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4.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 53-60, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-190649

RESUMEN

Intimate partner sexual violence has countless consequences for women suffering it. This research analyse the effect of the type of sexual coercion tactic and partner dependence on both the attribution of responsibility and the probability of leaving a relationship. In Study 1, six scenarios for different sexual tactics were presented (coaxing, coercion, and aggression) to 5 experts in order to select those with better evidence of content validity regarding the construct evaluated. In Study 2, the three selected scenarios were presented to 304 Spanish participants from the general population, analysing the effect of the type of tactic and dependence on attributed responsibility and the probability of leaving a relationship. Results showed that in the sexual aggression scenario, participants assigned the highest responsibility to the aggressorand showed the strongest likelihood of leaving the relationship. Further, results revealed that in the coaxing scenario, dependence had an indirect effect on the probability of leaving the relationship through a lower responsibility attributed to the aggressor. As a conclusion, this study emphasises the importance of the sexual tactic used by aggressors in individuals' perception about sexual coercion, contributing to increasing the visibility of this unacceptable action, especially in its more subtle and normalised form


La violencia sexual en las relaciones de pareja tiene innumerables consecuencias para las mujeres que la sufren. Esta investigación analiza el efecto del tipo de táctica de coerción sexual y la dependencia de la pareja en la atribución de responsabilidad y la probabilidad de dejar la relación. En el Estudio 1 se presentaron seis escenarios sobre diferentes tácticas sexuales(persuasión, coerción y agresión) a 5 expertos con la finalidad de seleccionar a aquellos que mostraran una mayor validez de contenido con respecto al constructo evaluado. En el Estudio 2, 304 participantes leyeron los tres escenarios seleccionados y se analizó el efecto del tipo de táctica y la dependencia en la responsabilidad atribuida y en la probabilidad de dejar la relación. Los resultados mostraron que los participantes responsabilizaban más al agresor y dejarían con más probabilidad la relación en la condición de agresión sexual que en la condición de coerción sexual o persuasión sexual. Además, los resultados revelan que en el escenario más sutil (persuasión) la dependencia tiene un efecto indirecto sobre probabilidad de dejar la relación a través de una menor responsabilidad atribuida al agresor. Como conclusión, esta investigación enfatiza la importancia que tiene la táctica sexual utilizada por el agresor en la percepción de la coerción sexual, contribuyendo a aumentar la visibilidad de este acto inaceptable, especialmente en su forma más sutil y normalizada


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Dependencia Psicológica , Manejo Psicológico , Factores de Riesgo
5.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20190040, Jan.-Dec. 2020. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1145164

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: this study aims to learn the perception of adolescents, who are immersed in the digital age, about intimate partner violence, from the perspective of the Paradigm of Complexity. Method: a qualitative and strategic social research; 39 adolescents, males and females, attending high school in two state schools in a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, participated in the study. Data was collected through interviews and focus groups between October 2016 and April 2017 and analyzed in the light of the referred Paradigm. Results: the results showed the following: acceptance of violence in intimate relationships among adolescents; persistence of taboos, myths and beliefs in society that were reproduced in the participants' reports; new forms of violence, relationships and notions engendered and updated by the digital age; prevalence of psychological violence among adolescents. Conclusion: the study shows the association between love and violence out of jealousy and the control and power over the partner's social networks as a legitimate form of love in the daily life of intimate relationships, which are expressed in different ways. Failure to accept certain conditions is perceived as a form of cheating. The Paradigm of Complexity contributed in an indispensable way by offering an integral look on the theme and by providing greater clarity about the elements that make up the phenomenon in an articulated and contextualized way.


RESUMEN Objetivo: el presente estudio pretende conocer la percepción de los adolescentes, inmersos en la era digital, sobre la violencia en las relaciones íntimas, desde la perspectiva del Paradigma de la Complejidad. Método: enfoque cualitativo del tipo investigación social estratégica, que tuvo como participantes a 39 adolescentes, de ambos sexos, estudiantes secundarios en dos escuelas estatales de un municipio del interior del estado de San Pablo, Brasil. Los datos se recolectaron por medio de entrevistas y grupos focales en el período comprendido entre octubre de 2016 y abril de 2017, siendo analizados a la luz del mencionado Paradigma. Resultados: los resultados indicaron lo siguiente: la aceptación de hechos de violencia en las relaciones íntimas entre; la persistencia de tabúes, mitos y creencias en la sociedad y reproducidos en los testimonios de los participantes; nuevas formas de violencia, vinculación y nociones engendradas y actualizadas por la era digital; y prevalencia de la violencia psicológica entre los adolescentes. Conclusión: en el estudio se evidencia una asociación entre el amor y la violencia por celos, el control y la dominación de las redes sociales de la pareja como forma de amor legitimándolas en la vida diaria de las relaciones íntimas y manifestándose de diversas formas. No aceptar determinadas condiciones se percibe como una forma de traición. El Paradigma de la Complejidad contribuyó de manera imprescindible para lograr una perspectiva integral sobre la temática, proporcionando mayor claridad sobre los elementos que componen el fenómeno de un modo articulado y contextualizado.


RESUMO Objetivo: o presente estudo visa conhecer a percepção de adolescentes, imersos na era digital, sobre a violência nos realcionamentos íntimos sob a perspectiva do Paradigma da Complexidade. Método: abordagem qualitativa do tipo pesquisa social estratégica, e teve como participantes 39 adolescentes, de ambos os sexos, frequentadores do ensino médio de duas escolas estaduais de um município do interior do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados utilizando entrevistas, grupos focais, no período compreendido entre outubro de 2016 a abril de 2017 sendo analisados à luz do referido Paradigma. Resultados: os resultados indicaram: a aceitação da ocorrência de violência nos relacionamentos íntimos entre os adolescentes; persistência de tabus, mitos e crenças na sociedade e reproduzidos nos relatos dos participantes; novas formas de violência, relacionamento e noções engendradas e atualizadas pela era digital; prevalência de violência psicológica entre os adolescentes. Conclusão: o estudo evidencia a associação entre amor e violência por ciúme, o controle e dominação das redes sociais do parceiro como forma de amor legitimadas no cotidiano das relações íntimas, sendo estas expressas de diversas formas. A não aceitação de determinadas condições é percebida como uma forma de traição. O Paradigma da Complexidade contribuiu de forma imprescindível para o desenvolvimento de um olhar integral sobre a temática, proporcionando maior clareza sobre os elementos que compõem o fenômeno de modo articulado e contextualizado.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adolescente , Servicios de Salud Escolar , Adolescente , Investigación Cualitativa , Violencia de Pareja
6.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(6): 350-362, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191534

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Existing research explores Parole Board decision-making, but not specifically for perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV), a special case due to the gendered and secretive nature of IPV and the role of control in predicting reoffending. AIM: To identify associations between case variables in England and Wales Parole Board decisions regarding perpetrators of IPV and explore how these variables help construct the decision. METHODS: Logistic regressions regarding decisions in a sample of all 137 male prisoners who had abused women and applied for release or progression to open conditions in England and Wales from April 2018 to September 2019, developed into latent class analyses. Thematic analyses of six interviews with Parole Board members about decision-making in IPV cases. RESULTS: Release decisions were strongly predicted by the recommendations of offender managers, offender supervisors and psychologists, mediated by the Parole Board's confidence in their ability. Decisions were also significantly associated with custodial behaviour and attendance on courses, mediated by the Board's confidence in the prisoner's insight and honesty. Thematic analysis was both consistent with these findings and provided a context in which the associations could be understood. CONCLUSIONS: The findings have implications for understanding the dynamics between professional decisions and the Parole Board's decision; for the importance of offender managers demonstrating their expertise and ability to manage risk; for Parole Board members' reflection and development; for academic research into IPV; and for those who have experienced IPV and are looking to understand parole decisions about their abuser.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Prisioneros/psicología , Prisiones/organización & administración , Adulto , Inglaterra , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Gales
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158077

RESUMEN

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health issue worldwide and a serious violation of human rights. Recognizing IPV as a form of violence is essential for both victims who need help and offenders who can join treatment programs. Furthermore, only a society able to identify violence can effectively deal with IPV. The present study is aimed at investigating the role of sociocultural dimensions (i.e., ambivalent sexism toward women, ambivalence toward men, and lay theories about gender differences) in sustaining myths about IPV and moral disengagement. The participants were 359 university students (76.5% female). The results show that hostile sexism toward women plays a key role in sustaining both myths and moral disengagement. Moreover, benevolence toward men and biological lay gender theories (i.e., "naïve" theories assuming that sex differences are a product of biology and genetics) significantly affected the endorsement of IPV myths. The implications are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Principios Morales , Participación Social , Femenino , Hostilidad , Humanos , Masculino , Sexismo , Violencia
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158154

RESUMEN

(1) Background: General beliefs and attitudes toward Male-to-Female Intimate Partner Violence (MFIPV) play a fundamental, critical role in the expression of violent behaviors in relationships during both adolescence and adulthood. The objective of the present study was to contrast the degree of myth acceptance regarding MFIPV, based on the sex and age of Spanish teenagers and emerging adults. (2) Methods: A sample of 1580 participants aged between 15 and 24 took part in the study. The subjects were enrolled in 34 secondary schools and two university centers spread across Seville (Spain). A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was carried out for the data analysis. (3) Results: Overall, males had a higher level of myth acceptance than females in all the dimensions considered in the study. In the case of significantly high levels of myth acceptance, males quintupled females. The research dimension that revealed the greatest differences was romantic love. Regarding age, a degree of stability was observed in the age period of 15-17 years and 18-20 years, but this subsequently decreased for the age range of 21-24 years. (4) Conclusions: Efforts should be focused on promoting actions to challenge male mandates and narratives concerning romantic or true love.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Adolescente , Adulto , Agresión , Actitud , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , España , Adulto Joven
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158179

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health problem that disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minorities in the U.S. This study examines risk factors for IPV perpetration that are salient for racial/ethnic minorities; specifically, we test if racial/ethnic discrimination among Latino men is associated with IPV perpetration, if poor mental health (MH) mediates this link, and whether relationships differ by immigrant status. METHODS: Using National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-II) Wave 2 (2004-2005) data, multigroup structural equation modeling compared immigrant (N = 1187) and U.S.-born (N = 1077) Latinos on a mediation model whereby discrimination increases IPV risk via poor MH (anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress (PTSS); alcohol dependence (AD) and drug dependence (DD)). RESULTS: For U.S.-born Latinos, discrimination increased anxiety (ß = 0.24, p < 0.001), depression (ß = 0.16, p < 0.001), PTSS (ß = 0.09, p < 0.001), AD (ß = 0.11, p < 0.001) and DD (ß = 0.16, p < 0.001); anxiety (ß = 0.16, p < 0.001), AD (ß = 0.19, p < 0.001) and DD (ß = 0.09, p < 0.01) increased IPV risk. Among Latino immigrants, discrimination increased anxiety (ß = 0.07, p < 0.001), depression (ß = 0.16, p < 0.001), PTSS (ß = 0.08, p < 0.001) and DD (ß = 0.03, p < 0.001); PTSS (ß = 0.16, p < 0.001), AD (ß = 0.21, p < 0.001) and DD (ß = 0.05, p < 0.01) increased IPV risk. CONCLUSIONS: Among Latino men, discrimination is associated with poorer MH and contributes to IPV perpetration; MH risk factors vary by immigrant status.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Salud Mental , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Grupos Étnicos , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138073

RESUMEN

Intimate partner violence is a recognized public health and development issue that is consistently and comparatively measured through women's experience of physical and/or sexual acts by their partner. While physical intimate partner violence is covered by a wide range of behaviors, sexual intimate partner violence (SIPV) is often only measured through attempted or completed forced sex, ignoring less obvious forms of sexual intimate partner violence. We explored women's conceptualizations of SIPV by conducting in-depth interviews with 18 Tanzanian women. Using a thematic approach, we identified key features of women's sexual intimate relationships and their perceptions of them. The women clearly defined acts of positive sexual relationships that occurred with mutual consent and seduction and SIPV that included acts of forced sex and sex under the threat of violence. They also identified several acts that were crossing the line, whereby a discrepancy of views existed whether they constituted SIPV, such as having sex when out of the mood, sex being the duty of the wife, sex during the menses, requests for anal sex, having sex to not lose the husband, husband refusing sex and husband having other partners. Women in this study felt violated by a far wider range of sexual acts in their relationships. Future studies need to improve the measurement of sexual intimate partner violence to allow the collection of encompassing, yet comparable, data on this harmful phenomenon.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Adulto , Formación de Concepto , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Conducta Sexual , Salud Sexual , Tanzanía
11.
Am Surg ; 86(10): 1230-1237, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167696

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) refers to physical or sexual violence, stalking, and psychological aggression by an intimate partner. The present study aims to examine the incidence, injury patterns, and outcomes using a representative nationwide data set. STUDY DESIGN: The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample database was queried from 2010 to 2014 to identify IPV in adult patients by injury code E967.3. Demographics, diagnoses, and injury mechanisms were captured. Primary outcome was mortality, and logistic regression analyses were used to compare the baselines and outcomes. RESULTS: 132 806 IPV emergency visits were identified, with 5.1% of patients requiring hospitalization. Most patients were female (92.6%). The most common injury mechanisms were unintentional injury (36%) and striking (22.0%). Contusions of face/scalp/neck (13.2%) and unspecified head injury (6.9%) were the most common diagnoses. Males were significantly older [median and interquartile range of 39 (30, 50)] than females [33 (26, 43)], and were more frequently hospitalized (6.7% vs. 5.0%, P = .002) with more injuries with injury severity score ≥ 15 (.7% vs. .4%, P = .004) than females. Overall, IPV-related mortality was .06%, .26% in males and .05% in females (P = .003). Older age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.053) and male gender (OR = 3.102) were significantly associated with mortality. The annual incidence rate decreased from 9.7 in 2010 to 8.2/100 000 US population in 2014 (R2 = .659). CONCLUSIONS: Young women are more likely to be victims of IPV, whereas men are more likely to be older and hospitalized with more severe injuries and worse outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Heridas y Traumatismos/epidemiología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143185

RESUMEN

The knowledge of the promoting variables of dating violence has been a topic much studied in the last decade. However, the definition of the profile of this type of victim still presents numerous unknowns that hinder the effectiveness of prevention programs against violence. This study analyzes the interaction of cognitive, emotional and behavioral variables that converge in the victim profile. The sample comprised 2577 adolescents (55.2% girls) of 14 to 18 years in age (M = 15.9, SD = 1.2). The instruments used were the dating violence questionnaire (CUVINO), the scale of detection of sexism in adolescents (DSA), Mechanisms of Moral Disengagement Scale and Child and Adolescent Disposition Scale (CADS). To study the relationship between the different variables considered in this article, a SEM analysis was used. The results show that victims of gender violence and emotional abuse have high scores in benevolent sexism, moral disengagement and emotionally negative behavioral patterns. Likewise, the existence of an interdependent relationship between these three sets of variables was found.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Víctimas de Crimen , Violencia de Pareja , Adolescente , Cognición , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Sexismo , Violencia
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 345, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224411

RESUMEN

Introduction: intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health problem of human rights concern. It is a global issue, regardless of social, economic, religious or cultural group. Ever experienced IPV is a risk factor for many acute and chronic diseases and or stress-related conditions among women. This study determined the prevalence and predictors of lifetime IPV among women in an urban community in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 respondents from April to September 2019. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information from respondents. Data analysis was done using SPSS Version 22. Descriptive analyses were performed. Associations were explored with Chi-square test; multivariate analysis was done with logistic regression at p≤5% level of significance (95% CI). Results: a total of 400 adult women aged 18-73 years who have been in an intimate relationship for at least 1 year participated in this study. The mean ± SD age of the respondents was 36.72 ± 11.74 years. Lifetime prevalence of IPV was 73.3%. The significant predictors for IPV were; being employed (OR=0.461; 95% CI=0.230-0.924); witnessed parental violence (OR=1.909; 95% CI=1.023-3.563); partner consuming alcohol (OR=1.669; 95% CI=0.999-2.788) and partner having other sexual partners (OR=2.104; 95% CI=1.174-3.771). Conclusion: community-based interventions by government and other stakeholders are needed to empower women, reduce exposure of children to IPV at home and provide enlightenment education on IPV in communities.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Parejas Sexuales , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
14.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 97, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146302

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of violence during pregnancy and the association with the socioeconomic, behavioral and clinical characteristics of pregnant women. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in a low-risk maternity hospital in the municipality of Cariacica, Espírito Santo. A total of 330 puerperal women were interviewed from August to October 2017. Information on socioeconomic, behavioral, reproductive and clinical characteristics, as well as life experiences, was collected through a questionnaire. To identify the types of violence, the proper World Health Organization instrument was used. Gross bivariate and multivariate analysis was performed and adjusted for Poisson regression with robust variance. RESULTS: Prevalence was 16.1% (95%CI 2.5-20.4) for psychological violence, 7.6% (95%CI 5.1-11.0) for physical violence and 2.7% (95%CI 1.4-5.2) for sexual violence. Psychological violence remained associated with age, family income, beginning of sexual life, disease in pregnancy, desire to interrupt pregnancy and number of partners. Physical violence was associated with schooling, beginning of sexual life and disease in pregnancy. Sexual violence remained associated with marital status and desire to interrupt pregnancy (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Psychological violence by an intimate partner was the most prevalent among pregnant women. Women that were younger, had lower income and less schooling, who started their sexual life before the age of 14 and who wished to interrupt pregnancy, experienced violence more frequently during pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Abuso Físico/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Maltrato Conyugal/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Abuso Físico/psicología , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Maltrato Conyugal/psicología
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 996, 2020 Oct 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129317

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is highly prevalent in the United States and impacts the physical and mental health and social well-being of those who experience it. Healthcare settings are important intervention points for IPV screening and referral, yet there is a wide range of implementation of IPV protocols in healthcare settings in the U.S., and the evidence of the usefulness of IPV screening is mixed. This process evaluation investigates the facilitators and barriers to implementing Coordinated Care for IPV Survivors through the M Health Community Network ("M Health Network"), an intervention that aimed to standardize IPV screening and referral in a multi-specialty clinic and surgery center (CSC). Two validated IPV screens were introduced and mandated to be done by rooming staff at least once every 3 months with all clinic patients regardless of gender; the Humiliation Afraid Rape Kick (HARK) for presence of IPV and the shortened Danger Assessment (DA-5) for lethality of IPV. Upon a positive screen, the patient was offered immediate informational resources and, if willing, was referred to a social worker for care coordination with a community organization. METHODS: Semi-structured, individual and group process interviews with clinic managers and clinic staff at 8 CSC clinics (N = 24) were undertaken at 3,12, and 27 months after intervention start. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with the research team (N = 3) post-implementation. A Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) codebook was used to code data in two rounds. After each round, thick description was used to write detailed and contextual descriptions of each code. Facilitators and barriers to implementation were identified during the second round of thick description. RESULTS: Facilitators to implementation were clinic staff support, dedication, and flexibility and research team engagement. Barriers were lack of prioritization, loss of intervention champions, lack of knowledge about intervention protocol and resources, staff and patient discomfort discussing IPV, and operational issues with screen technology. CONCLUSIONS: The IPV protocol was implemented, but faced common barriers. CFIR is a complex, but comprehensive, tool to guide process evaluation for IPV screening and referral interventions in health systems in the U.S.


Asunto(s)
Asistencia Médica , Evaluación de Procesos, Atención de Salud , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria , Femenino , Programas de Gobierno , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/prevención & control , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Derivación y Consulta , Parejas Sexuales , Sobrevivientes , Estados Unidos
16.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 249, 2020 11 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172466

RESUMEN

COVID-19 related guidelines and movement restrictions are designed to protect the public's health and reduce disease transmission; yet, COVID-19 related restrictions on movement including social distancing, isolation, quarantine, and shelter-in-place orders have an unknown effect on violence and abuse within relationships. As the pandemic has progressed, many have justifiably speculated that such restrictions may pose a danger to the safety and well-being of people experiencing such violence. Early in the pandemic, countries hard hit by COVID-19 began raising the alarm bell about the impacts of the disease on IPV occurrence. Police in China report that 90% of the causes of recent IPV cases could be attributed to the COVID-19 epidemic. Rising fears and anxiety about prolonged movement restrictions, increased economic strain and diminished health care capacity to support survivors are among the potential reasons for such dramatic effects. Under normal circumstances: low income, unemployment, economic stress, depression, emotional insecurity and social isolation are all risk factors for using violence against partners. Many of these factors may worsen in the context of COVID-19. Despite the urgency in addressing COVID-19, existing health concerns like Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) persist-and may well be worsened by the virus. We simply do not yet know the effects of COVID-19 on violence, nor do we know which interventions work best to prevent and respond to it within the context of the pandemic. The vast majority of information available about IPV and violence during the pandemic has been based on anecdotal reports. The call to action for the research community is clear. We must systematically measure the effects of COVID-19 and movement related restrictions on violence. As always when researching violence, serious consideration must be given to ethics and safety. Violence researchers must mobilize to investigate the impacts of COVID-19 on violence and human health.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Violencia de Pareja , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , China , Humanos , Investigación/tendencias
17.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241392, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141842

RESUMEN

Intimate partner violence is the most common type of violence against women. Attitudes towards this violence are increasingly recognized as key to understanding this social and public health problem because a social environment that accepts or even supports it creates a climate that breeds further violence and encourages their perpetration. The evidence available shows that these attitudes are influenced by different individual, organizational and community factors, and that the supportive attitudes are generally more common among males, and among older and less educated people. This paper presents two cross-sectional studies which aim to obtain a deeper understanding of supportive attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women in a Spanish-speakers context. Results obtained show that the two questionnaires used may be useful for evaluating supporting attitudes towards this violence in Spanish-speaking samples. Thus, the Inventory of Distorted Thoughts about Women and Violence (IPDMV), one of the one of the most widely used tools to this aim among Spanish-speakers, includes information regarding the minimization of this violence and the responsibility of perpetrators, and it seems better able to capture the effect of previous training, which would be consistent with the fact that it was initially designed to detect the effects of interventions; and the Inventory of Beliefs about Intimate Partner Violence (IBIPV), a new tool recently designed to this aim, is more focused on supportive attitudes and seems more effective for capturing differences between men and women in blaming victims and exonerating perpetrators. Additionally, the results obtained allow us to complement previous studies on the effects that factors such as gender, age, or previous training have on supportive attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Lenguaje , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
18.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(4): 475-482, 2020 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136748

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has necessitated widespread lockdown to mitigate the pandemic. This study examines the influence of resilience on the impact of COVID-related stress and enforced lockdown on mental health, drug use, and treatment adherence among people living with HIV (PLWH) in Argentina. SETTING: PLWH residing predominantly in Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area and urban regions of Argentina were identified from a private clinic electronic database. METHODS: Participants completed an anonymous online survey to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on economic disruption, resilience, mental health outcomes (depression, anxiety, stress, and loneliness), adherence to HIV treatment, and substance use. We performed ordinary least squares and logistic regressions to test whether resilient coping buffered the impact of economic disruption on mental health and drug use during quarantine. RESULTS: A total of 1336 PLWH aged 18-82 were enrolled. The impact of economic disruption on mental health ΔF(1,1321) = 8.86, P = 0.003 and loneliness ΔF(1,1326) = 5.77, P = 0.016 was buffered by resilience. A 3-way interaction between resilient buffering, stress, and sex was significant ΔF(1,1325) = 4.76, P = 0.029. Participants reported less than excellent adherence to medication (33%), disruption to mental health services (11%), and disruption to substance abuse treatment (1.3%) during lockdown. DISCUSSION: The impact of COVID-stress and lockdown on emotional distress seemed mitigated by resilience coping strategies, and the buffering impact of resilience on perceived stress was greater among women. Results highlight PLWH's capacity to adhere to treatment in challenging circumstances and the importance of developing resilience skills for better coping with stress and adversity.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Salud Mental/tendencias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Trastornos de Estrés Traumático Agudo/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Argentina , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/tendencias , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Modelos Logísticos , Soledad , Masculino , Servicios de Salud Mental/normas , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/economía , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/economía , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Resiliencia Psicológica , Factores Sexuales , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Apoyo Social , Trastornos de Estrés Traumático Agudo/etiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/etiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Cumplimiento y Adherencia al Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2020802, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044551

RESUMEN

Importance: Female sex workers (FSWs) who use drugs face increased risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) and nonpartner violence (NPV). The association between violence and drug overdose is unknown. Objective: To examine the association between IPV, NPV, and nonfatal drug overdose among FSWs who use drugs in Kazakhstan. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included 400 adult FSWs in Kazakhstan who reported illicit drug use in the past year, exchanged sex for money or drugs, and reported having unprotected sex in the past 90 days. Baseline data were collected from February 2015 to May 2017 from Project Nova, an HIV prevention study among FSWs who use drugs in Kazakhstan. Data analysis was conducted from April 2019 to March 2020. Exposures: Lifetime and recent (past 90 day) experiences of physical, sexual, and psychological IPV and NPV using the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale. Subtypes of violence were identified using exploratory factor analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Lifetime and recent incidence of nonfatal overdose; sociodemographic characteristics as well as lifetime and recent sex work and drug use behaviors were also collected. Results: The 400 participants had a mean (SD) age of 34.1 (8.4) years. Most experienced food insecurity (358 [89.5%]) and homelessness (232 [58.0%]) in the past 90 days; one-third (130 [32.5%]) reported a history of incarceration. Most (359 [89.7%]) experienced some form of violence; 150 (37.5%) reported a lifetime nonfatal overdose, of whom 27 (18.0%) reported nonfatal overdose in the past 90 days. Lifetime severe physical violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.02-1.59; P = .03), engagement in sex work for more than 10 years (aOR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.50-4.28; P < .001), and a history of incarceration (aOR, 4.34; 95% CI, 2.58-7.32; P < .001) were associated with greater odds of nonfatal overdose. Engaging in sex work for more than 10 years (aOR, 3.97; 95% CI, 1.36-11.61; P = .01) and a history of incarceration (aOR, 3.63; 95% CI, 1.39-9.48; P = .008) were associated with greater odds of recent nonfatal overdose. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, violence against FSWs who use drugs in Kazakhstan was associated with increased odds of nonfatal overdose. Harm reduction programs for women should consider including services to address gender-based violence and the needs of women after incarceration.


Asunto(s)
Sobredosis de Droga/epidemiología , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Trabajadores Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Sobredosis de Droga/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Kazajstán , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Asunción de Riesgos , Trabajadores Sexuales/psicología , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Violencia Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
20.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240674, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064780

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While the link between alcohol use and male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) has been well-established, research is needed to test whether psychosocial factors interact with alcohol use to exacerbate IPV perpetration. We tested whether depressive symptoms influenced the strength and/or direction of the alcohol-IPV relationship among men with HIV in Vietnam. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis using data from a randomized controlled trial conducted in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam. Participants were clinic patients with HIV and hazardous alcohol use. Questionnaires were administered at baseline, three, six, and 12 months. Alcohol use was assessed as proportion of days alcohol abstinent. Analyses were restricted to males who reported being married/cohabitating at baseline (N = 313). Multilevel growth models were used to test whether time-varying depressive symptoms modified the time-varying effect of alcohol use on IPV perpetration. RESULTS: Time-varying depressive symptoms modified the effect of proportion of days alcohol abstinent on IPV perpetration. However, the pattern of effect modification was not as expected, as reporting depressive symptoms weakened the alcohol-IPV relationship. At times when participants screened negative for depressive symptoms, those who reported higher proportion of days alcohol abstinent than usual had significantly lower odds of IPV perpetration (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.17, 95% Confidence Interval 0.06, 0.45, p = 0.0004). At times when participants screened positive for depressive symptoms, there was no observed effect of alcohol use on IPV perpetration (OR = 4.28, 95% CI 0.80, 22.78, p = 0.09). CONCLUSION: The findings highlight the complex nature of the alcohol-IPV relationship and the need to investigate the intersection between hazardous drinking, mental health, and IPV. Men who concurrently report depressive symptoms and heightened alcohol use may be socially isolated from an intimate partner or experiencing fatigue, leading to less alcohol-related IPV perpetration. Mental health interventions addressing depression and alcohol misuse integrated into HIV services may reduce IPV perpetration.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Violencia de Pareja , Adulto , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estado Civil , Prevalencia , Vietnam/epidemiología
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