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1.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180432, Jan.-Dec. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1059134

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objectives: to identify situations of violence in the daily work of the health professionals of the Family Health Strategy and to describe the conducts adopted by these professionals in relation to the situations of violence identified. Method: a qualitative, descriptive and exploratory study whose scenario was a Family Clinic of the city of Rio de Janeiro. Eighteen health professionals participated. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and subjected to content analysis. Results: three thematic categories emerged: Situations of workplace violence in the Family Health Strategy; Consequences of workplace violence on the Family Health Strategy; The nurse's role as leader of the Family Health Team and the strategies adopted in the face of workplace violence. Conclusions: situations of interpersonal violence and collective violence were identified, exemplified by the contact with armed violence in the territory, racial discrimination, peer violence and violence suffered by the user, such as domestic violence, directly affecting the professional. The importance is highlighted of the nurse's role as leader of the Family Health Strategy team, envisioning the management of violence situations, often neglected.


RESUMEN Objetivos: identificar las situaciones de violencia en la rutina laboral de los profesionales de salud de la Estrategia de Salud de la Familia y describir las conductas que adoptan estos profesionales ante las situaciones de violencia identificadas. Método: estudio cualitativo, descriptivo y exploratorio que tuvo como escenario a una Clínica de Salud Familiar del municipio de Río de Janeiro. Participaron 18 profesionales de la salud. Los datos se recolectaron a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas y se los sometió a análisis de contenido. Resultados: surgieron tres categorías temáticas: Situaciones de violencia laboral en la Estrategia de Salud de la Familia; Consecuencias de la violencia laboral en la Estrategia de Salud de la Familia y Desempeño de los enfermeros como líderes de los equipos de Salud de la Familia y las estrategias adoptadas ante la violencia laboral. Conclusiones: se identificaron situaciones de violencia interpersonal y colectiva, ejemplificadas por el contacto con la violencia armada en el campo de acción, discriminación racial, violencia entre pares y violencia sufrida por el usuario, como ser la violencia doméstica, que afecta directamente al profesional. Se destaca la importancia del desempeño de los enfermeros como líderes de los equipos de la Estrategia de Salud de la Familia, con vistas a manejar las situaciones de violencia laboral, muchas veces desatendidas.


RESUMO Objetivos: identificar as situações de violência no cotidiano de trabalho dos profissionais de saúde da Estratégia de Saúde da Família e descrever as condutas adotadas por esses profissionais perante as situações de violência identificadas. Método: estudo qualitativo, descritivo e exploratório cujo cenário foi uma Clínica da Família do município do Rio de Janeiro. Participaram 18 profissionais da saúde. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas semiestruturadas e submetidos à análise de conteúdo. Resultados: emergiram três categorias temáticas: Situações de violência no trabalho na Estratégia de Saúde da Família; Consequências da violência no trabalho na Estratégia de Saúde da Família; Atuação do enfermeiro como líder da Equipe de Saúde da Família e as estratégias adotadas perante a violência no trabalho. Conclusões: foram identificadas situações de violência interpessoal e a violência coletiva, exemplificadas pelo contato com a violência armada no território, discriminação racial, violência entre os pares e violência sofrida pelo usuário, como a violência doméstica, afetando diretamente o profissional. Destaca-se a importância da atuação do enfermeiro como líder da equipe da Estratégia de Saúde da Família vislumbrando o gerenciamento das situações de violência no trabalho, muitas vezes negligenciadas.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Violencia , Salud de la Familia , Personal de Salud , Atención Primaria de Salud , Rol de la Enfermera , Violencia Laboral , Liderazgo , Enfermeras y Enfermeros
2.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 61-68, jul.-dic. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-190650

RESUMEN

School coexistence/violence is often the subject of social alarm. There is no consensus on the prevalence of violent behavior in the classroom, but there does seem to be about its differences according to sex, socioeconomic level, or the importance of preventive interventions for its reduction. Models consider attitudes towards violence as an indicator of risk for its expression. The objectives of this study are to explore the psychometric properties of the revised version of Cuestionario de Actitudes Hacia la Violencia [Attitudes towards Violence Questionnaire] (CAHV-25) in primary and secondary education students, proposing a version of four scales and a total of 28 items, along with the exploration of their significance as a function of sex and academic cycle. A qualitative review of CAHV-25 and a psychometric study of the revised version in each of its original dimensions was carried out, obtaining the fit indicators of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, the scale was studied as a function of sex and educational stage se in school children (N = 600) of the Region of Murcia (Spain). The four dimensions show better psychometric properties in their revised version. Attitudes towards violence are more present in males and in secondary school. As conclusions, the proposed version optimizes the detection of attitudes towards violence in schoolchildren and suggests more specific school violence prevention programs


La convivencia/violencia escolar, a menudo, es objeto de alarma social. No parece existir consenso en la prevalencia de conductas violentas en las aulas, pero sí en sus diferencias según sexo, nivel socioeconómico o la importancia de las intervenciones preventivas para su disminución. Los modelos sitúan a las actitudes hacia la violencia como un indicador de riesgo para la manifestación de dichas conductas. Los objetivos del presente estudio son explorar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión ampliada del Cuestionario de Actitudes Hacia la Violencia (CAHV-25) en alumnos de Educación Primaria y Secundaria, proponiendo una versión dividida en cuatro escalas y 28 ítems en total, junto a la exploración de la significación según sexo y etapa académica. Se ha llevado a cabo una revisión cualitativa del cuestionario CAHV-25 y se realizó un estudio psicométrico de la misma para cada una de sus dimensiones originales obteniendo los indicadores de ajuste de Análisis Factorial Exploratorio y Confirmatorio en menores de Educación Primaria y Secundaria (N = 600) de la Región de Murcia (España). Los resultados indican que las cuatro dimensiones tienen mejores propiedades psicométricas en su versión revisada. Las actitudes hacia la violencia son mayores en varones y en Secundaria. Se concluye que la versión propuesta permite maximizar la detección de actitudes hacia la violencia en menores escolarizados, sirviendo de base para el planteamiento de posibles programas de prevención de violencia escolar más específicos


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estudiantes/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Actitud , Análisis Factorial , Conducta del Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Prevalencia , Psicometría
3.
Braz Dent J ; 31(5): 548-556, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146340

RESUMEN

The aims of this investigation were to describe the profile of men and women victims of violence and identify factors associated with the severity of facial trauma. A retrospective study was carried out from 762 records of victims attended at the Institute of Legal Medicine and Dentistry located in a metropolitan region of Northeastern Brazil. The dependent variable was type of facial trauma suffered by victims. Independent variables were the sociodemographic characteristics of victims, characteristics of aggressors and circumstances of violence. Descriptive, bivariate (c2 test) and multivariate statistics were made through logistic regression. Level of significance was set at p < 0.05. The mean age of victims was 29.78 years (SD=13.33). Based on the final regression model, male subjects [odds ratio (OR)=2.22, 95% CI=1.08-4.57, p=0.030], assaulted by other male subjects (OR=4.88; 95% CI=1.12-21.26; p=0.035) through instrument (OR=6.67; 95% CI=2.85-15.60; p<0,001) or mixed aggressions (OR=4.34; 95% CI=1.44-13.02; p=0.009) were more likely to exhibit facial bone fractures or dentoalveolar fractures. The findings highlight that men and women present important victimization differentials in relation to interpersonal violence and facial trauma. Victim's gender, aggressor's gender and mechanism of aggression may exert influence on facial trauma patterns.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen , Traumatismos Faciales , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Traumatismos Faciales/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Violencia
4.
Am J Public Health ; 110(11): 1597-1598, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026866
5.
AMA J Ethics ; 22(10): E898-903, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103654

RESUMEN

The disproportionate negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Native communities is a result of transgenerational traumas-mental and physical-which have been ongoing and developing for centuries. This article considers 19th-century American visual and narrative representations of Native experiences of and responses to transgenerational trauma. This article also suggests ethical implications for Native American health of interpreting those representations and suggests an obligation to look on 19th-century White American artists' romanticizations of Native experiences with humility.


Asunto(s)
Arte , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Trauma Histórico/complicaciones , Historiografía , Indios Norteamericanos/psicología , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Salud Poblacional , Violencia , Arte/historia , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Composición Familiar , Trauma Histórico/etnología , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Narración , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Estados Unidos , Violencia/ética , Violencia/historia , Violencia/psicología
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237965, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044980

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Conflict and humanitarian crises increase the risk of both intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence against women and girls. We measured the prevalence and risk factors of different forms of violence against women and girls in South Sudan, which has suffered decades of conflict, most recently in 2013. METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted among women aged 15-64 in three conflict-affected sites in South Sudan: Juba, Rumbek, and the Protection of Civilian Sites (PoCs) in Juba between 2015 and 2016. FINDINGS: A total of 2,244 women between the ages of 15-64 were interviewed. Fifty percent (in the Juba PoCs) to 65% (in Juba and Rumbek) of all female respondents experienced either physical or sexual violence from a partner or non-partner in the course of their lifetimes. Approximately 35% of respondents have experienced rape, attempted rape or other forms of sexual violence by a non-partner during their lifetime. For ever-partnered women, lifetime prevalence of physical and/or sexual partner violence ranged between 54% in the Juba PoCs and 73% in Rumbek. Restrictive marital practices and gender norms, and experiences of conflict were major drivers of both partner and non-partner violence. CONCLUSION: Women and girls in South Sudan suffer among the highest levels of physical and sexual violence in the world. Although the prevalence of sexual assault by non-partners is four times the global average, women are still at greatest risk of physical and sexual assault from intimate partners. Conflict-related and intimate partner violence reinforce each other and are upheld by restrictive gender norms and marital practices. Expansion of comprehensive services, including health and psycho-social support for survivors is urgently needed. Moreover, policies and laws to prevent violence against women and provide survivors with access to justice should be given high priority within the ongoing peacebuilding process in South Sudan.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Género , Adolescente , Adulto , Conflictos Armados/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Violencia Étnica/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Violencia de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Violación/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Sudán del Sur/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
8.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-10-08. (OPS/NMH/MN/20-0019).
en Francés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52816

RESUMEN

Cette brochure a été élaborée par l'Organisation Panaméricaine de la Santé et la Banque de Développement des Caraïbes comme un outil pour vous aider à prendre soin de vous et de votre communauté durant les situations de crise grâce aux Premiers Secours Phychologiques (PSP). C'est une réponse simple, solidaire et pratique pour apporter le soutine nécessaire à un autre être humain en souffrance.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Violencia , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Psicología , Región del Caribe
9.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-10-05. (PAHO/NMH/MN/20-0019).
| PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52796

RESUMEN

This is a revision of an illustrated booklet developed by the Pan American Health Organization and the Caribbean Development Bank. It is meant as a tool to help the general population of the Caribbean care for themselves and their communities during crisis situation. The booklet explains in a simple language, with a simple language with the help of graphics, the main elements of psychological first aid (PFA). The revised edition includes special safety and disease prevention considerations due to the COVID-19 pandemic while providing PFA.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Violencia , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Psicología , Región del Caribe
10.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-10-02.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52793

RESUMEN

Este conjunto de herramientas se preparó a partir del módulo 4 de capacitación de la OMS sobre el fortalecimiento de los sistemas de salud para tratar la dependencia del tabaco a nivel de la atención primaria. La publicación está dirigida a los prestadores de atención primaria, y su objetivo es servir de guía de referencia rápida para ayudarles a suministrar intervenciones breves contra el consumo de tabaco como parte de su práctica habitual. El contenido de esta caja de herramientas se divide de la siguiente manera: 1. El consumo de tabaco: Una dependencia letal 2. Papel protagónico del personal de salud en el control del tabaco 3. Aspectos básicos del consumo y la dependencia del tabaco 4. Modelo de las 5A para ayudar a las personas que están listas para dejar de fumar 5. Modelo de las 5R para aumentar la motivación para dejar de fumar 6. Uso de las 5A para evitar la exposición al humo de tabaco


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Tabaco , Violencia , Fumar , Fumar Tabaco , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar
11.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 360-363, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030453

RESUMEN

The establishment of the United Nations after World War II raised hopes of a new era of peace. This was over-optimistic. Between 1945 and 1992, there were 149 major wars, killing more than 23 million people. Recent developments in warfare have significantly heightened the dangers for children. During the last decade child war victims have included: 2 million killed; 4-5 million disabled; 12 million left homeless; more than 1 million orphaned or separated from their parents; some 10 million psychologically traumatized. Researches indicate that children do develop PTSD after experiencing very stressful, life-threatening events such as happen in war. Wars of 21st century are often guerrilla-type civil wars in which women and children are not only the main victims, but are deliberately targeted. Thousands are displaced both internally and across borders. Wars at the end of nineties of 20th century in the region of ex Yugoslavian countries brought all the cruelty of war vivid again on European ground. Population were exposed to death, threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. During the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992-1995 there were about 100 000 people killed (20% woman and 3.5% children) and about 18 000 children were orphaned because of war. Children are not capable to regulate their emotions and hyper-arousal on their own. It depends of the way how their parents (caretaker) regulate her/his own emotions. During the war weak child's ego is paralyzed with intensive stimuli and floating anxiety, it does not manage to make constructive solution for traumatic experiences in such a short time. Mothers with small children are especially vulnerable group during the war time: they are supposed to take care about children and feel happiness, what is almost impossible Severe war experiences could cause depressive symptoms in mothers, what reduce their emotional disposability and could lead in different form of the child's neglecting. PTSD symptoms were lasting longer in children if their mothers have had functioning problems. Traumatization of mothers is connected with different behavior problems in their children. Wars are continuing all over the world and there is a continuity of researches about their consequences on children. Any programs that intend to mitigate the psychological effects of such trauma need to adopt a public health approach aimed at reaching many thousands.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Guerra/psicología , Guerra/estadística & datos numéricos , Bosnia y Herzegovina/epidemiología , Niño , Humanos , Madres/psicología , Problema de Conducta , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Heridas Relacionadas con la Guerra/epidemiología , Heridas Relacionadas con la Guerra/psicología
12.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 371-377, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030456

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The problem of peer violence is increasingly discussed. It is noticeable that it is not sufficiently researched and there is no sufficient information about its prevalence, forms, prevention methods, repression and coping with the problem and its consequences. It seems that it gets discussed more intensively only in case of a traumatic incident whose consequences cannot be denied and if they make a large impact on the entire society. To show the prevalence and manifestation of peer violence as well as problems in the prevention and addressing consequences of peer violence. METHODS: Data are collected from several studies on peer violence conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina and worldwide. RESULTS: Collected data indicate that the peer violence ranges from 15% to 50% depending on the development of the country where research is conducted. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to identify peer violence on time and respond in a timely manner. Any claim of a child needs to be taken seriously, because timely response prevents the child who experienced some form of violence to revenge or become violent. It is important to start raising awareness among children from their early age and train them on techniques of non-violent communication, forms of violence, the ways of expressing violence and its effects on victims and observers of violence and why it is important to talk about it. They need to know where to report violence and what the duties of relevant institutions are. In addition to children, it is important to raise awareness among parents, teachers, politicians as well as mental health professionals. The entire society needs to be involved in the prevention of peer violence.


Asunto(s)
Agresión , Grupo Paritario , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Bosnia y Herzegovina/epidemiología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Masculino , Prevalencia
15.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003297, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931504

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The psychological health of female sex workers (FSWs) has emerged as a major public health concern in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Key risk factors include poverty, low education, violence, alcohol and drug use, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and stigma and discrimination. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to quantify the prevalence of mental health problems among FSWs in LMICs, and to examine associations with common risk factors. METHOD AND FINDINGS: The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016049179. We searched 6 electronic databases for peer-reviewed, quantitative studies from inception to 26 April 2020. Study quality was assessed with the Centre for Evidence-Based Management (CEBM) Critical Appraisal Tool. Pooled prevalence estimates were calculated for depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidal behaviour. Meta-analyses examined associations between these disorders and violence, alcohol/drug use, condom use, and HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI). A total of 1,046 studies were identified, and 68 papers reporting on 56 unique studies were eligible for inclusion. These were geographically diverse (26 countries), representing all LMIC regions, and included 24,940 participants. All studies were cross-sectional and used a range of measurement tools; none reported a mental health intervention. Of the 56 studies, 14 scored as strong quality, 34 scored as moderate, and 8 scored as weak. The average age of participants was 28.9 years (age range: 11-64 years), with just under half (46%) having up to primary education or less. The pooled prevalence rates for mental disorders among FSWs in LMICs were as follows: depression 41.8% (95% CI 35.8%-48.0%), anxiety 21.0% (95% CI: 4.8%-58.4%), PTSD 19.7% (95% CI 3.2%-64.6%), psychological distress 40.8% (95% CI 20.7%-64.4%), recent suicide ideation 22.8% (95% CI 13.2%-36.5%), and recent suicide attempt 6.3% (95% CI 3.4%-11.4%). Meta-analyses found significant associations between violence experience and depression, violence experience and recent suicidal behaviour, alcohol use and recent suicidal behaviour, illicit drug use and depression, depression and inconsistent condom use with clients, and depression and HIV infection. Key study limitations include a paucity of longitudinal studies (necessary to assess causality), non-random sampling of participants by many studies, and the use of different measurement tools and cut-off scores to measure mental health problems and other common risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that mental health problems are highly prevalent among FSWs in LMICs and are strongly associated with common risk factors. Study findings support the concept of overlapping vulnerabilities and highlight the urgent need for interventions designed to improve the mental health and well-being of FSWs.


Asunto(s)
Trabajadores Sexuales/psicología , Trabajadores Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedad , Trastornos de Ansiedad , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Países en Desarrollo , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pobreza , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Sexo Seguro , Conducta Sexual , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Ideación Suicida , Intento de Suicidio , Violencia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239560, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970746

RESUMEN

The majority of the existing evidence-base on violence against women focuses on women of reproductive age (15-49), and globally there is sparse evidence concerning patterns of and types of violence against women aged 50 and older. Improved understanding of differing patterns and dynamics of violence older women experienced is needed to ensure appropriate policy or programmatic responses. To address these gaps in the evidence, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative literature on violence against older women, including any form of violence against women, rather than adopting a specific theoretical framework on what types of violence or perpetrators should be included from the outset, and focusing specifically on qualitative studies, to explore the nature and dynamics of violence against older women from the perspective of women. Following pre-planned searches of 11 electronic databases, two authors screened all identified titles, abstracts and relevant full texts for inclusion in the review. We extracted data from 52 manuscripts identified for inclusion, and conducted quality assessment and thematic synthesis from the key findings of the included studies. Results indicated that the vast majority of included studies were conducted in high-income contexts, and did not contain adequate information on study setting and context. Thematic synthesis identified several central themes, including the intersection between ageing and perceptions of, experiences of and response to violence; the centrality of social and gender norms in shaping older women's experiences of violence; the cumulative physical and mental health impact of exposure to lifelong violence, and that specific barriers exist for older women accessing community supports and health services to address violence victimization. Our findings indicated that violence against older women is prevalent and has significant impacts on physical and mental well-being of older women. Implications for policy and programmatic response, as well as future research directions, are highlighted.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia de Género/tendencias , Violencia/tendencias , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Víctimas de Crimen , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Factores Socioeconómicos
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872328

RESUMEN

In psychological consultations with women who survive Intimate Partner Violence, it is essential to work on elaboration of the trauma as a complex trauma within the context of a relationship. We consider dreams to be a symbolic-representative process, which requires the right psychic, relational and contextual conditions to occur, and that is hindered when trauma is present. The objective of the present study is to investigate the meanings that psychologists working at anti-violence centers attribute to the clinical intervention with women victims of IPV, with a focus on the area of sleep and dreaming in a traumatic experience, and in the clinical work on the trauma. Twelve female psychologists were interviewed using the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis methodology. From the analysis of the interviews, three main themes emerged: (1) Day and night, neither awake nor asleep, (2) Anti Violence Centers: setting as a container of emotion? and (3) dreaming undreamt dreams. The study highlights the importance of dreams as an indicator not only of psychic and mental functioning but also of the psychological relationship within a specific context.


Asunto(s)
Consejo , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Psicoterapia Psicodinámica , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/etnología , Italia , Violencia
19.
Anthropol Anz ; 77(4): 333-344, 2020 Nov 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990718

RESUMEN

This paper focuses on an unusual Pre-Hispanic burial, 11-12th century cal AD, from Fuerteventura Island. The pattern of injuries of the skeletal remains, together with the grave's features suggest exceptional circumstances of death and funerary treatment differing from those commonly observed elsewhere among the indigenous population of the Canary Archipelago. The study first uses forensic anthropology techniques to characterise the individual's injuries before turning to archaeological and ethno-historical records of the indigenous populations to identify the potential scenarios explaining the fatal injuries. The nature of the peri-mortem lesions, especially those to the head, is consistent with an intention to kill. This case provides an opportunity to analyze the mechanisms of violence in a society with strong environmental limitations and conditions of isolation, as well as to deepen the concept of justice in ancient times.


Asunto(s)
Pena de Muerte , Entierro , Humanos , España , Violencia
20.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-09-21.
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52705

RESUMEN

This report is designed to complement the WHO’s 2018 Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health by providing greater detail on the current status on alcohol consumption, harms, barriers, and breakthroughs in the Region of the Americas in relation to alcohol’s impact on health and the associated burden of disease. This is the third regional report dedicated to alcohol and health in the Americas. The information provided is based on country responses to the WHO Global Survey on Alcohol and Health, undertaken in 2016, which informed the WHO Global Report of 2018. Data were reviewed and accepted by each country before the publication of the global report and the information used for the regional report largely relies on the global information system on alcohol and health (GISAH) of the WHO. The report provides an update on alcohol consumption in the region and each Member State, trends in consumption over time, alcohol-related harms, and current alcohol policies being implemented in each Member State and to what extent they are in line with the WHO global alcohol strategy and regional plan of action. It provides examples of studies done in the Region that were not reported in the WHO Global Status Report. The report discusses gaps and challenges in reducing the harmful use of alcohol and how countries can reverse current trends in a cost-effective and expedited way, particularly if the WHO SAFER technical package is implemented at the national level.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Factores de Riesgo , Enfermedad Crónica , Género y Salud , Derechos Humanos , Origen Étnico y Salud , Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Violencia , Américas
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