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1.
J Head Trauma Rehabil ; 37(1): 43-52, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985033

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects up to 1 in 3 women over their lifetime and has intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although most injuries are to the head, face, and neck, the intersection of IPV and brain injury (BI) remains largely unrecognized. This article reports on unexplored COVID-19-related impacts on service providers and women survivors of IPV/BI. OBJECTIVES: To explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on survivors and service providers. PARTICIPANTS: Purposeful sampling through the team's national Knowledge-to-Practice (K2P) network and snowball sampling were used to recruit 24 participants across 4 categories: survivors, executive directors/managers of organizations serving survivors, direct service providers, and employer/union representatives. DESIGN: This project used a qualitative, participatory approach using semistructured individual or group interviews. Interviews were conducted via videoconferencing, audio-recorded, and transcribed. Transcripts were thematically analyzed by the research team to identify themes. FINDINGS: COVID-19 has increased rates and severity of IPV and barriers to services in terms of both provision and uptake. Three main themes emerged: (1) implications for women survivors of IPV/BI; (2) implications for service delivery and service providers supporting women survivors of IPV/BI; and (3) key priorities. Increased risk, complex challenges to mental health, and the impact on employment were discussed. Adaptability and flexibility of service delivery were identified as significant issues, and increased outreach and adaptation of technology-based services were noted as key priorities. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has intensified IPV/BI, increased challenges for women survivors and service providers, and accentuated the continued lack of IPV/BI awareness. Recommendations for service delivery and uptake are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones Encefálicas , COVID-19 , Violencia de Pareja , Femenino , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Sobrevivientes
2.
Am J Nurs ; 122(1): 14, 2022 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941582

RESUMEN

Workplace violence, domestic abuse, and firearm-related deaths are on the rise.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/epidemiología , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Violencia de Pareja/tendencias , Violencia Laboral/psicología , Violencia Laboral/tendencias
3.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 66(1): 50-69, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412956

RESUMEN

Since the 1970s, the state response to intimate partner violence (IPV) has increasingly become one of criminalization-particularly police intervention. Little is known, however, about marginalized women's experiences with the police within a context of intimate partner violence in Canada. Drawing on interviews with 90 battered immigrant women, this study examines which women contact the police, why some do not, and what characterizes their experiences when the police are involved in an IPV incident. This study demonstrates that while the women who called the police were demographically similar to those who did not call, the women who called reported much greater levels of physical abuse. Findings indicate that general fear of the police and fear of police being racist or culturally insensitive continue to be important reasons why women do not call the police. Notably, the majority of women who had contact with the police reported the encounter as positive.


Asunto(s)
Mujeres Maltratadas , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Violencia de Pareja , Canadá , Femenino , Humanos , Policia
4.
Health Soc Care Community ; 30(1): 102-113, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825247

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To identify the barriers and facilitators of managing intimate partner violence (IPV) cases, from the perspective of primary health care (PHC) social workers. METHOD: Qualitative study through interviews with 14 social workers working in PHC centres in Spain. A thematic analysis approach was applied to identify barriers and facilitators according to the Tanahashi model. RESULTS: The barriers identified by social workers in providing effective coverage to women suffering from IPV included insufficient practical training, a lack of knowledge from women on social workers' roles, a lack of teamwork, and excess IPV case referrals from other professionals to social workers. The identified facilitators were the existence of electronic protocols and good practices including therapeutic support groups and holistic intervention approaches. CONCLUSIONS: An excess of referrals to social workers of identified IPV cases following consultation by other members of the PHC team, alongside the lack of interdisciplinary teamwork, does not enable a comprehensive and holistic approach to this problem. Compulsory, practical, and interdisciplinary training in IPV for all PHC professionals and students must be a priority for health agencies and universities in order to facilitate a comprehensive and quality approach for all women suffering from IPV.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Trabajadores Sociales , Femenino , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/prevención & control , Atención Primaria de Salud , España
5.
Health Soc Care Community ; 30(1): e184-e194, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978279

RESUMEN

Forgiveness has been found one substantial element in the recovery for women survivors from intimate partner violence following the termination of the abusive relationship. To further investigate the details of forgiveness in this specific context, the present study explored the process of forgiveness using grounded theory. In-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 Chinese women survivors of IPV. The findings suggest that forgiveness is a strength-based process including empowerment, transformation, and integration phases. In the empowerment phase, survivors obtain strength at the intrapersonal, behavioural, and interpersonal levels. In the transformation phase, survivors complete cognitive transformation for their IPV experiences and emotional transformation towards former partners. In the integration phase, survivors-now freed from the past-reflect upon and apply the changes they have undergone. Two trajectories in the process were found. One trajectory is going through stages sequentially and the other trajectory is experiencing back and forth between empowerment and transformation stages before moving into the integration stage. The study's findings broaden our knowledge of the strength-based forgiveness process that women survivors of IPV undergo during recovery. Practitioners and policymakers could develop programmes and policies that support forgiveness by holistically facilitating their recovery and empowerment like assistance in dealing with life difficulties and promoting their reconnection with social networks. To improve the transferability and validity of the findings, the forgiveness of survivors of IPV could be explored in a diverse sample (e.g., survivors with low educational background or live in the rural area).


Asunto(s)
Perdón , Violencia de Pareja , China , Femenino , Humanos , Sobrevivientes
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 142, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34925677

RESUMEN

Introduction: intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global concern not only among adults but also adolescents. It has been reported that 35% of adolescent women have ever experienced IPV - occuring more so in non-industrialized countries. This study sought to understand the correlates associated with experiencing IPV among adolescent women between the ages 15 and 24 in five East African countries: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda. Methods: this was a secondary analysis of Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data on adolescent women aged 15-24 years in five East African countries. IPV was measured as a composite variable of emotional, physical, and sexual violence. Other sociodemographic, income, maternal, sexual, knowledge, behavioral, and partner-related variables were included in the analysis. Results: the prevalence of ever experiencing IPV was 45.1% (n=2380). A higher proportion of women who reported experiencing IPV had their first sexual encounter when they were less than 18 years of age (p<0.001). The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of experiencing IPV increased almost two times for women who were aged 18-24 years (aOR: 1.7; CI: 1.3-2.3), almost four times (aOR 3.8; CI: 1.7-8.3) for those who had two or more children, and two-fold for women who had ever terminated a pregnancy compared to those who had not (aOR 2.2; CI: 1.0-4.9). Additionally, there was a higher odds (aOR: 1.5 (1.0-2.3)) of experiencing IPV if the respondent believed their husband/spouse´s abuse was justified. Conclusion: raising early awareness and educating both the young males and females appropriately to mitigate contributing factors to IPV could ensure stable, healthy relationships free of domestic violence in the future.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Adolescente , Adulto , Burundi , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Kenia/epidemiología , Masculino , Prevalencia , Tanzanía/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(12): e24114, 2021 12 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34931998

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The popularity of mobile health (mHealth) technology has resulted in the development of numerous apps for almost every condition and disease management. mHealth and eHealth solutions for increasing awareness about, and safety around, intimate partner violence are no exception. These apps allow women to control access to these resources and provide unlimited, and with the right design features, safe access when these resources are needed. Few apps, however, have been designed in close collaboration with intended users to ensure relevance and effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to discuss the design of a suite of evidence-based mHealth and eHealth apps to facilitate early identification of unsafe relationship behaviors and tailored safety planning to reduce harm from violence including the methods by which we collaborated with and sought input from a population of intended users. METHODS: A user-centered approach with aspects of human-centered design was followed to design a suite of 3 app-based safety planning interventions. RESULTS: This review of the design suite of app-based interventions revealed challenges faced and lessons learned that may inform future efforts to design evidence-based mHealth and eHealth interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Following a user-centered approach can be helpful in designing mHealth and eHealth interventions for marginalized and vulnerable populations, and led to novel insights that improved the design of our interventions.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Aplicaciones Móviles , Telemedicina , Humanos , Tecnología
8.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 246, 2021 Dec 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903249

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: World health organization (WHO) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) is physical, sexual, or emotional abuse by an intimate partner or ex-partner or spouse to a woman. From all forms of violence, ~ 1.3 million people worldwide die each year, accounting for 2.5% of global mortality. During the COVID-19 crisis, control and prevention measures have brought women and potential perpetrators together which increase the risk of IPV. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the magnitude and associated factors of IPV against women during COVID-19 in Ethiopia. METHODS: Community based cross-section study was employed among 462 reproductive-age women to assess IPV and associated factors during COVID-19 pandemic. To select study participants one-stage cluster sampling technique was used. The data were entered into Epi data version 4.2 and exported to SPSS for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was used to check the association of dependent and independent variables and statistical significance was declared at P < 0.05. RESULT: A total of 448 study subjects were responded making a response rate of 96.97%. Two- third (67.6%) of the respondent's age range was between 20 and 29 years. All of the participants heard about the pandemic of COVID-19 at the time of onset. The lifetime and the last twelve months prevalence of women with IPV was 42.19% and 24.11%, respectively. About 58 (12.9%) had experienced all three types of violence. Participants age ≥ 35 (AOR = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.99-4.29), rural residence (AOR = 3.04; 95% CI: 2.59-6.25), husband's educational status of diploma and above (AOR = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.14-0.83), COVID-19 pandemic (AOR = 4.79; 95% CI: 1.13-6.86), and low social support (AOR = 3.23; 95% CI: 1.99-6.23) were independent predictors. CONCLUSIONS: In this study two in five women undergo one type of violence in their lifetime. The occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic has its impact on violence. Age ≥ 35, rural residence, husband's educational status of diploma and above, history of child death, COVID-19 pandemic, and low social support were independent predictors of violence. This implies insight to concerned bodies like policymakers and stakeholders to design appropriate policies to avert this magnitude and making zero tolerance for violence in society.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Violencia de Pareja , Adulto , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Pandemias , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2 , Parejas Sexuales , Adulto Joven
9.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 20(4): 287-296, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905449

RESUMEN

Introduction: Heterosexual couples are at high risk for HIV acquisition in sub-Saharan Africa, and HIV self-testing (HST) is an additional approach to expand access to HIV testing services. However, it is not well known how gender equality is associated with HST.Methods: We used intervention-arm data from a cluster-randomised controlled HST intervention trial (N = 1 618) conducted in Uganda to determine the association between attitudes towards intimate partner violence (IPV), decision-making power and male partner's uptake of HST among heterosexual couples expecting a child in south-central Uganda. The original study question was to assess the impact of providing pregnant women with HST kits to improve male partner's HIV testing rates. For this analysis, the primary exposures were gender equality (measured by male partner's and female partner's attitudes towards IPV and the female partner's household decision-making power), and the primary outcome was the male partner's uptake of HST. Multivariate logistic regression was used for analysis.Results: We found that male partner HST uptake did not vary depending on male partner's attitudes towards IPV or decision-making power; however, male partner HST uptake did depend on the female partner's attitude towards IPV, with 1.76 times more testing (95% CI 1.06-2.92) in couples where the woman had "medium" versus "high" acceptance of IPV, and 1.82 times more testing (95% CI 1.08-3.08) in couples where the woman had "low" versus "high" acceptance of IPV.Conclusions: This study shows the importance of appropriate negative attitudes by women to IPV in increasing male partner's HST uptake to integrate HST into national health care policies.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Prueba de VIH , Violencia de Pareja , Mujeres Embarazadas , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Humanos , Masculino , Embarazo , Autoevaluación , Parejas Sexuales , Uganda
10.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24(suppl 2): e210020, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909938

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence against adult women in Brazil. METHODS: Quantitative cross-sectional epidemiological study using the database of the National Survey of Health 2019. The prevalence in the last 12 months and crude and adjusted prevalence ratios of intimate partner violence were calculated, stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: Intimate partner violence was reported by 7.60% of Brazilian women aged from 18 to 59 years, with higher prevalence among younger women (8.96%), black women (9.05%), those with lower education level (8.55%) and low income (8.68%). After adjusted analysis, the age groups of 18-24 years old (PRadj: 1.41) and 25-39 years old (PRadj: 1.42) and income lower than one minimum wage (PRadj: 1.55) remained associated with intimate partner violence. CONCLUSIONS: Intimate partner violence was associated with younger and poorest women. This result points to the need to develop intersectoral policies, especially those aimed at reducing social inequalities and at the coping with intimate partner violence among adult women.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
11.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24(suppl 2): e210019, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910073

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of exposure to violence, characterizing its magnitude, types and occurrence in the adult population in Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with data from the National Health Survey conducted in 2019. The prevalence of violence in the last 12 months and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated according to sociodemographic variables. Crude prevalence ratios were estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of exposure to violence among adults in Brazil was 18.3% (95%CI 17.8-18.8), with a significantly higher frequency among women (19.4%; 95%CI 18.7-20.0), in the 18-29 age group (27.0%; 95%CI 25.7-28.4), in self-declared black people (20.6%; 95%CI 19.3-21.9) and mixed race (19.3%; 95%CI 18.6-20.1) and among inhabitants of the Northeast region (18.7%; 95%CI 18.0-19.5). Among the victims of violence, 15.6% (95%CI 14.2-17.0) sought health care, of which (91.2%; 95%CI 88.1-93.6) were attended. The most reported types of violence were: psychological (17.4%; 95%CI 16.9-17.9), physical (4.1%; 95%CI 3.9-4.4) and sexual (0.8%; 95%CI 0.7-0.9). Men were more exposed to violence with the use of firearms or sharp targets, while women were the predominant victims for all other types and mechanisms of violence. The aggressor most cited was the intimate partner, the most frequent place of occurrence of violence being the residence and public streets/places. CONCLUSION: In Brazil, violence affected one in five adults. Women, young people and people with black skin were the population segments most exposed to violence, which should be a priority in prevention actions.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a la Violencia , Violencia de Pareja , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Violencia
12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2292, 2021 12 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915874

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the Norwegian government announced a COVID-19 lockdown in order to reduce the spread of the coronavirus. In Norway, lockdown measures included restricting people's ability to leave their home and the closing of social institutions, thus reducing the capacity for victims of intimate partner violence to alert someone outside of their home about violent incidents that occurred during lockdown. At the same time, the restrictive measures forced the victim and the perpetrator to stay together for prolonged periods within the home, and reduced the possibility for them to escape or leave the perpetrator. The aim of this study was to investigate how the frequency and character of intimate partner violence reported to the police changed during the period of lockdown in Norway. METHODS: All cases of intimate partner violence registered in police files before the pandemic (from January 2016-February 2020) and during lockdown in Norway (March-December 2020) were included in the study, representing a total of 974 cases. Differences in the number and severity of cases were calculated using χ2-tests and Wilcoxon's rank sum test. Differences in the characteristics of the reported violence was assessed with the Brief Spousal Assault form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER) and tested with Fischer's exact test with Bonferroni correction. Standardised Morbidity Rate (SMR) statistics were used to analyse the proportion of immigrants as compared to the general population. RESULTS: Reported intimate partner violence increased by 54% during the lockdown period in Norway. Between March-December 2020, the police assessed the cases as being at higher risk of imminent and severe violence. Our findings indicated an overrepresentation of immigrant perpetrators before and during lockdown (SMR = 1.814, 95% CI = 1.792-1.836 before, and SMR = 1.807, 95% CI = 1.742-1.872 during lockdown). Notably, while victims with an immigrant background were overrepresented before lockdown, we found significantly lower proportion of immigrant IPV victims during the lockdown period (SMR = 1.070, 95% CI = 1.052-1.087 before, and SMR = 0.835, CI 95% CI = 0.787-0.883 during lockdown). Also, there were significantly more female perpetrators and male victims reported to the police during the lockdown period. A higher proportion of the victims were assessed as having unsafe living conditions and personal problems during lockdown. Finally, during the lockdown period in Norway, a higher proportion of perpetrators had a history of intimate relationship problems. CONCLUSIONS: Intimate partner violence increased dramatically during the COVID-19 lockdown. A range of options for victims to escape from their perpetrators, particularly during times of crisis, should be developed in line with good practice, and with a special focus on the most vulnerable victims.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Violencia de Pareja , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Policia , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e54288, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224586

RESUMEN

Objetivo: investigar a associação entre ideação suicida e violência por parceiro íntimo em mulheres. Método: estudo analítico e transversal, desenvolvido em Unidades Básicas de Saúde do Piauí-Brasil, com 369 mulheres adultas e com histórico de relacionamento. Os dados foram coletados de agosto de 2015 a março de 2016, por meio do Revised Conflict Tactics Scales e Self-Reporting Questionnaire, e analisados no software Statistical Package for the Social Science, versão 20.0. Resultados: verificou-se que 65,3% das mulheres sofreram violência por parceiro íntimo, 61,0% foi vítima de violência psicológica, 32,2% física, 18,7% moral e 17,1% sexual. Identificou-se associação entre ideação suicida e violência por parceiro íntimo (p=0,000), violência psicológica (p=0,001) e moral (p=0,000). Ser vítima de violência por parceiro íntimo aumenta 4,35 vezes as chances de as mulheres pensarem em cometer atos contra a própria vida. Conclusão: a ideação suicida está associada a violência por parceiro íntimo, violência psicológica e moral.


Objective: to investigate the association between suicidal ideation and intimate partner violence in women. Method: analytical and cross-sectional study carried out in Basic Health Units in Piauí, Brazil, with 369 adult women and with a relationship history. Data were collected from August 2015 to March 2016 using the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales and Self-Reporting Questionnaire, and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science software, version 20.0. Results: 65.3% of the women were found to have suffered intimate partner violence; 61.0%, psychological violence, 32.2%, physical violence, 18.7%, moral violence, and 17.1%, sexual violence. An association was identified between suicidal ideation and intimate partner violence (p = 0.000), psychological violence (p = 0.001), and moral violence (p = 0.000). Victims of intimate partner violence were 4.35 times more likely to think of committing acts against their own lives. Conclusion: suicidal ideation is associated with intimate partner violence, psychological and moral violence.


Objetivo: investigar la asociación entre ideación suicida y violencia de pareja en mujeres. Método: estudio analítico y transversal, realizado en Unidades Básicas de Salud de Piauí-Brasil, con 369 mujeres adultas y con antecedentes de parentesco. Los datos se recopilaron desde agosto de 2015 hasta marzo de 2016, utilizando el Revised Conflict Tactics Scales y Self-Reporting Questionnaire, y se analizaron utilizando el software Statistical Package for the Social Science, versión 20.0. Resultados: se encontró que el 65,3% de las mujeres sufrió violencia de pareja íntima, el 61,0% fue víctima de violencia psicológica, 32,2% física, 18,7% moral y 17,1% sexual. Se identificó asociación entre ideación suicida y violencia de pareja íntima (p = 0,000), violencia psicológica (p = 0,001) y violencia moral (p = 0,000). Ser víctima de violencia de pareja aumenta 4,35 veces las posibilidades de que las mujeres piensen en cometer actos contra su propia vida. Conclusión: la ideación suicida está asociada con la violencia de pareja, violencia psicológica y moral.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Ideación Suicida , Violencia de Pareja , Brasil/epidemiología , Salud Mental , Estudios Transversales , Salud de la Mujer
14.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210058, 2021.
Artículo en Español, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787229

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between child abuse and intimate partner violence victimization among married or cohabiting Peruvian women aged 18 years old or older. METHODS: Cross-sectional study analyzing secondary data from the National Survey on Social Relationships 2015. To find the association between child abuse and intimate partner violence victimization, a multinomial logistic regression adjusted for possible confounding variables was performed. RESULTS: Data from 1,084 married and cohabiting women were included. The prevalence of child abuse was 49.6% (95%CI 45.8-53.3) and the prevalence of intimate partner violence victimization was 64.2% (95%CI 60.5-67.8). An association was found between child abuse and intimate partner violence victimization (relative risk ratios 5.72, 95%CI 3.71-8.83). CONCLUSION: Married or cohabiting women in Peru who experienced childhood maltreatment are more likely to experience intimate partner violence in adulthood .


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños , Violencia de Pareja , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Perú/epidemiología
15.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 19: eAO6584, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817034

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and types of violence suffered by women and to identify the gender attitudes related to the situation. METHODS: This was a descritive, cross-sectional study incluiding 343 women who were assisted at the Brazilian Public Health System in countryside city in northeastern of Brazil. All participants were volunteers and they invited to participate during consultation at a Basic Health Unit. As participants, they filled out the World Health Organization Violence Against Women Questionnaire and responded to a sociodemographic questionnaire. RESULTS: The victims were, on average, 20.3 years old, and 53.2% of them were married. There was a prevalence of 52.9% of psychological violence, 30.5% of physical violence, and 12.3% of sexual violence. Participants reported alcoholism (67%) and jealousy (60.8%) as triggers to violence. The main psychological abuses were insults and humiliation. In terms of physical violence, the major ones were pushes and slaps. The sexual violence most reportedwere sexual intercourse against the will of the woman and sexual intercourse because of fear of the partner. A portion of the participants justified violence due to women's infidelity, refusal to have sex, and disobedience to her husband. CONCLUSION: Education in gender equality as a measure of opposition to the culture of female subjugation can reflect on the resignification of the violence suffered by them, and not on blaming the victim of violence by an intimate partner.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Salud Pública , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
16.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 222, 2021 Nov 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743711

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 infection control and prevention measures have contributed to the increase in incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and negatively impacted access to health and legal systems. The purpose of this commentary is to highlight the legal context in relation to IPV, and impact of COVID-19 on IPV survivors and IPV prevention and response services in Kenya, Malawi, and Sudan. Whereas Kenya and Malawi have ratified the Convention on Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and have laws against IPV, Sudan has yet to ratify the convention and lacks laws against IPV. Survivors of IPV in Kenya, Malawi and Sudan have limited access to quality health care, legal and psychosocial support services due to COVID-19 infection control and prevention measures. The existence of laws in Kenya and Malawi, which have culminated into establishment of IPV services, allows a sizable portion of the population to access IPV services in the pandemic period albeit sub-optimal. The lack of laws in Sudan means that IPV services are hardly available and as such, a minimal proportion of the population can access services. Civil society's push in Kenya has led to prioritisation of IPV services. Thus, a vibrant civil society, committed governments and favourable IPV laws, can lead to better IPV services during the COVID-19 pandemic period.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Violencia de Pareja , Femenino , Humanos , Kenia/epidemiología , Malaui/epidemiología , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Sudán/epidemiología
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769653

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Globally, there is evidence supporting the co-occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV), substance use disorders (SUD) and mental health disorders among women in prisons, however, there is limited research investigating these domains in the Andean region where rates of female incarceration have increased. The study objective was to explore the prevalence of IPV, SUD and depression among incarcerated women in a Peruvian prison and explore associations among these variables and related correlates. METHODS: 249 incarcerated women responded to a questionnaire about IPV, substance use, depression, and sexual behavior, and were screened for HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to estimate relative risk and the influence of substance use and depression on IPV rates. RESULTS: Twelve months prior to incarceration, of the women with sexual partners pre-incarceration (n = 212), 69.3% experienced threats of violence, 61.4% experienced ≥1 acts of physical violence, and 28.3% reported ≥1 act of sexual aggression. Pre-incarceration, 68.1% of drug-using women had a SUD, and 61.7% of those who consumed alcohol reported hazardous/harmful drinking. There were 20 (8.0%) HIV/STD cases; and 67.5% of the women reported depressive symptoms. Compared to women with no experiences of physical violence, a greater proportion of women who experienced least l violent act had depressive symptoms and engaged in sex work pre-incarceration. Depression was associated with physical violence (adjusted relative risk = 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.14-1.58). RECOMMENDATIONS: The findings provide evidence of a syndemic of IPV, substance abuse and depression among incarcerated women in a Peruvian prison. To help guide policy makers, further research is needed to determine if this is indicative of trends for other at-risk women in the region, and viable options to treat these women during incarceration to prevent recidivism and other long-term negative sequalae.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Prisioneros , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Perú/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Parejas Sexuales , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología
19.
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770188

RESUMEN

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the leading form of gender-based violence globally and increases during times of conflict and displacement. To reduce IPV and encourage help-seeking, a two-phase community-based intervention was co-designed with Rohingya in Malaysia and Syrians in Lebanon. Three day workshops, utilizing a social norms-based mental health-integrated approach, were implemented for women and men in each country (n = 148). Pre- to post-measures indicated reductions in beliefs about acceptability of violence and rigid gender norms, and improvements in mental health, functioning, coping, and self-efficacy for women and men following workshop participation. Workshop participation was also associated with increased help-seeking intent, for both mental health and IPV (victims and perpetrators). Workshops included community design of poster campaigns to address IPV, which were then tested in each setting using a randomized controlled trial in Malaysia (n = 240) and a matched cluster comparison in Lebanon (n = 260). Women in both settings found IPV less acceptable in the poster condition. Help-seeking preferences were also influenced by the poster for women and men in both countries. This participatory intervention research can provide a roadmap for use in other settings, emphasizing the value of community-generated solutions to IPV among displaced populations.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Refugiados , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Normas Sociales , Siria
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