies. Nevertheless, there are a few prevention programs that have proven effective in France. "Sortir Ensemble & Se Respecter" (SE&SR) is a Swiss adaptation of "Safe Dates," an American intervention program that has reduced violent behavior by young perpetrators and victims of IPV alike. The aim of this article is to analyze the applicability and "potential transferability" of SE&SR in France. METHODS: We described the SE&SR intervention by explaining the intervention theory, the key functions (i.e., the "ingredients" allowing the SE&SR program to work), and we commented on its applicability from a perspective of adapting and transferring it to the French context. We used the ASTAIRE tool and the FIC (key functions, implementation, context) approach. RESULTS: The intervention theory highlighted various factors, acting at the individual level (i.e., beliefs/representations, knowledge, life skills) and at the level of the living environment (i.e., facilities welcoming young people; families; public policies; networks of actors), that can prevent IPV among young people. Ten key functions have been identified, revealing the "skeleton" of the Swiss intervention. We drew on these results to comment on the intervention's applicability, with a view to transferability, specifying the contextual elements to consider before implementing SE&SR in France. CONCLUSION: This study aims to make the process of evaluating applicability, with a view to transferring an evidence-based program to the French context, more accessible.


Introduction: La prévention des violences dans les relations amoureuses (VRA) chez les jeunes est un enjeu fort des politiques publiques. Néanmoins, il existe peu de programmes de prévention ayant fait la preuve de leur efficacité en France. « Sortir Ensemble & Se Respecter ¼ (SE&SR) est une adaptation suisse de « Safe Dates ¼, un programme d'intervention américain qui a montré des résultats en matière de réduction des comportements violents tant du côté des jeunes victimes que des auteurs. L'objectif de cet article est d'analyser l'applicabilité et la « potentielle transférabilité ¼ de SE&SR en France. Méthodes: L'approche adoptée consistait à décrire l'intervention SE&SR en explicitant la théorie d'intervention, les fonctions clés (soit les « ingrédients ¼ permettant que le programme SE&SR fonctionne) et en proposant des commentaires d'applicabilité en vue d'une transférabilité adaptée au contexte français. L'outil ASTAIRE et la démarche FIC ont été utilisés. Résultats: La théorie d'intervention a mis en évidence différents facteurs, agissant au niveau individuel (i.e. connaissances, croyances/représentations, compétences psychosociales) et au niveau des milieux de vie (i.e. structures accueillant les jeunes, familles, politiques publiques/réseaux d'acteurs), qui peuvent prévenir les VRA chez les jeunes. Dix fonctions clés ont été identifiées, dégageant le « squelette ¼ de l'intervention suisse. À la suite de ces résultats, des commentaires d'applicabilité en vue d'une transférabilité ont permis de préciser les éléments de contexte à prendre en compte avant la mise en œuvre de SE&SR en France. Conclusion: Cette étude souhaite rendre accessibles les process d'applicabilité en vue d'une transférabilité d'un programme probant en contexte français.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Humanos , Adolescente , Violencia de Pareja/prevención & control , Etnicidad , Francia
6.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1035, 2024 Apr 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614987

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Widespread concern exists in today's world regarding self-harm and interpersonal violence. This study to analyze the changes in temporal trends and spatial patterns of risk factors and burdens of self-harm and interpersonal violence using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019. METHODS: Temporal trends in self-harm and interpersonal violence were initially summarized using the estimated annual percentage change (EAPC). Data were compiled and visualized to delineate changes in disease burden and factors influencing self-harm and interpersonal violence from 1990 to 2019, stratified by gender, age and GBD region. RESULTS: In 2019, the DALY rates of self-harm were 424.7(95% UI 383.25, 466.93). Over the period from 1999 to 2019, self-harm exhibited an overall decreasing trend, with the EAPC of -1.5351 (95% CI -1.6194, -1.4507), -2.0205 (95% CI -2.166, -1.8740) and -2.0605 (95% CI -2.2089, -1.9119), respectively. In contrast, the incidence rate of interpersonal violence was significantly higher than self-harm, with a rate of 413.44 (95% UI 329.88, 502.37) per 100,000 population. Mortality and DALYs of interpersonal violence were lower than those of self-harm, at 5.22 (95% UI 4.87, 5.63) and 342.43 (95% UI 316.61, 371.55). Disease burden of self-harm and interpersonal violence varied by gender, age groups and region. Specific risk factors showed that alcohol use, high temperature and drug use were the main risk factors for self-harm, while alcohol use, intimate partner violence and high temperature were associated with interpersonal violence. Low temperature was a common protective factor for both self-harm and interpersonal violence. The burden of self-harm and interpersonal violence was attributed to different factors influences in different SDI regions. CONCLUSIONS: The study explored temporal trends and spatial distribution of the global disease burden of self-harm and interpersonal violence, emphasizing the significant impact of factors such as alcohol use, temperature, and drug use on disease burden. Further research and policy actions are needed to interpret recent changes of disease burden of self-harm and interpersonal violence, and dedicated efforts should be implemented to devise evidence-based interventions and policies to curtail risk factors and protect high-risk groups.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Conducta Autodestructiva , Humanos , Carga Global de Enfermedades , Conducta Autodestructiva/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Factores de Riesgo
7.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 33: e2023993, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597529

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between intimate partner violence during pregnancy (IPVP) and quality of life (QOL). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with pregnant women receiving care in Primary Health Care in the municipality of Criciúma, Santa Catarina state, Brazil, in 2022; QOL was assessed in the physical, psychological, social relationship and environmental domains using WHOQOL-Bref instrument; IPVP was evaluated by means of the World Health Organization Violence Against Women; Crude and adjusted linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total of 389 pregnant women were evaluated; IPVP was observed in 13.6% of cases; in the adjusted analysis, IPVP remained associated with physical, psychological and social relationship domains; pregnant women who experienced IPVP had a reduction in their QOL score by 9.77, 11.07 and 8.95 points, respectively, when compared to those who did not experience IPVP. CONCLUSION: IPVP was associated with poorer QOL in the physical, psychological and social relationships domains. Health services equipped to address and prevent violence against pregnant women are essential. MAIN RESULTS: Intimate partner violence (IPV) was observed in 13.6% of pregnant women and was associated with poorer quality of life in the physical, psychological and social relationship domains. IMPLICATIONS FOR SERVICES: The results emphasize the need for an intersectoral approach in addressing the issue, with specialized healthcare centers for situations of violence integrated with social assistance and public security. PERSPECTIVES: Development of intersectoral policies and actions that strengthen existing ones and ensure social and healthcare assistance to pregnant women victims of violence and their children, given the negative impact of IPVP on quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Calidad de Vida , Niño , Femenino , Embarazo , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Brasil , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Violencia de Pareja/prevención & control , Violencia de Pareja/psicología
8.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e075957, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582531

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Armed conflicts and intimate partner violence (IPV) impose a burden on individual and societal well-being. Given the history of armed conflict in Afghanistan and the high prevalence of IPV, this study aims to examine the influence of armed conflicts on IPV among Afghan women. METHODS: Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to the 2015 Afghanistan Demographic and Health Survey (N=10 414 women aged 15-49). Armed conflict severity was measured using the conflict index issued by the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, IPV was measured by three types of violence, including emotional, physical and sexual violence. All analyses were conducted by using STATA V.15.1. RESULTS: Over 52% of women experienced at least one type of IPV, with 33.01%, 49.07%, and 8.99% experiencing emotional, physical, and sexual violence, respectively. The regression results show that armed conflicts were significantly and positively associated with the experience of all types of IPV. In addition, the association between armed conflicts and the experience of emotional IPV was positively moderated by women's attitudes towards IPV. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that women living in high-conflict regions were more prone to experience IPV, particularly women with positive attitudes towards IPV. Promoting progressive gender roles, women's empowerment, awareness of IPV and inclusion of women in conflict resolution will help deal with the issue of IPV.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Humanos , Femenino , Afganistán , Estudios Transversales , Violencia , Conflictos Armados , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Parejas Sexuales/psicología
9.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298669, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626014

RESUMEN

AIMS: The study aims to examine the correlation between intimate partner violence [IPV] and quality of life [HRQoL] of mothers during COVID-19 era. METHOD: This study is a cross-sectional correlational study. The inclusion criteria was Jordanian women with at least 18 years old, who read and write in Arabic language and able to participate. The collection of data was done through a self-reported questionnaire distributed and completely filled with 300 married Jordanian women using social media. This study was conducted between the months of October and December 2020. The participants signed consent after being informed of their rights to exit at any point during the study and the study methods. RESULTS: The prevalence of IPV among women was 28.3. The mean of quality of life is 86.0 [SD = 13.1) and the mean of violence is 11.9 [SD = 3.01). There was a significant negative relationship between violence and quality of life (r2 = .224, p = .001). This means as the violence increases, the quality-of-life decreases. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, there is an association between IPV and HRQoL among married people. Providing an education program and vital resources for women with the goal of preventing COVID-19 violence and assisting Jordanians become very essential.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Violencia de Pareja , Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Jordania/epidemiología , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Transversales , COVID-19/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Parejas Sexuales
10.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299069, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626011

RESUMEN

Reproductive coercion and abuse is a hidden and poorly recognised form of violence against women. It refers broadly to behaviours that interfere with or undermine a person's reproductive autonomy, specifically to promote or prevent pregnancy. Reproductive coercion and abuse can involve physical, sexual, financial or psychological abuse in order to achieve these aims, and is overwhelmingly perpetrated by men against women. As an emerging field of scholarship, conceptual understanding of reproductive coercion and abuse is still in its infancy; however, it is often described as being linked to coercive control. In this article, we seek to highlight the complexity of this relationship through qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with 30 victim/survivors in Australia recruited from the community, focusing on their perceptions of the perpetrator's motivations. We developed four themes from our analysis: 1) His needs came first; 2) The illusion of a perfect father; 3) Creating a weapon of control; and 4) My body was his. Perceived perpetrator motivations ranged from entitlement and self-interest to a deep desire for domination and entrapment. Pregnancy preventing behaviour was more likely to be linked with entitlement and self-interest, whereas pregnancy promoting behaviour tended to be described by participants in relationships where there was a broader pattern of ongoing control and entrapment. Thus, we suggest that coercive control is a motivating factor for some, but not all men who perpetrate reproductive coercion and abuse. A greater understanding perpetrator motivations may be important for practitioners, particularly those working in sexual and reproductive health services, since it could be relevant to women's level of risk for coercive controlling behaviour or more extreme forms of physical or sexual violence.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Delitos Sexuales , Masculino , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Coerción , Motivación , Conducta Sexual , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Violencia de Pareja/psicología
11.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298198, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626034

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects one in four women globally and is more commonly enacted by men than women. Rates of IPV in South Africa exceed the global average. Exploring the background and context regarding why men use violence can help future efforts to prevent IPV. METHODS: We explored adult men's perspectives of IPV, livelihoods, alcohol use, gender beliefs, and childhood exposure to abuse through a secondary analysis of qualitative interviews that were conducted in South Africa. The setting was a peri-urban township characterized by high unemployment, immigration from rural areas, and low service provision. We utilized thematic qualitative analysis that was guided by the social ecological framework. RESULTS: Of 30 participants, 20 were residents in the neighborhood, 7 were trained community members, and 3 were program staff. Men reported consumption of alcohol and lack of employment as being triggers for IPV and community violence in general. Multiple participants recounted childhood exposure to abuse. These themes, in addition to culturally prescribed gender norms and constructs of manhood, seemed to influence the use of violence. CONCLUSION: Interventions aimed at reducing IPV should consider the cultural and social impact on men's use of IPV in low-resource, high-IPV prevalence settings, such as peri-urban South Africa. This work highlights the persistent need for the implementation of effective primary prevention strategies that address contextual and economic factors in an effort to reduce IPV that is primarily utilized by men directed at women.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Hombres , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Violencia , Identidad de Género , Factores de Riesgo
12.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0297886, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573923

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is common among young people, but the use of IPV resources among young adult women and teenagers is limited. This study aims to analyze professionals' perceptions about the main barriers and facilitators encountered by young women (16-29 years old) exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) when accessing formal services in Spain. METHODS: Qualitative study based on 17 in depth interviews carried out in 2019 with professionals who manage resources for IPV care in Madrid (Spain) from different sectors (social services, health care, security forces, women or youth issues offices, associations). A qualitative content analysis was conducted. RESULTS: The professionals interviewed perceive the following barriers: 1) Time it takes for young women to recognize IPV because the social construction of sexual-affective relationships is permeated by gender inequality; 2) The process of leaving a situation of abuse; 3) Barriers inherent to IPV services. The key aspects to improve access to these resources are related to care services, professional practice, and the young women themselves. CONCLUSIONS: There are both psychosocial barriers, derived from the process of leaving a situation of violence, as well as structural barriers for young women to access and properly use the recognized services specifically aimed at them or comprehensive IPV care. Services need to be tailored to the needs of young women so they can be truly effective in order to escape IPV.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Adulto Joven , Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , España , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Investigación Cualitativa , Violencia , Actitud del Personal de Salud
13.
Pap. psicol ; 45(1): 48-55, Ene-Abr, 2024. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-229716

RESUMEN

Borderline personality (BPD) features and intimate partner violence (IPV) have been seen associated, focusing the research specially into perpetrators. The achievement of this systematic review is to analyze this relation in both victims and perpetrators, using 17 scientific articles published between 2017 and 2021 from different data bases. Most studies were focused on perpetrators, in which both men and women were equally represented as perpetrators. Instead, studies about victims were focused on women. Throughout this review, different factors observed in people with BPD traits who are victims or perpetrators of IPV are mentioned, finding particularities in each profile. These findings allow increase knowledge about the relationship between BPD and IPV, promoting a greater understanding that impacts positively on clinical intervention in this population.(AU)


Los rasgos límites de personalidad (TLP) se han visto asociados a violencia en la pareja, con investigaciones centradas especialmente en quienes la ejercen. El objetivo de esta revisión sistemática es analizar esta relación tanto en víctimas como en perpetradores, utilizando 17 artículos científicos publicados entre 2017 y 2021 en distintas bases de datos. Los estudios analizados se centraron mayoritariamente en perpetradores, encontrándose tanto hombres como mujeres igualmente representadas. En cambio, los estudios sobre víctimas atendían por lo general a mujeres. A lo largo de esta revisión, se mencionan distintos factores observados en personas que presentan rasgos TLP y ejercen o son víctimas de violencia de pareja, encontrando particularidades en cada perfil. Este trabajo permite incrementar el conocimiento sobre la relación existente entre TLP y violencia de pareja, fomentando una mayor comprensión que repercuta positivamente en la intervención clínica de esta población.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Salud Mental , Víctimas de Crimen , Violencia de Pareja , Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe , Psicología , Psiquiatría
14.
Psicol. conduct ; 32(1): 145-164, Abr 1, 2024. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-232226

RESUMEN

El objetivo de la investigación fue estudiar la presencia de ciber violencia contra la pareja en estudiantes universitarios de España y Latinoamérica, así como como analizar su relación con los mitos románticos y el sexismo ambivalente. La investigación tiene un diseño transversal. La muestra estaba formada por 2.798 estudiantes de siete países hispanohablantes: España, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Colombia, Chile, Argentina y México. Los resultados muestran pocas diferencias de medias entre hombres y mujeres; sin embargo, las diferencias entre países son considerables, sobre todo en la perpetración de agresiones directas y control. Las distintas formas de ciber violencia contra la pareja tienden a correlacionar, en una dirección positiva, con las actitudes sexistas y las creencias distorsionadas sobre el amor romántico. En conclusión, los programas de prevención deberían tener en cuenta las nuevas manifestaciones de la violencia que están apareciendo en los espacios virtuales.(AU)


The objective of the research was to study the presence of cyber violenceagainst partners in university students in Spain and Latin America, as well as toanalyze its relationship with romantic myths and ambivalent sexism. The researchhas a cross-sectional design. The sample was made up of 2,798 students fromseven Spanish-speaking countries: Spain, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Colombia, Chile,Argentina, and Mexico. The results show few differences in means between menand women; However, the differences between countries are considerable,especially in the perpetration of direct attacks and control. The different forms ofcyber violence against a partner tend to correlate, in a positive direction, with sexistattitudes and distorted beliefs about romantic love. In conclusion, preventionprograms should take into account the new manifestations of violence that areappearing in virtual spaces.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Estudiantes/psicología , Sexismo , Violencia de Pareja , Ciberacoso , Conducta del Adolescente , España , El Salvador , México , Argentina , Chile , Nicaragua , Colombia
15.
J Psychiatr Res ; 173: 192-199, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547741

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment is increasingly recognized as an important risk factor for teen dating violence (TDV) victimization. However, far too little research has studied the mechanisms that could explain this higher risk of revictimization. The present study investigated the role of alexithymia in the association between cumulative childhood maltreatment, TDV victimization occurrence and chronicity, and TDV-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. METHODS: A total of 2780 adolescents, aged 13 to 19, completed measures of childhood maltreatment and alexithymia at Time 1 and TDV victimization and TDV-related PTSD symptoms at Time 2 (6 months later). Two mediational models were tested to examine the role of alexithymia as a risk factor for revictimization. One model assessed TDV occurrence as an outcome, while the other explored TDV chronicity and TDV-related PTSD symptoms as outcomes. RESULTS: Findings suggest that cumulative childhood maltreatment is associated with an increased probability of TDV occurrence through alexithymia. Cumulative childhood maltreatment and alexithymia are also associated with TDV chronicity and TDV-related PTSD symptoms. Notably, cumulative childhood maltreatment is associated with higher levels of alexithymia among adolescent victims of TDV, which, in turn, predicts higher TDV chronicity and TDV-related PTSD symptoms. LIMITATIONS: This study relied on abbreviated measures and did not include all forms of child maltreatment (e.g., emotional and physical neglect). CONCLUSIONS: Promoting emotional awareness and identification among youth victims of child maltreatment could reduce the risk of TDV occurrence, TDV chronicity, and TDV-related PTSD symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Maltrato a los Niños , Víctimas de Crimen , Violencia de Pareja , Niño , Humanos , Adolescente , Síntomas Afectivos/epidemiología , Síntomas Afectivos/etiología , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Factores de Riesgo
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 335: 115854, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554496

RESUMEN

There is a growing recognition of the impact of social determinants of mental health (SDoMHs) on people with, or at risk of, developing serious mental illnesses. Yet it is not known how associations of individual SDoMHs with risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) vary and roughly compare with one another. Following PRISMA guidelines, this umbrella review included 26 meta-analyses and systematic reviews that reported odds ratios, effect sizes, and/or pooled prevalence rates of MDD in samples with versus without specified SDoMHs. Childhood emotional, physical, or sexual abuse and neglect; intimate partner violence in females; and food insecurity were significantly associated with increased risk of MDD, with medium effect sizes. Natural disasters, terrorist acts, and military combat during deployment had small-size adverse effects, and homelessness, incarceration, and migration were associated with significantly elevated prevalence of MDD. Conversely, higher levels of parental care were significantly associated with reduced risk of MDD with medium effect sizes. Evidence supports the use of certain interventions at the individual and community level that can reduce the impact of these factors and promote health, although much more research is warranted in this area along with meaningful healthcare and societal policies to accomplish this goal.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo Mayor , Violencia de Pareja , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/epidemiología , Promoción de la Salud , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Salud Mental , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
17.
J Psychiatr Res ; 173: 271-280, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554623

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previous research has found that childhood maltreatment predicts increased risk for violence and partner violence and there is some evidence for poorer executive functioning and low self-esteem. To date, there have been no longitudinal studies that have examined the extent to which executive functioning and self-esteem play a role in the relationship between child maltreatment and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. METHODS: This study aims to fill this gap by utilizing data from a prospective longitudinal study of children with documented court cases of abuse and neglect (ages 0-11 years) from a metropolitan county area in the Midwest (during the years 1967-1971) and demographically matched controls. Both maltreated individuals and matched controls were followed up and assessed over several waves of the study in young and middle adulthood. At mean age 39 years, inhibition and cognitive control were evaluated, while cognitive flexibility and nonverbal reasoning were assessed at mean age 41. Self-esteem was also assessed at mean age 41. Physical IPV perpetration was evaluated at age 47 using two different scoring strategies in separate models: the number of acts and variety of acts, ensuring avoidance of potential score skewness. RESULTS: Childhood maltreatment predicted lower executive functioning and self-esteem, and both independently predicted intimate partner violence perpetration. Lower executive functioning and self-esteem mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and physical IPV perpetration in midlife, irrespective of the scoring method. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that executive functioning and self-esteem play a role in the cycle of violence. Implications and suggestions for future directions are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños , Violencia de Pareja , Humanos , Niño , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Longitudinales , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Violencia , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología
18.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298364, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498450

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A strong evidence base indicates that maternal caregivers' experience of intimate partner violence [IPV] impacts children's health, cognitive development, and risk-taking behaviors. Our objective was to review peer-reviewed literature describing the associations between a child's indirect exposure to IPV and corresponding nutrition outcomes, with a particular focus on fragile settings in low and middle-income countries [LMICs]. METHODS: We conducted a rapid evidence assessment to synthesize quantitative associations between maternal caregivers' IPV experience and children's nutrition/growth outcomes (birthweight, feeding, and growth indicators). We included peer-reviewed research, published in English or Spanish after the year 2000, conducted in fragile settings in LMICs. RESULTS: We identified 86 publications that fit inclusion criteria. Amongst all associations assessed, a maternal caregiver's experience of combined forms of IPV (physical, sexual and emotional) or physical IPV only, were most consistently associated with lower birthweight, especially during pregnancy. Women of child-bearing age, including adolescents, exposed to at least one type of IPV showed a decreased likelihood of following recommended breastfeeding practices. Lifetime maternal experience of combined IPV was significantly associated with stunting among children under 5 years of age in the largest study included, though findings in smaller studies were inconsistent. Maternal experience of physical or combined IPV were inconsistently associated with underweight or wasting in the first five years. Maternal experience of sexual IPV during pregnancy appeared to predict worsened lipid profiles among children. CONCLUSION: Maternal caregivers' experience of IPV is significantly associated with low birthweight and suboptimal breastfeeding practices, whereas studies showed inconsistent associations with child growth indicators or blood nutrient levels. Future research should focus on outcomes in children aged 2 years and older, investigation of feeding practices beyond breastfeeding, and examination of risk during time periods physiologically relevant to the outcomes. Programmatic implications include incorporation of GBV considerations into nutrition policies and programming and integrating GBV prevention and response into mother and child health and nutrition interventions in LMIC contexts.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Adolescente , Humanos , Femenino , Preescolar , Peso al Nacer , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Madres/psicología , Emociones , Recién Nacido de Bajo Peso
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