Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.559
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239897, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045018

RESUMEN

Violence-free family ties, non-violent peers or attachment to society have been pointed out as protective factors against different types of extremism and violent radicalization by international literature. However, more detail needs to be provided about which specific aspects within these realms (friendship/family/community) are effective in challenging violence and how they operate in practice. Recent research conducted under the framework of the PROTON project (Horizon 2020) has analyzed the social and ethical impacts of counter-terrorism and organized crime policies in six European countries. In this article we discuss some identified common features among practices that, developed by organized actors operating at the local level (e.g.: grassroots-based associations, educational institutions, other type of organized networks for prevention, NGOs), are contributing to preventing youth violent radicalization, a phenomenon of growing concern in Europe and beyond. Standing on a solid rejection to violence, these shared features are the following: a bottom-up approach in setting allies with key stakeholders from the community or/and family members to intervene; the promotion of trustworthy and healthy friendship relationships; debunking the lure surrounding violent subjects ("false heroes") and violence in the different contexts, especially in the socioeducational one.


Asunto(s)
Controles Informales de la Sociedad/métodos , Medio Social , Participación de los Interesados , Violencia/prevención & control , Adolescente , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Violencia/psicología , Adulto Joven
6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1051, 2020 Jul 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616007

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Violence against children is a pervasive public health issue, with limited data available across multiple contexts. This study explores the rarely studied prevalence and dynamics around disclosure, reporting and help-seeking behaviours of children who ever experienced physical and/or sexual violence. METHODS: Using nationally-representative Violence Against Children Surveys in six countries: Cambodia, Haiti, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria and Tanzania, we present descriptive statistics for prevalence of four outcomes among children aged 13-17 years: informal disclosure, knowledge of where to seek formal help, formal disclosure/help seeking and receipt of formal help. We ran country-specific multivariate logistic regressions predicting outcomes on factors at the individual, household and community levels. RESULTS: The prevalence of help-seeking behaviours ranged from 23 to 54% for informal disclosure, 16 to 28% for knowledge of where to seek formal help, under 1 to 25% for formal disclosure or help seeking, and 1 to 11% for receipt of formal help. Factors consistently correlated with promoting help-seeking behaviours included household number of adult females and absence of biological father, while those correlated with reduced help-seeking behaviours included being male and living in a female-headed household. Primary reasons for not seeking help varied by country, including self-blame, apathy and not needing or wanting services. CONCLUSIONS: Across countries examined, help-seeking and receipt of formal services is low for children experiencing physical and/or sexual violence, with few consistent factors identified which facilitated help-seeking. Further understanding of help seeking, alongside improved data quality and availability will aid prevention responses, including the ability to assist child survivors in a timely manner.


Asunto(s)
Salud del Niño/estadística & datos numéricos , Revelación/estadística & datos numéricos , Sobrevivientes/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Adolescente , Cambodia/epidemiología , Niño , Femenino , Haití/epidemiología , Humanos , Kenia/epidemiología , Modelos Logísticos , Malaui , Masculino , Prevalencia , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Sobrevivientes/estadística & datos numéricos , Tanzanía/epidemiología , Violencia/prevención & control
10.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(2-3): 141-150, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483870

RESUMEN

Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) is a therapy model incorporating elements of Eastern philosophies and cognitive behavioural principles. Originally designed for people struggling with chronic suicidality and borderline personality disorder (BPD), it has been adapted to treat complex, multi-diagnostic presentations, such as those in forensic mental health settings. To date, there has been little evaluation when the primary diagnosis is of psychosis. To explore the effectiveness of DBT, with patients, with multiple comorbidities, including psychosis, in a forensic psychiatric inpatient setting. A descriptive outcome study with a cohort of offender-patients in one specialist forensic mental health unit. Before and after treatment change scores were compared on anger, aggression, hopefulness, coping abilities, emotional intelligence, insight and subjective symptom severity scales, as well as staff-rated risk, and length of stay. Nine men and five women residents in one Canadian secure hospital completed a standard DBT programme, and self-ratings, over about 1 year. Scale scores indicated significantly increased insight and acknowledgment of problems. Apparently increased anger and vengeance scores were clinically associated. Independent staff ratings indicated reductions in risk and most patients achieved early release. This study provides support for extension of the use of DBT to offender-patients with psychosis among the complex mix in their presentation. It suggests that a randomised controlled trial with cost-benefit analysis is warranted, as well as further work, to promote understanding of mechanisms of effectiveness.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe/terapia , Criminales/psicología , Terapia Conductual Dialéctica/métodos , Psiquiatría Forense/métodos , Prisioneros/psicología , Violencia/prevención & control , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Agresión , Ira , Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe/diagnóstico , Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe/psicología , Canadá , Inteligencia Emocional , Emociones , Femenino , Esperanza , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Inventario de Personalidad , Trastornos Psicóticos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Resultado del Tratamiento
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234608, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579607

RESUMEN

STATEMENT OF PURPOSE: Intentional violent injury is a leading cause of disability and death among young adults in the United States. Hospital-based violence intervention programs (HVIPs), which strive to prevent re-injury through intensive case management, have emerged as a successful and cost-effective strategy to address this issue. Despite the importance of strong therapeutic relationships between clients and their case managers, specific case manager behaviors and attributes that drive the formation of these relationships have not been elucidated. METHODS: A qualitative analysis with a modified grounded theory approach was conducted to gain insight into what clients perceive to be crucial to the formation of a strong client-case manager relationship. Twenty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted with prior clients of our hospital's HVIP. The interviews were analyzed using constant comparison method for recurrent themes. RESULTS: Several key themes emerged from the interviews. Clients emphasized that their case managers must: 1) understand and relate to their sociocultural contexts, 2) navigate the initial in-hospital meeting to successfully create connection, 3) exhibit true compassion and care, 4) serve as role models, 5) act as portals of opportunity, and 6) engender mutual respect and pride. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies key behaviors of case managers that facilitate the formation of strong therapeutic relationships at the different stages of client recovery. This study's findings emphasize the importance of case managers being culturally aligned with and embedded in their clients' communities. This work can provide a roadmap for case managers to form optimally effective relationships with clients.


Asunto(s)
Gestores de Casos/normas , Hospitales , Violencia/prevención & control , Adulto , Terapia Conductista , Gestores de Casos/psicología , Femenino , Teoría Fundamentada , Humanos , Masculino , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Adulto Joven
12.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(2): 104-109, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573745

RESUMEN

In summer of 2017 in Charlottesville, Virginia, white nationalists clashed with counterprotestors, ultimately leading to the death of three people and leaving 34 more injured. Soon after, the same group was granted permission to speak on the campus of the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida. Despite our college town having limited resources and personnel, the comprehensive and extensive preparation preceding the event ensured a peaceful resolution for such a large and potentially volatile situation. The preparatory steps required joint efforts from local and state partners in law enforcement, emergency medical services, and emergency departments. We describe here the situation we faced, the pre-event preparations, the response in the field and in our emergency department, and the outcomes from an emergency and tactical medicine perspective. We hope our successful experience will impart knowledge for similar events.


Asunto(s)
Habla , Universidades , Violencia/prevención & control , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/organización & administración , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/organización & administración , Florida , Humanos , Aplicación de la Ley
13.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 98, 2020 05 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380986

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Nearly half of the women experience violence across their lifespan in all the provinces of Pakistan at an alarming rate. Despite knowing the prevalence, there has been meager progress in developing strategies to combat violence at individual, family, or community level. Many interventions suggested in other countries have been pilot tested but the effects of those interventions had been limited. Therefore, the aim of this study is to understand the voices of stakeholders to reduce Violence Against Women (VAW) and to explore the possible community-based strategies that could be implemented in Pakistan. METHODS: A total of 14 Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) and 18 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were held across all four provinces of Pakistan. Participants were purposefully recruited and all the interviews were audio-recorded. Transcriptions were open coded and content analysis was done to emerge codes, categories and themes. Ethical approval was obtained from Aga Khan University Ethics Review Committee. RESULTS: Three major themes emerged on community members and stakeholders' views on VAW: a) community's perception of VAW b) the repercussions of VAW, and c) multiple voices regarding strategies to reduce VAW. Participants voiced the need of standing against the status quo, role of awareness and education: regarding capacity building skills, promotion of women rights and women empowerment through Life Skills Based Education (LSBE) through national health works program, has been proposed as an innovative strategy to reduce VAW. CONCLUSIONS: The responsibility to bring about a substantial change in behavior and attitudes must begin with engaging men in all the interventions that aim to reduce violence. Since, VAW is very much linked with the cultural norms, so, without community stakeholder's involvement and participation it could never be reduced. Keeping the existing socio-cultural dynamics in mind, the need of time is to design and implement innovative interventions that are culturally and contextually appropriate and can be expanded across the country.


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica , Maltrato Conyugal/prevención & control , Violencia/etnología , Violencia/prevención & control , Actitud , Niño , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Pakistán , Investigación Cualitativa , Maltrato Conyugal/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Derechos de la Mujer
14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 621, 2020 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375840

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sugira Muryango is a father-engaged early child development and violence-prevention home-visiting programme delivered by trained lay workers. This cluster-randomised trial evaluates whether families living in extreme poverty (Ubudehe 1, the poorest category in the Government of Rwanda's wealth ranking) who receive Sugira Muryango in combination with a government-provided social protection programme demonstrate greater responsive, positive caregiving, nutrition, care seeking, hygiene, and father involvement compared with control families receiving usual care (UC). METHODS: Using detailed maps, we grouped closely spaced villages into 284 geographic clusters stratified by the type of social protection programmes operating in the village clusters; 198 clusters met all enrolment criteria. Sugira Muryango was delivered to n = 541 families in 100 treatment clusters with children aged 6-36 months living in extreme poverty. We assessed changes in outcomes in intervention and n = 508 UC control families using structured surveys and observation. Analyses were intent to treat using mixed models to accommodate clustering. RESULTS: Families receiving Sugira Muryango improved on core outcomes of parent-child relationships assessed using the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (Cohen's d = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.99) and the Observation of Mother-Child Interaction (Cohen's d = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.41). We also saw reductions in harsh discipline on items from the UNICEF MICS (OR = 0.30: 95% CI: 0.19, 0.47) and in violent victimisation of female caregivers by their partners (OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.24, 1.00) compared with UC. Moreover, children in families receiving SM had a 0.45 higher increase in food groups consumed in the past 24 h (Cohen's d = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.47), increased care seeking for diarrhoea (OR = 4.43, 95% CI: 1.95, 10.10) and fever (OR = 3.28, 95% CI: 1.82, 5.89), and improved hygiene behaviours such as proper treatment of water (OR = 3.39, 95% CI: 2.16, 5.30) compared with UC. Finally, Sugira Muryango was associated with decreased caregiver depression and anxiety (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.88). CONCLUSIONS: Sugira Muryango led to improvements in caregiver behaviours linked to child development and health as well as reductions in violence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02510313.


Asunto(s)
Padre/psicología , Visita Domiciliaria , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Pobreza/psicología , Política Pública , Violencia/prevención & control , Adulto , Agresión/psicología , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/psicología , Cuidadores/psicología , Desarrollo Infantil , Preescolar , Análisis por Conglomerados , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Rwanda/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Violencia/psicología
15.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 151, 2020 May 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450852

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Increased violent events happen in the general hospitals in China and yet non-psychiatric departments do not have tools for violence-tendency screening. METHODS: The current study developed and evaluated two Inpatient Psychological Experience Questionnaires (IPEQs) for the screening of violence-related six mental health disorders: (Inpatient Psychological Experience Questionnaire-1 (IPEQ-1): anxiety, depression and suicidality; Inpatient Psychological Experience Questionnaire-2 (IPEQ-2): paranoid personality disorder, emotionally unstable personality disorder and histrionic personality disorder). Two initial IPEQs (IPEQ-1: 37 items and IPEQ-2: 30 items) were developed and assessed by domain experts. Then 1210 inpatients were recruited and divided into three groups (160, 450 and 600 samples, respectively) for IPEQs item selection and evaluation. During the two-stage item selection, three statistical methods including Pearson's correlation coefficient, exploratory factor analysis and item response theory were applied. For the item evaluation, Cronbach's alpha coefficient, test-retest reliability, criterion-related validity and construct validity of the final questionnaires were measured. RESULTS: Twelve items were selected for each IPEQs. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.91 and 0.78 for IPEQ-1 and IPEQ-2, respectively. Test-retest replication ratios were 0.95 and 0.87 for IPEQ-1 and IPEQ-2, respectively. Correlation coefficients between different disorders and their related-tools scores were [0.51, 0.44] and [0.40, 0.44] for IPEQ-1 and IPEQ-2, respectively and were significant (P < 0.01). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of the final IPEQs (P < 0.05), and the model fit index met the criterion generally. CONCLUSION: The IPEQs developed in this study could be effective and easy-to-use tools for screening inpatients with violence-intendancy in non-psychosomatic departments.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Trastorno Depresivo/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Personalidad/diagnóstico , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Violencia/prevención & control , Adulto , China , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Pacientes Internos/psicología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Calidad de Vida , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
16.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(2): 437-451, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336335

RESUMEN

Violent, combative and intoxicated patients are a common problem in the emergency department, and the emergency physician must be prepared to control the situation safely and effectively when a patient begins to exhibit dangerous behavior. This article reviews initial de-escalation techniques to reduce the need for patient restraint. It then details the 2 types of restraints (physical and chemical) and the clear indications for each type. The high-risk nature of utilization of restraints is reviewed, as well as the means by which to ensure patient and staff safety and decrease adverse outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Sedación Consciente , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Restricción Física , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Gestión de Riesgos , Violencia/prevención & control
17.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230793, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240231

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Violence against health care workers is a major issue in health care organisations and is estimated to affect 95% of workers, presenting an enormous risk for workers and employers. Current interventions generally aim at managing rather than preventing or minimising violent incidents. To create better-targeted interventions, it has been suggested to shift attention to the perpetrators of violence. The aim of this study was to identify and discuss the perceptions, held by Emergency Department nurses, about perpetrators of occupational violence and aggression. METHODS: Two focus groups were conducted with Emergency Department nurses at a major metropolitan hospital in Australia. In the focus groups, the nurses' perceptions about perpetrators of violence against health care workers were identified and discussed. The results were analysed using descriptive analysis. RESULTS: This study confirmed that violence is a major issue for Emergency Department nurses and has a considerable impact on them. Participants acknowledged that violence at work had become an intrinsic part of their job and they tend to focus on coping mechanisms. The nurses identified six overlapping groups of perpetrators and described their approach to dealing with these perpetrators. The results highlighted additional factors that impact on the occurrence and management of violence, such as the presence of security, wait times, and the triage system. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the focus groups with Emergency Department nurses we conclude that violence at work is an everyday danger for Emergency Department nurses, who feel vulnerable and recognise that it is not within their power to solve this issue given the societal component. Our conclusion is that attention needs to shift from equipping workers with tools to manage violence to the perpetrator and the development of interventions to reduce violence from targeted perpetrator groups.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital/psicología , Violencia Laboral/prevención & control , Adulto , Agresión/psicología , Australia , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/organización & administración , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Violencia/prevención & control , Lugar de Trabajo , Violencia Laboral/tendencias
18.
20.
Gac. méd. espirit ; 22(1): 49-59, ene.-abr. 2020.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124824

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Fundamento: La violencia es considerada como un problema psicosocial y de salud preocupante, que requiere de voluntad política para establecer objetivos y estrategias eficaces en función de su prevención, así como del trabajo en sistema de múltiples actores sociales. Objetivo: Profundizar en la violencia como problema de salud y en el rol de los profesionales en su atención. Desarrollo: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre aspectos necesarios para el tratamiento de la violencia como problema de salud, por parte de los profesionales de la atención primaria de salud (contextualizando el análisis en la realidad cubana), lo que puede contribuir a una mejor atención médica. Conclusiones: Se legitima la violencia como problema de salud, se ejemplifican sus particularidades en Cuba. Se analiza la limitada preparación del personal de salud para atender esta problemática en contraste con sus impactos negativos en la salud y el bienestar de la población.


ABSTRACT Background: Violence is considered a worrying psychosocial and health problem, which requires political will to establish effective objectives and strategies in terms of prevention, as well as the work in a system of multiple social actors. Objective: To deepen violence as a health problem and the role of professionals in their care. Development: A bibliographic review was carried out on aspects necessary for addressing violence as a health problem, by Primary Health Care professionals, contextualizing the analysis in Cuban reality, in order to contribute to better medical care. Conclusions: Violence is legitimized as a health problem, its particularities in Cuba are exemplified. The limited preparation of health personnel to address this problem is analyzed in contrast to its negative impacts on the health and well-being of the population.


Asunto(s)
Atención Primaria de Salud , Violencia/prevención & control , Personal de Salud/educación
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA