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1.
Vínculo ; 18(2): 1-10, jul.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas | ID: biblio-1341795

RESUMEN

Este trabalho é mobilizado pela experiência institucional em um serviço de saúde publica que acolhe pacientes cuja problemática da somatização forma essencialmente seu quadro clínico. No sofrimento que circula no distúrbio psicossomático a incerteza do alojamento da psique no soma é a questão central. Todavia, esta clínica apresenta especificidades que desafiam as constantes de um enquadre psicanalítico tradicional. A técnica da Fotoexpressão como objeto mediador, utilizada em grupos, é observada como uma estratégia bastante apropriada no manejo destes pacientes. A situação clínica que este recurso suscita busca restabelecer a área de jogo e mediante uma zona intermediária, tenta abrir caminhos para processos elementares da experiência. Por meio de um recorte clínico buscamos problematizar a dimensão corporal e o elemento da violência diante do recurso da Fotoexpressão, analisando seus efeitos e possibilidades de deslocamentos.


This work is mobilized by an institutional experience in a public health service that welcomes patients whose somatization problem essentially forms their clinical picture. In the suffering that circulates in the psychosomatic disturbance the uncertainty of the psyche's accommodation in the soma is the central issue. However, this clinic has specificities that defy the constants of a traditional psychoanalytic framework. The technique of Photoexpression as a mediator object, used in groups, is observed as a very appropriate strategy in the management of these patients. The clinical situation that this resource raises seeks to reestablish the playing area and through an intermediate zone, tries to open the way for elementary processes of experience. Through a clinical outline we seek to problematize the body dimension and the element of violence in the face of the Photoexpression resource, analyzing its effects and possibilities of displacement.


Este trabajo es movilizado por la experiencia institucional en un servicio de salud pública que acoge pacientes cuya problemática de la somatización forma esencialmente su cuadro clínico. En el sufrimiento que circula en el disturbio psicosomático la incertidumbre del alojamiento de la psique en suma es la cuestión central. Todavía, esta clínica presenta especificidades que desafian las constantes de un encuadre psicoanalítico tradicional. La técnica de la Fotoexpresión como objeto mediador, utilizada en grupos, es observada como una estrategia bastante apropiada en el manejo de estos pacientes. La situación clínica que este recurso suscita busca restablecer la área del juego y mediante una zona intermediaria, intenta abrir caminos para procesos elementares de experiencia. Por medio de un recorte clínico buscamos problematizar la dimensión corporal y el elemento de la violencia ante al recurso de la Fotoexpresión analizando sus efectos y posibilidades de desplazamientos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Juego e Implementos de Juego , Trastornos Psicofisiológicos , Trastornos Somatomorfos , Violencia , Alojamiento
2.
Vínculo ; 18(2): 1-9, jul.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas | ID: biblio-1341793

RESUMEN

Em um contexto de violência e grande precariedade social, os fluxos migratórios contemporâneos questionam nossos dispositivos de cuidado e, em particular, o dispositivo individual. A potencialidade traumática da migração forçada nos coloca face à complexidade da clínica em um contexto transcultural. Por meio de um dispositivo original, baseado no uso da mediação pela imagem em um grupo de requerentes de asilo, tentaremos mostrar como o uso da terapia de grupo, por um lado, e da mediação pela fotografia, por outro, podem contribuir para promoção dos processos associativos e de representação dos afetos e de traços traumáticos subjacentes.


In a context of social violence and great precariousness, contemporary migratory flows call into question our care devices and the individual setting in particular. The issue regarding potential traumas due to forced migration put us in front of the complexity of the clinical picture in a transcultural context. Through an original device based on the use of image mediation in a group of asylum seekers, we will try to show how the use of group therapy, on the one hand, and photographic mediation, on the other, can give a crucial contribution to foster the associative and representation processes of the affections and the underlying traumatic traces.


En un contexto de violencia y gran precariedad social, los flujos migratorios contemporáneos cuestionan nuestros dispositivos de atención y, en particular, el dispositivo individual. La potencialidad traumática de la migración forzada nos coloca frente a la complejidad clínica en un contexto transcultural. A través de un dispositivo original basado en el uso de la mediación de imágenes en un grupo de solicitantes de asilo, intentaremos mostrar cómo el uso de la terapia grupal, por un lado, y la mediación fotográfica, por otro, pueden contribuir a la promoción de procesos asociativos y representación de afectos y rasgos traumáticos subyacentes.


Asunto(s)
Psicoterapia de Grupo , Refugiados , Grupos de Autoayuda , Violencia , Migración Humana
3.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(3): 438-445, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795196

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Suicide rates vary with important cycles in life, according to scientific findings and sometimes only according to lay beliefs. This paper reviews empirical studies on the association between suicides and a selection of cycles in life (the course of day, week, year, and life, menstrual cycle, and the moon phases). METHODS: Non-systematic review with a selection of key-papers and recent reviews, and analyses of Austrian daily suicide data from 1970-2017. RESULTS: For the time of day, suicides occur slightly more frequently from morning to mid-day. However, among people awake, suicides peak during nighttime. For the course of the week, suicide rates increase on Mondays and decrease on weekends. Similarly, there are more suicides after major holidays. For the course of the year, suicide rates increase in spring/summer, decrease in December, are lowest on Christmas, peak on New Year's Day, and go back to about the yearly average thereafter. With respect to the life cycle, suicide rates are lowest in children and highest in elderly people, especially in men. Suicide rates increase during menstruation but not in the pre-menstruation phase. Suicide rates do not vary with moon-phases. CONCLUSIONS: There is robust evidence that suicide rates vary with some cycles in human life, such as day of the week, seasons and holidays, and there is some evidence that suicides vary with time of day and the menstrual cycle. Some of the associations seem counter-intuitive but can be explained with theories of suicides and related psychosocial mechanisms (e.g., the Broken Promise Effect). Since the effects are mostly small, findings cannot easily be translated into clinical practice but they enhance our understanding of suicides nonetheless.


Asunto(s)
Suicidio , Anciano , Austria , Niño , Femenino , Vacaciones y Feriados , Humanos , Masculino , Estaciones del Año , Violencia
4.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-11-19. (OPS/NMH/NV/21-0024).
| PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55197

RESUMEN

En esta nota descriptiva se muestran las estimaciones regionales de la prevalencia de la violencia de pareja y la violencia sexual infligida por otras personas y se proponen una serie de medidas urgentes en atención a los datos. Los resultados se basan en los datos de prevalencia disponibles a través de encuestas y estudios y destacan la necesidad de que los gobiernos refuercen los compromisos contraídos de eliminar todas las formas de violencia contra las mujeres y las niñas (Objetivo de Desarrollo Sostenible 5, meta 5.2).


Asunto(s)
Violencia , Género y Salud , Violencia de Pareja , Violencia contra la Mujer
5.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2021-11-12. (OPAS/NMH/MH/21-0035).
en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55183

RESUMEN

Esta ficha informativa destaca a ligação entre o consumo de álcool e a violência. Ela explica como os efeitos da bebida dependem de fatores como a quantidade consumida, as normas culturais e o contexto particular. Ela também enfatiza as graves conseqüências da agressão e da violência provocadas pelo álcool: homicídios, violência sexual e abuso e negligência de crianças.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Factores de Riesgo , Salud Mental , Violencia
6.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-11-10. (PAHO/NMH/MH/21-0035).
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55138

RESUMEN

This fact sheet highlights the link between alcohol consumption and violence. It explains how the effects of drinking depend on factors such as the amount consumed, cultural norms, and the particular setting. It also stresses the serious consequences of alcohol-fueled aggression and violence: homicides, sexual violence, and child abuse and neglect (also related to spending on drink rather than the child).


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol , Bebidas Alcohólicas , Violencia , Agresión , Delitos Sexuales , Maltrato a los Niños
7.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-11-04. (OPS/NMH/MH/21-0035).
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55109

RESUMEN

Esta hoja informativa destaca la relación entre el consumo de alcohol y la violencia. Explica cómo los efectos del consumo de alcohol dependen de factores como la cantidad consumida, las normas culturales y el entorno concreto, y también subraya las graves consecuencias de la agresión y la violencia alimentadas por el alcohol.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo , Bebidas Alcohólicas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Violencia , Agresión , Homicidio , Delitos Sexuales
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769862

RESUMEN

Juvenile perpetrators account for over 25% of all sexual offenses, and over one-third of such offenses are against victims under the age of 18. Given empirical connections between adverse childhood experience (ACE) exposure and perpetration of violence, we create victim typologies based on the juveniles' relationship to their victims among 5539 justice-involved adolescents who have committed violent against-person sexual felonies. Multinomial logistic regression is used to assess which covariates, including individual ACE exposures and cumulative traumatic exposures, are associated with victim typologies. This approach allows for better targeting of violence prevention efforts, as a more nuanced understanding of the increased likelihood to victimize specific victim groups lends to potential differences in treatment provision, beyond simplistic findings regarding ACE exposure increasing offending. Results indicate five classes of victim types, ranging from a low of 6.4%, with primarily strangers as victims, to 31.3%, with predominately acquaintances as victims, and only 12.9% with a diverse array of relationships to victims. Importantly, many demographic and individual risk factors, and specific traumatic exposures were related to victimizing one's sibling, while cumulative trauma as measured by an ACE score decreased the likelihood of victimizing classmates, while increasing the likelihood of victimizing siblings and other relatives compared to victimizing acquaintances.


Asunto(s)
Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia , Víctimas de Crimen , Criminales , Delincuencia Juvenil , Delitos Sexuales , Adolescente , Humanos , Violencia
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769905

RESUMEN

School climate is one of the main concerns in terms of research and intervention worldwide. Although it can be directed toward any student, some groups seem to be more vulnerable, as is the case of the LGBTQIA+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and intersex +) students, among others. Attitudes toward violence are a construct of particular importance for action plans focused on improving school coexistence. The aim of this study is to examine attitudes toward school violence against LGBTQIA+ students and their relationship with violent behaviors. For this purpose, 96 Spanish students of Spanish elementary education (PE) and compulsory secondary education (CSE) participated in this qualitative study through focus groups for its subsequent thematic analysis. The results identify four types of attitudes toward violence, such as the use of violence as a form of fun, to feel better, when it is perceived as legitimate, and as a way of relating to the LGBTQIA+ community. In addition, a greater number of negative attitudes and violent behaviors toward homosexual boys and transgender minors are observed.


Asunto(s)
Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Personas Transgénero , Actitud , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituciones Académicas , Violencia
10.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 29: e3499, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Español, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755779

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to know and analyze the perceptions of adolescents with high social vulnerability regarding the establishment of dating violence. METHOD: a qualitative research study carried out with 19 adolescents from a central municipality São Paulo, Brazil. Data collection took place by means of focus groups and field diaries, with the data being analyzed thematically. RESULTS: two categories emerged: "A new female posture in a context of traditional gender norms" and "Violence in intimate relationships: the (non)perception of adolescents". Traditional gender norms still occupy a significant place in the design of dating violence among adolescents. Such behaviors are more visible in these relationships, when commitment and exclusivity are seen as the main characteristics, authorizing possession and control. Jealousy emerges as the main trigger for violence and the technologies appear as contemporary resources to reinforce it. CONCLUSION: the need for early interventions with adolescents is reiterated, with a focus on actions that promote gender equality.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Violencia de Pareja , Adolescente , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Violencia
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769567

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to analyse the inclusion of a gender perspective (GP) in scientific production on interventions for a reduction in psychological distress in children who have experienced parental gender-based violence (CEXPGBV). To achieve this, a review of publications was carried out in the Web of Science, EBSCOhost, ProQuest and Cochrane Library databases. A total of 3418 records were found, and 44 items of research selected. For GP analysis, the questionnaire "Gender perspective in health research" (GPIHR) was applied and relationships with the terminology of violence were analysed, as well as the definition of term used, references to violence by men or received by women and the instruments used to assess these. Generally, the assessed studies do not contain a GP, since 70% of the GPIHR items were answered negatively. Likewise, 89% of research used general terms to refer to violence without referring to gender. These results show the importance of considering instruments such as GPIHR in both the planning and development of future research in order to avoid possible gender bias.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Género , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Sexismo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Violencia
12.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 607199, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744573

RESUMEN

Objectives: To explore the association of family-related adversities with physical fighting, and whether this association is mediated by hopelessness. Methods: The sample consisted of 3712 Slovak adolescents (mean age: 13.9, 50.7% girls). Participants answered questions regarding experienced family-related adversities, involvement in physical fighting in the last 12 months and the Hopelessness Questionnaire. First, the association of family adversities in general with fighting and of each of family-related adversity separately was assessed using linear regression models and second, mediation was assessed using the a*b product method with bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals Results: Adolescents who had experienced at least one family adversity reported more frequent fighting. Similarly, each of reported family adversities (death of a parent, substance abuse problems of a parent, conflicts/physical fights, divorce) was associated with more frequent fighting among adolescents. The mediation effect of hopelessness was found in each association of family-related adversity with fighting. Conclusion: These findings suggest that interventions to support adolescents who had experienced family adversities could among other things be directed at better coping with hopelessness.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Composición Familiar , Violencia , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Femenino , Esperanza , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Eslovaquia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos
13.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 617053, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744579

RESUMEN

Objectives: We examine the association between perceived discrimination, mental health, social support, and support for violent radicalization (VR) in young adults from three locations across two countries: Montréal and Toronto, Canada, and Boston, United States. A secondary goal is to test the moderating role of location. Methods: A total of 791 young adults between the ages of 18 and 30, drawn from the Somali Youth longitudinal study and a Canada-based study of college students, participated in the study. We used multivariate linear regression to assess the association between scores on the Radical Intentions Scale (RIS) with demographic characteristics, anxiety, depression, social support, and discrimination. Results: In the full sample, discrimination, age, and gender were associated with RIS scores. When we examined moderation effects by location, RIS scores were associated with depression only in Montréal, and with social support (negatively) and discrimination in Toronto. None of the variables were significant in Boston. Conclusion: These findings suggest that an understanding of risk and protective factors for support of VR may be context-dependent. Further research should take into consideration local/regional differences.


Asunto(s)
Violencia , Adolescente , Adulto , Boston , Canadá , Femenino , Geografía , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Factores Protectores , Factores de Riesgo , Violencia/psicología , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
14.
Vertex ; XXXII(151): 32-44, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783775

RESUMEN

This study provides evidence on the inter-rater reliability and concurrent validity of the Historical, Clinical and Risk Management-20, Version 3 (HCR-20V3) in a sample of 35 patients admitted to a forensic psychiatric unit in Argentina. The HCR-20V3 showed significant correlations with the VRAG-R and the PCL: SV. HCR-20V3 was independently coded by two evaluators in 15 patients. The inter-rater reliability indices were moderate to excellent in the coding of presence of risk factors and in the estimation of the summary risk ratings of future violence and imminent violence, although ICC were non-significant for the summary risk rating of serious physical damage. These findings have implications for the HCR-20V3 implementation in local professional contexts and raise future research possibilities which could be relevant for decision-making in violence risk management with patients committed to legal security measures.


Asunto(s)
Psiquiatría Forense , Violencia , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Medición de Riesgo , Gestión de Riesgos
15.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 4909-4918, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787185

RESUMEN

The objective was to understand and analyze the experiences of Afro-Brazilian women regarding pregnancy, delivery and postpartum care. It involves empirical research, with a qualitative approach. Women were interviewed who declared themselves black or colored and were attended in the public health services in the municipalities of the State of Pernambuco. The narratives were collected through semi-structured interviews. The Content Analysis technique was used. The narratives addressed the issues of obstetric violence and institutional racism. The intersection of levels of oppression such as race, class and gender are determinant in interventions and abusive practices in the helathcare that involves childbirth. The conclusion drawn is that structural racism hinders and denies access to black women to their reproductive rights.


Asunto(s)
Parto , Racismo , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Investigación Cualitativa , Derechos Sexuales y Reproductivos , Violencia
16.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 4933-4943, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787187

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of bullies and identify factors related to bullying among high school students in Recife. This is an analytical cross-sectional epidemiological study, composed of a probabilistic sample by clusters of 1,402 students aged 15 to 19 years old, enrolled in the second year of high school in both public and private schools in Recife. In this work the bullying will be approached according to the Bioecological Theory of Human Development of Bronfenbrenner. Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire about bullying and associated factors. Data analysis was conducted by the Pearson chi-square test with statistical significance of 0.05 and 95% Confidence Interval. To analyze associations, a multilevel modeling was employed and STATA version 12.0 software was used. The results showed a prevalence of 21.26% of bullying aggressors and the factors associated with the practice of bullying were violence suffered at school, violence between peers, as well as violence practiced by the mother and siblings. Hence, the results indicate that the violence suffered in the family and school context can have repercussions on the practice of bullying among adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Acoso Escolar , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes , Violencia , Adulto Joven
17.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 4967-4980, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787190

RESUMEN

The scope of this study was to identify empowering factors for the actions of the Family Health Strategy (FHS) in coping with violence among adolescents. The sample was random from 61 teams of the Family Health Strategy of three municipalities. Questionnaires tabulated by EpiINFO 7.0, with bivariate analyses were used. Chi-square, Fisher and the "classification tree" were then used to analyze the experiences in this theme and the following issues: bonding, time since training completed, qualification, knowledge of public policies among others. There is acknowledgement of adolescents' vulnerability to violence, however, only two teams have ongoing prevention experiences. The prevailing opinion is that such activities are not the responsibility of the FHS. The study identifies interdependent variables that increase the likelihood of preventing violence and the promoting of a culture of peace among adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Salud de la Familia , Violencia , Adaptación Psicológica , Adolescente , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Violencia/prevención & control
18.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 4993-5002, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787192

RESUMEN

The scope of this article is to analyze the temporal trend by conducting a time series study of physical violence against women by an intimate partner in the State of Paraná between 2009 and 2016. Records of violence were obtained from the Notifiable Diseases and Violent Events Information System-SINAN. Levels of physical violence against women were calculated according to sociodemographic characteristics and means of aggression. For the trend analysis, polynomial regression was used. The notifications increased from 11.1 cases/100,000 women in 2009 to 91.2 in 2016, with an average annual increase of 14.84. There was an increase in rates of physical violence against women in all the Health Macroregional units, especially in the West with the highest average rate and in the North with the highest average annual increase. The spouse was the main aggressor. However, there was an increase in aggression by ex-spouses and boyfriends. There was also an increase in notifications among women aged 20-29 and 50-59 years, with eight years or more of study, and black/brown, yellow and indigenous race/color. The results reveal an increase in notifications of physical violence against women by an intimate partner, with changes in the sociodemographic profile of the victims.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Físico , Parejas Sexuales , Agresión , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Violencia
19.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 5003-5012, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787193

RESUMEN

The scope of this article is to identify intersections between gender socialization and intimate partner violence against women. It involves qualitative research in the mold of the topical life story. The study included 16 women who filed a police report in a Police Station for the Defense of Women in a city in the interior of São Paulo. For the interviews a semi-structured script that examined women from their childhood memories, family dynamics, relationship/marriage and post-marriage/marriage family dynamics was used. The patriarchal system as a societal order underpinned the socialization of these women who, because of the father's domination relations (patriarchy) and guided by the mother's model of submission, sought freedom in marriage/early unions with partners who repeated paternal behavior. Such family contexts may have influenced them in choosing potential aggressors. The results revealed that gender socialization reinforces gender inequalities and influences the behavior of men and women, thus pointing out the importance of highlighting this problem in different areas, especially in primary health care services, as a way to prevent intimate partner violence against women.


Asunto(s)
Parejas Sexuales , Socialización , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Violencia
20.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 5023-5032, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787195

RESUMEN

This study presents the profile of the perpetrators of deaths caused by intentional aggressions in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2015, as per data from the State Civil Police (PCERJ) investigations. This is a quantitative, descriptive, and cross-sectional study. The information encompasses "premeditated murder", "larceny", "bodily injury followed by death" and "homicide caused by resisting police intervention". The study analyzes the profile of the authors of each category, except homicides committed by police intervention. The crimes committed by police intervention were excluded from the total number of the 1,562 identified deaths. Only about 20% of the perpetrators of the 1,255 crimes investigated were identified. The data recognized show the relevance of drug traffickers and militiamen illegal activities in the deaths and interpersonal violence in domestic and community spaces and neighborhoods. A remarkable similarity is observed between the profile of violent lethality perpetrators and victims in the studied urban contexts: men, young people, and young adults aged 19-39 years, blacks, with low schooling, high levels of unemployment, and informal occupations.


Asunto(s)
Agresión , Homicidio , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Masculino , Violencia , Adulto Joven
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