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1.
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr ; 88(6): 374-378, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557465

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Organised child sexual abuse is characterised by commercial exploitation of children and adolescents by networking perpetrator groups. Ritual abuse is further characterised by ideological frameworks (e.g., cults). METHODS: Forty-one confidential hearings and written reports, gathered by the German Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse from individuals as well as contemporary witnesses subjected to organised and ritual abuse (ORA) were analysed by means of a quantitative content analysis. RESULTS: Right-wing extremist, Satanist and religious ideologies were most frequently described. The perpetrators were, next to unknown offenders, mostly described as fathers, and in half of the reports, besides also mothers of the victims. Dissociative identity disorders resulting from such traumatic violence present a challenge to psychosocial and psychiatric professionals. DISCUSSION: It is necessary to educate professionals in psychosocial care settings about ORA and the psychological consequences of extreme violence.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/psicología , Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Conducta Ceremonial , Niño , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Violencia/psicología , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos
2.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(1): 1-10, ene.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-189156

RESUMEN

Current emergent studies are seriously questioning if parental strictness contributes to adolescent adjustment. This study examined whether the relationship between authoritative (warmth and strictness), authoritarian (strictness without warmth), indulgent (warmth without strictness), and neglectful (neither warmth nor strictness) parenting styles shows equal or different pattern of adjustment and maladjustment for aggressive and non-aggressive adolescents. The sample consisted of 969 Spanish adolescents, 554 females (57.2%) and 415 males, ranging from 12 to 17 years old. Families were classified into one of four typologies by their scores on warmth and strictness, and the adolescents were grouped by their aggressiveness (low vs. high). Adolescent adjustment was captured with three self-esteem indicators (emotional, physical, and family) and personal maladjustment with five indicators (negative self-esteem, negative self-adequacy, emotional irresponsiveness, emotional instability, and negative worldview). It was tested main and interaction effects between parenting and aggressiveness considering also sex and age factors. Findings showed that aggressive adolescents always had the worst socialization outcomes (i.e., the lowest self-esteem and the highest personal maladjustment). Aggressive and non-aggressive adolescents have a common pattern: both, indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were always associated with better outcomes than either authoritarian or neglectful parenting, but indulgent parenting style was associated with the best outcomes across all the criteria. In contrast with previous evidence about the idea that parental strictness and imposition might be beneficial to raise aggressive adolescents, present findings highlight the positive impact of parental warmth even with aggressive adolescents. Implications for family interventions were considered


Investigaciones emergentes cuestionan que la severidad parental contribuya al ajuste del adolescente. Este estudio examina si la relación entre los estilos parentales autorizativo (afecto y severidad), autoritario (severidad sin afecto), indulgente (afecto sin severidad) y negligente (ni afecto ni severidad) presenta patrones de ajuste y desajuste iguales o diferentes en adolescentes agresivos y no agresivos. Participaron 969 adolescentes españoles, 554 mujeres (57.2%) y 415 varones, de 12 a 17 años. Las familias se clasificaron en un estilo parental según sus puntuaciones en afecto y severidad y los adolescentes se agruparon por agresividad (baja vs. alta). Se captó el ajuste mediante tres indicadores de autoestima (emocional, física y familiar) y el desajuste personal con cinco indicadores (autoestima negativa, autoeficacia negativa, falta de respuesta emocional, inestabilidad emocional y visión negativa del mundo). Se probaron efectos principales y de interacción para estilos parentales y agresividad, considerando también sexo y edad. Los análisis mostraron que los adolescentes agresivos siempre tenían los peores resultados (i.e., la menor autoestima y el mayor desajuste personal). Los adolescentes agresivos y no agresivos comparten un patrón común: los estilos indulgente y autorizativo siempre se asociaron con mejores resultados que el autoritario o el negligente, pero el estilo indulgente se asoció con los mejores resultados en todos los criterios. A diferencia de estudios previos que consideraban que el rigor y la severidad de los padres podrían ser beneficiosos en hijos agresivos, los presentes resultados resaltan el impacto positivo del afecto parental incluso en adolescentes agresivos. Se consideraron las implicaciones para las intervenciones familiares


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Crianza del Niño/psicología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Problema de Conducta/psicología , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Autoimagen , Composición Familiar , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Agresión/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Afecto/clasificación , Autoritarismo , Factores de Riesgo , Psicometría/instrumentación
4.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 53(2): 89-97, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268463

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The quality of life (QoL) of the elderly and elder abuse are growing public health concerns. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of abuse and the association between QoL and abuse in older adults. METHODS: Multistage random cluster sampling, along with valid QoL (LEIPAD: LEIden, the Netherlands; PADua, Italy; Helsinki, Finland) and abuse questionnaires, were used to assess QoL and elder abuse. Path analysis was performed using Mplus. SPSS and AMOS were used for the other analyses. RESULTS: A total of 386 elderly individuals with a mean age of 68.00±6.10 years were interviewed, of whom 200 (51.8%), 289 (74.9%), and 376 (97.4%) were women, educated, and married, respectively. Moreover, 167 (43.2%) had low-to-moderate QoL, and 108 (27.9%) had experienced a moderate level of abuse. QoL and abuse were inversely associated (r=-0.253), with men (ß=-0.24) more affected than women (ß=-0.21). Musculoskeletal disorders were also strong determinants of QoL in the elderly. QoL was strongly associated with emotional abuse, while abuse was highly related to the social component of QoL. Furthermore, emotional abuse was the type of abuse most significantly associated with the self-care, depression/anxiety, cognitive, and social components of QoL. Sexual abuse, violation of personal rights, and neglect were the main determinants of the physical functioning, life satisfaction, and sexual domains of QoL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of the elderly individuals lacked a high QoL, and at least one-fourth had experienced some form of abuse. Elder abuse was correlated inversely with QoL. Therefore, preventive interventions are recommended to decrease elder abuse in the family, community, and other settings.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/epidemiología , Maltrato al Anciano/psicología , Maltrato al Anciano/estadística & datos numéricos , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Evaluación Geriátrica , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vigilancia de la Población , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Violencia/psicología
5.
PLoS Med ; 17(3): e1003066, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208416

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 44,000 people are forced to flee their homes every day due to conflict or persecution. Although refugee camps are designed to provide a safe temporary location for displaced persons, increasing evidence demonstrates that the camps themselves have become stressful and dangerous long-term places-especially for women. However, there is limited literature focused on refugee women's perspectives on their insecurity. This qualitative study sought to better understand the ways in which women experienced insecurity at a refugee camp in Kenya. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between May 2017 and June 2017, ethnographic semi-structured interviews accompanied by observation were conducted with a snowball sampling of 20 Somali (n = 10) and Ethiopian Oromo (n = 10) women, 18 years and older, who had had at least 1 pregnancy while living in Kakuma Refugee Camp. The interviews were orally translated, transcribed, entered into Dedoose software for coding, and analyzed utilizing an ethnographic approach. Four sources of insecurity became evident: tension between refugees and the host community, intra- or intercultural conflicts, direct abuse and/or neglect by camp staff and security personnel, and unsafe situations in accessing healthcare-both in traveling to healthcare facilities and in the facilities themselves. Potential limitations include nonrandom sampling, the focus on a specific population, the inability to record interviews, and possible subtle errors in translation. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that women felt insecure in almost every area of the camp, with there being no place in the camp where the women felt safe. As it is well documented that insecure and stressful settings may have deleterious effects on health, understanding the sources of insecurity for women in refugee camps can help to guide services for healthcare in displaced settings. By creating a safer environment for these women in private, in public, and in the process of accessing care in refugee camps, we can improve health for them and their babies.


Asunto(s)
Conflicto Psicológico , Características Culturales , Miedo , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Paridad , Campos de Refugiados , Refugiados/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Adulto , Etiopía , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Embarazo , Investigación Cualitativa , Factores de Riesgo , Medidas de Seguridad , Somalia , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estrés Psicológico/etnología , Viaje , Violencia/etnología , Adulto Joven
6.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(2): 189-197, 2020 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141597

RESUMEN

Background: Exposure to violence is a significant risk factor for the development of psychopathology in young people. Research on the mental health consequences of violence exposure in youth has focused mostly on post-traumatic stress disorder, however, the association with depression and anxiety has also been established. As a result of the longstanding Israeli-Palestinian conflict, young Palestinians are vulnerable to exposure to various types of violence. Aims: We examined psychiatric symptomatology and its relationship to direct and indirect forms of violence exposure. Methods: A representative household survey of 2481 Palestinian youth was conducted in 2014. Self-report measures included psychiatric symptomatology (global distress, depression, anxiety) and violence exposure (personal victimization, witnessed, vicariously heard about). Results: The proportion of elevated symptoms of global distress (46%), depression (55%), and (37%) anxiety was high; 47% had been a personal victim, 71% had witnessed violence, and 69% had heard about violence experienced by someone close to them. In logistic regression analysis, controlling for other bivariate correlates, exposure to any violence event, as well as any of the 3 types of violence exposure, were independently associated with each of the 3 measures of elevated psychiatric symptomatology. Females were 4 times more likely to report elevated psychopathology, despite being less likely to experience each type of violence. Conclusions: These findings suggest the need for services that cater to the mental health needs of youth in settings of high violence exposure, and that gender-specific strategies may be useful.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Exposición a la Violencia , Salud Mental , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedad/etiología , Depresión/etiología , Exposición a la Violencia/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/etiología , Violencia/psicología , Adulto Joven
8.
AIDS Care ; 32(sup2): 91-98, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151145

RESUMEN

People living with HIV (PLHIV) in the United States (US) are more likely to experience traumatic events than non-affected peers. Sexual violence is a unique trauma that has important implications for HIV-related treatment and care. The aim of the current study was to examine links between sexual violence and Quality of Life (QoL) among PLHIV in South Carolina - a Southern state that is disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic. Specifically, we surveyed 402 PLHIV about their past exposure to sexual traumas and their current QoL across multiple domains. Results indicated that women living with HIV were more likely to have experienced sexual trauma than men. Participants with histories of sexual trauma reported poorer overall QoL, as well as less satisfaction with their health. Multiple regression analyses indicated that exposure to sexual violence was associated with lower QoL in four of six domains, including psychological functioning, independence, social relationships, and environment. Sexual trauma was not associated with physical health QoL in the current study. Surprisingly, sexual trauma was associated with higher spiritual QoL. Findings support the need to screen PLHIV for sexual trauma exposure, adopt trauma-informed practices, and ensure that all PLHIV have access to comprehensive psychological services when indicated.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Conducta Sexual , South Carolina/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos , Violencia/psicología , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
9.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(1): 16-27, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975480

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is continued debate about whether sexualisation in games can influence sexist attitudes and reduced empathy towards women in real life. There is research evidence both supporting and refuting the possibility. AIMS: Our aim was to examine the relationship between sexualised content in video games and players' sexist attitudes and empathy. Our research question was, do any such relationships exist once other factors including gender and trait aggression are controlled? METHODS: An online sample of 125 participants were recruited and asked to rate their video game playing experience, complete a trait aggression scale and record responses to a vignette about rape. Scores were first correlated, and then hierarchical multiple regression was employed followed by PROCESS examination of interactions between sexualised game content and trait aggression. RESULTS: Exposure to sexualised content in video games was neither correlated with higher sexist attitude ratings nor with lower empathy scores. Sexualised content in games was associated with slightly lower sexist belief scores for those with higher scores on trait aggression (the 12.8% of our current sample at one standard deviation above the mean). No effects were observed for those low in trait aggression. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: While it is natural to be concerned about the impact of potentially arousing video games, actual effects may be counterintuitive, so if seeking to regulate, it is important to act from actual information. Further research with groups of particular concern will be important.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Empatía , Violación , Sexismo/psicología , Juegos de Video/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Adulto , Agresión , Actitud , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepción , Sexismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Juegos de Video/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
10.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 28(1): 1700770, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934824

RESUMEN

Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in Uganda are at risk of early sexual debut, unwanted pregnancy, violence, and disproportionally high HIV infection rates, driven in part by transactional sex. This paper examines the extent to which AGYW's participation in transactional sex is perceived to be coerced. We conducted 19 focus group discussions and 44 in-depth interviews using semi-structured tools. Interviews were audio recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis. While AGYW did not necessarily use the language of coercion, their narratives describe a number of coercive aspects in their relationships. First, coercion by force as a result of "de-toothing" a man (whereby they received money or resources but did not wish to provide sex as "obligated" under the implicit "terms" of the relationships). Second, they described the coercive role that receiving resources played in their decision to have sex in the face of men's verbal insistence. Finally, they discussed having sex as a result of coercive economic circumstances including poverty, and because of peer pressure to uphold modern lifestyles. Support for income-generation activities, microfinance and social protection programmes may help reduce AGYW's vulnerability to sexual coercion in transactional sex relationships. Targeting gender norms that contribute to unequal power dynamics and social expectations that obligate AGYW to provide sex in return for resources, critically assessing the meaning of consensual sex, and normative interventions building on parents' efforts to ascertain the source of their daughters' resources may also reduce AGYW's vulnerability to coercion.


Asunto(s)
Coerción , Coito , Violación/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Salud Sexual , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Poder Psicológico , Trabajo Sexual , Conducta Sexual , Factores Socioeconómicos , Uganda , Sexo Inseguro , Violencia/psicología , Adulto Joven
11.
Public Health ; 179: 45-50, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726400

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to estimate mortality risk among women exposed to violence in Brazil using population-based data. STUDY DESIGN: This study used a linked database containing nearly 800,000 violence (against women) notifications and 16,500 associated deaths over the period 2011-2016. METHODS: Aggregate age-standardized population-based rates of mortality were built to estimate risk ratios (RRs) at the national and state level, and for different forms of violence and causes of death, as well as type of offender involved, and across various characteristics of the women. RRs compared the rate of mortality among women exposed to violence with that in the general population of women - excess mortality due to violence was also derived from this comparison. The analysis was divided into two time periods (2011-13 and 2014-16). RESULTS: During 2014-16, women exposed to violence had an estimated mortality risk that was 8.3 [95% confidence interval (CI): 8.2-8.5] times higher than that of the general woman population, and an estimated 100 women died on a weekly basis as a direct or indirect consequence of exposure to violence. Higher (all-cause) mortality risk was associated with physical violence and violence that involved repetition and that was self-inflicted. The risk of mortality increased when the cause of death involved external causes (RR: 51.2, 95% CI: 49.6-52.8). When death was attributable to (i) non-communicable diseases and (ii) communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases, the risk was 5.4 [95% CI: 5.3-5.6] and 6.7 [95% CI: 6.1-7.2] times, respectively. Women at greatest (all-cause) mortality risk include white and multiracial (parda) and single women in the age group 10-29 years, who live in the northeast part of the country. When the offender was a partner/ex., women aged 10-19 years showed the greatest (all-cause) mortality risk at 16.9 [95% CI: 13.9-19.8] times. Higher risk was also observed within the age group 30-59 years when death was attributable to external causes (RR: 74.6, 95% CI: 71.3-77.9). For younger women and girls, there was a clear gradient in (all-cause) mortality risk, with those living in the poorest municipalities at greater risk. Age-specific mortality risk also showed significant variation within and across states. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that most women exposed to violence will likely experience an increased risk of mortality, regardless of her place of residence, age group, racial/ethnic background, marital status situation, and socio-economic status. The estimated RRs are only an approximation given the design of this analysis and should be interpreted with caution.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato Conyugal/mortalidad , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Causas de Muerte , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mortalidad , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Factores de Riesgo , Persona Soltera , Maltrato Conyugal/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Adulto Joven
12.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 88(1): 39-47, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647275

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of long-term violent victimization from late adolescence to the mid-30s on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid psychiatric disorders in adulthood among urban African Americans and Puerto Ricans. METHOD: Data were collected from a large urban community sample (N = 674) at 4 time points associated with mean ages of 19, 24, 29, and 36 years. Trajectories of violent victimization were extracted using growth mixture modeling and used to predict psychiatric disorders and comorbidities in adulthood. RESULTS: The sample was 52.8% African American and 47.2% Puerto Rican, with 60% females. Three trajectory groups of violent victimization were identified: high, intermediate, and low. Over half of the sample reported relatively high- and intermediate-level violent victimization experiences from adolescence to adulthood. Group comparisons showed that participants belonging to the relatively high-victimization group had greater odds of having PTSD, major depressive episode (MDE), and substance use disorder (SUD) separately, as well as comorbid PTSD-SUD and PTSD-MDE, compared with those classified as having relatively low levels of victimization. Having intermediate-level victimization experiences, compared with low-level victimization experiences, over time was associated with higher odds of PTSD and MDE separately and comorbid PTSD-MDE. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to relatively high levels of violent victimization during emerging and young adulthood is associated with PTSD and comorbid psychiatric disorders in the 30s. Social, structural, and interpersonal factors underlying the differential patterns of violent victimization in urban African American and LatinX youth need to be identified to adequately inform prevention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/psicología , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Comorbilidad , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/epidemiología , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/psicología , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Grupos Minoritarios/psicología , Grupos Minoritarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
13.
Int J Psychol ; 55(1): 123-132, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537100

RESUMEN

Using the family stress model as our conceptual framework, we explored whether observed maternal parenting practices (positive and coercive) account for the associations between mothers' post-traumatic stress symptoms and children's externalising behaviours. Mothers' self-reported post-traumatic stress symptoms, observed maternal practices, and reports of children's externalising behaviour were collected from 123 Israeli mothers and their children, who were exposed to ongoing rocket attacks in southern Israel. A structural equation model revealed that mothers' post-traumatic stress symptoms were linked with greater maternal coercive parenting practices, which in turn were associated with more externalising behaviours in children. The study highlights the crucial role of maternal distress and mothers' parenting skills in the development of externalising behaviours in children exposed to chronic political violence. These results suggest that prevention interventions designed to promote parenting skills for mothers exposed to political violence may be beneficial for children's healthy development.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Infantil/psicología , Madres/psicología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/etiología , Violencia/psicología , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835671

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adolescent physical fighting is a problem of public health importance, with varied consequences in the form of school absenteeism, injury, and, in some cases, death. Although research on risk and protective factors exists, most has been conducted in high-income countries. METHODS: The 2009 Pakistan Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) data were used. Logistic regression models were used to determine the associations. Five independent variables were investigated at the individual level (anxiety, suicide planning, truancy, physical activity, and bullying victimization) and four independent variables at the social level (presence of supportive parental figures, presence of helpful peers, extent of social network, and food insecurity). RESULTS: Among adolescents in this study (N = 5177), 20% reported being involved in two or more physical fights, most of whom were males (79.9%). The factors associated with physical fighting were: being male (OR = 2.78); bullying victimization (OR = 3.14); truancy (OR = 1.63), loneliness (OR = 1.44); and suicidality, as evidenced by having a suicide plan (OR = 1.75). Having few close friends (0-2) as opposed to more (>3) was found to be protective against engaging in physical fighting. CONCLUSION: Risk factors for physical fighting among adolescents in South Asia seem to corroborate with previously-identified risk factors using samples in high-income countries, while protective factors seemed to differ. More research needs to be conducted to understand why certain factors do not have the same protective effect among South Asian adolescents. AIM: The aim of this study was to examine demographic and contextual factors associated with physical fighting among a nationally representative sample in a rapidly developing South Asian context.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Salud del Adolescente/estadística & datos numéricos , Acoso Escolar/prevención & control , Acoso Escolar/psicología , Acoso Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Amigos/psicología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Soledad , Masculino , Pakistán , Factores de Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas , Ideación Suicida , Violencia/prevención & control , Violencia/psicología
15.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 14(10): 1097-1107, 2019 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820809

RESUMEN

We used functional magnetic resonance to investigate the effects of exposure to violence on early adolescent brain function in an inhibitory control task. We investigated the association among scores on self-reported exposure to violence, performance and brain activation. Thirty-seven early adolescents (ages 10-14) from a Latin-American urban region participated in the study. Results showed that recent and chronic exposure to violence was associated with less activation of a network of frontal regions, including the anterior cingulate gyrus and the superior frontal cortex; recent exposure to violence was also associated with less activation of the superior parietal lobe. Results also showed that less activation correlated with more prominent deterioration in the performance in the inhibitory control task (increased latency with time). The findings suggest that early adolescence exposure to violence is associated with differences in activation of a neural network commonly associated with executive function and control. The results underscore the urgency of addressing exposure to violence in adolescence, a period of high susceptibility to the environment, and are discussed in the light of the evidence of the effects of violence on adolescent brain function. Executive function training may be a candidate for targeted cognitive interventions aimed at mitigating these effects.


Asunto(s)
Función Ejecutiva/fisiología , Exposición a la Violencia/psicología , Lóbulo Frontal/fisiopatología , Lóbulo Parietal/fisiopatología , Adolescente , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Niño , Femenino , Giro del Cíngulo/fisiopatología , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Violencia/psicología
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816837

RESUMEN

Substance use among women is a major public health concern. This review article takes a developmental-relational approach to examine processes through which early relational trauma and violence in relationships may lead to substance use. We examine how early exposure to violence in relationships can impact neurological development, specifically through interference with physiological mechanisms (e.g., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis), brain structure and functioning (e.g., the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex), and neuropsychological development (e.g., executive functioning and emotion regulation) across the lifespan. Further, we discuss the impact of exposure to violence on the development of relational capacity, including attachment, internal working models, and subsequent interpersonal relationships across the lifespan, and how these developmental pathways can lead to continued problematic substance use in women.


Asunto(s)
Mujeres Maltratadas/estadística & datos numéricos , Crecimiento , Relaciones Interpersonales , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/etiología , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Salud Pública , Violencia/psicología
17.
J Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 31(3): 201-213, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805842

RESUMEN

This study aims to explore the effects of poly-victimisation (defined as the experience of multiple different forms of violence, including physical, emotional, and/or sexual) and gender attitudes on mental distress and suicidal ideation among adolescent girls, using cross-sectional nationally representative household survey data from Cambodia and Haiti. Data used were from 555 and 675 adolescent girls aged 13 to 19 from the 2013 Cambodia and 2012 Haiti Violence Against Children Surveys, respectively. Weighted bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between poly-victimisation and gender attitudes with severe mental distress and suicidal ideation, controlling for a range of factors. The results suggest that poly-victimisation is associated with severe mental distress and suicidal ideation among adolescent girls in both countries. Gender attitudes can serve as either a risk or protective factor. For example, in Haiti, respondents who agreed that women should tolerate violence to keep their family together were more likely to experience mental distress, but less likely to have had suicidal thoughts. The study's findings illustrate the need for further research on how gender norms and attitudes as well as experiences of multiple different forms of violence impact adolescent mental health.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Sexismo/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Actitud , Cambodia , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Haití , Humanos , Sexismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Ideación Suicida , Violencia/psicología , Adulto Joven
18.
Estud. psicol. (Natal) ; 24(4): 402-413, Out.-Dec. 2019. ilus, tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1098252

RESUMEN

Estudo transversal, de base escolar, que investigou se vitimização por pares associa-se à policonsumo de substâncias e envolvimento em comportamentos violentos (brigas e/ou porte de armas). Participaram 3.547 escolares do interior do Rio Grande do Sul, com idade média de 14 anos (dp = 1,66). Realizou-se amostragem aleatória, estratificada por sexo, idade, município e rede de ensino. Os dados foram coletados em 2012, através de questionário autoaplicável. Foram realizadas análises descritivas, através do teste Chi Quadrado de Pearson, e modelo de equações estruturais. Evidenciou-se que vitimização associa-se ao policonsumo apenas quando há sofrimento psíquico e relação negativa com pai e/ou mãe, associando-se ao maior envolvimento com comportamentos violentos tanto de forma direta como mediada pela relação com os pais e pela saúde mental dos escolares. Conclui-se que a vitimização parece instigar comportamentos violentos, denunciando a existência de um ciclo vicioso de agressividade, o que reforça a importância do seu enfrentamento.


A cross-sectional, school-based study that evaluated whether victimization by peers is associated with polydrug use and involvement in violent behavior (fights and/or carrying arms). A total of 3,547 students from the interior of Rio Grande do Sul, with a mean age of 14 years (SD = 1.66) participated. Sampling was randomized, stratified by gender, age, municipality and educational network. Data were collected in 2012, through a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive analyzes were performed using the Pearson's Chi Square test and a Structural Equations Model. It has been shown that victimization is associated with polydrug use only when there is psychological distress and negative relationship with father and/or mother, and is associated with the greater involvement with violent behaviors even directly or mediated by the adolescents' relationship with parents and adolescents' mental health. It is concluded that victimization seems to foster violent behavior, denouncing the existence of a vicious cycle of aggression and reinforcing the importance of being confronted.


Estudio transversal, de base escolar, que investigó si la victimización por pares se asocia al policonsumo de sustancias y la participación en comportamientos violentos (peleas y/o porte de armas). Participaron 3.547 escolares del interior de Rio Grande do Sul, con una edad promedio de 14 años (dp = 1,66). Se realizó muestreo aleatorio, estratificado por sexo, edad, municipio y red de enseñanza. Los datos fueron recogidos en 2012 a través de cuestionario autoadministrado. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos, a través del test Chi cuadrado de Pearson, y el modelo de ecuaciones estructurales. Se evidenció que la victimización se asocia al policonsumo sólo cuando hay sufrimiento psíquico y relación negativa con padre y / o madre, asociándose al mayor involucramiento con comportamientos violentos tanto de forma directa como mediada por la relación de los adolescents con los padres y la salud mental de los adolescentes. Se concluye que la victimización parece instigar los comportamientos violentos, denunciando la existencia de un ciclo vicioso de agresividad, lo que reforza la importancia de su enfrentamiento.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Violencia/psicología , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Relaciones Familiares/psicología , Brasil , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Entrevista , Investigación Cualitativa
19.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 408, 2019 12 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856762

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia are ten times more likely to commit homicide than a member of the general population. The relationship between symptoms of schizophrenia and acts of violence is unclear. There has also been limited research on what determines the seriousness and form of violence, such as reactive or instrumental violence. Moral cognition may play a paradoxical role in acts of violence for people with schizophrenia. Thoughts which have moral content arising from psychotic symptoms may be a cause of serious violence. METHOD: We investigated if psychotic symptoms and moral cognitions at the time of a violent act were associated with acts of violence using a cross-sectional national forensic cohort (n = 55). We examined whether moral cognitions were associated with violence when controlling for neurocognition and violence proneness. We explored the association between all psychotic symptoms present at the time of the violent act, psychotic symptoms judged relevant to the violent act and moral cognitions present at that time. Using mediation analysis, we examined whether moral cognitions were the missing link between symptoms and the relevance of symptoms for violence. We also investigated if specific moral cognitions mediated the relationship between specific psychotic symptoms, the seriousness of violence (including homicide), and the form of violence. RESULTS: Psychotic symptoms generally were not associated with the seriousness or form of violence. However, specific moral cognitions were associated with the seriousness and form of violence even when controlling for neurocognition and violence proneness. Specific moral cognitions were associated with specific psychotic symptoms present and relevant to violence. Moral cognitions mediated the relationship between the presence of specific psychotic symptoms and their relevance for violence, homicide, seriousness of violence, and the form of violence. CONCLUSIONS: Moral cognitions including the need to reduce suffering, responding to an act of injustice or betrayal, the desire to comply with authority, or the wish to punish impure or disgusting behaviour, may be a key mediator explaining the relationship between psychotic symptoms and acts of violence. Our findings may have important implications for risk assessment, treatment and violence prevention.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Principios Morales , Trastornos Psicóticos/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Homicidio/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
20.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 410, 2019 12 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856767

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The link between schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and violence is a core issue for most forensic psychiatric services. However, the drivers of violence in this population remain unclear, and, to date tools to predict violence risk have a range of limitations. Perhaps because of this uncertainty about the nature of violence risk, treatment programmes and care pathways for mentally disordered offenders vary substantially across the European Union, and differences in legal and policy frameworks are highly relevant. METHODS: The three-year EU-VIORMED project (Grant Number PP-2-3-2016, November 2017-October 2020) involves forensic centres in Italy, Austria, Germany, Poland, and the U.K. It aims to: (a) identify and compare violence risk factors, clinical needs, and decision making capacity in violent (N = 200, "cases") and nonviolent patients with SSD (N = 200; "controls") using a case-control design; (b) test the predictive validity of the HCR-20v3, OxMIS and FoVOx among cases alone (N = 200), using a prospective cohort study; and (c) compare forensic-psychiatric care pathways across the EU, in a continent wide service mapping study. DISCUSSION: Data collection started in September 2018 and continues. By September 2019, 333 participants have been enrolled (201 cases and 132 controls were recruited). Experts from 23 countries provided data for the service mapping exercise. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered on January 2, 2019 as researchregistry4604 January 2, 2019.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Adulto , Agresión/psicología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Vías Clínicas/normas , Europa (Continente) , Unión Europea , Femenino , Predicción , Psiquiatría Forense , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Evaluación de Necesidades , Estudios Prospectivos , Trastornos Psicóticos/psicología , Factores de Riesgo
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