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2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 467, 2021 03 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685420

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic. Many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, Uganda inclusive, implemented lockdowns, curfew, banning of both private and public transport systems, and mass gatherings to minimize spread. Social control measures for COVID-19 are reported to increase violence and discrimination globally, including in Uganda as some may be difficult to implement resulting in the heavy deployment of law enforcement. Media reports indicated that cases of violence and discrimination had increased in Uganda's communities following the lockdown. We estimated the incidence and factors associated with experiencing violence and discrimination among Ugandans during the COVID-19 lockdown to inform control and prevention measures. METHODS: In April 2020, we conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data under the International Citizen Project (ICP) to assess adherence to public health measures and their impact on the COVID-19 outbreak in Uganda. We analyzed data on violence and discrimination from the ICP study. We performed descriptive statistics for all the participants' characteristics and created a binary outcome variable called experiencing violence and/or discrimination. We performed logistic regression analysis to identify the factors associated with experiencing violence and discrimination. RESULTS: Of the 1726 ICP study participants, 1051 (58.8%) were males, 841 (48.7%) were currently living with a spouse or partner, and 376 (21.8%) had physically attended work for more than 3 days in the past week. Overall, 145 (8.4%) experienced any form of violence and/or discrimination by any perpetrator, and 46 (31.7%) of the 145 reported that it was perpetrated by a law enforcement officer. Factors associated with experiencing violence or discrimination were: being male (AOR = 1.60 CI:1.10-2.33), having attended work physically for more than 3 days in the past week (AOR = 1.52 CI:1.03-2.23), and inability to access social or essential health services since the epidemic started (AOR = 3.10 CI:2.14-4.50). CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of Ugandan residents experienced violence and/or discrimination during the COVID-19 lockdown, mostly perpetrated by law enforcement officers. We recommend mitigation of the collateral impact of lockdowns with interventions that focus on improving policing quality, ensuring continuity of essential services, and strengthening support systems for vulnerable groups including males.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Prejuicio/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Prejuicio/estadística & datos numéricos , Uganda/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): e112-e112, feb. 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147348
5.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 78(4): 372-379, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533876

RESUMEN

Importance: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, associated mitigation measures, and social and economic impacts may affect mental health, suicidal behavior, substance use, and violence. Objective: To examine changes in US emergency department (ED) visits for mental health conditions (MHCs), suicide attempts (SAs), overdose (OD), and violence outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Syndromic Surveillance Program to examine national changes in ED visits for MHCs, SAs, ODs, and violence from December 30, 2018, to October 10, 2020 (before and during the COVID-19 pandemic). The National Syndromic Surveillance Program captures approximately 70% of US ED visits from more than 3500 EDs that cover 48 states and Washington, DC. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcome measures were MHCs, SAs, all drug ODs, opioid ODs, intimate partner violence (IPV), and suspected child abuse and neglect (SCAN) ED visit counts and rates. Weekly ED visit counts and rates were computed overall and stratified by sex. Results: From December 30, 2018, to October 10, 2020, a total of 187 508 065 total ED visits (53.6% female and 46.1% male) were captured; 6 018 318 included at least 1 study outcome (visits not mutually exclusive). Total ED visit volume decreased after COVID-19 mitigation measures were implemented in the US beginning on March 16, 2020. Weekly ED visit counts for all 6 outcomes decreased between March 8 and 28, 2020 (March 8: MHCs = 42 903, SAs = 5212, all ODs = 14 543, opioid ODs = 4752, IPV = 444, and SCAN = 1090; March 28: MHCs = 17 574, SAs = 4241, all ODs = 12 399, opioid ODs = 4306, IPV = 347, and SCAN = 487). Conversely, ED visit rates increased beginning the week of March 22 to 28, 2020. When the median ED visit counts between March 15 and October 10, 2020, were compared with the same period in 2019, the 2020 counts were significantly higher for SAs (n = 4940 vs 4656, P = .02), all ODs (n = 15 604 vs 13 371, P < .001), and opioid ODs (n = 5502 vs 4168, P < .001); counts were significantly lower for IPV ED visits (n = 442 vs 484, P < .001) and SCAN ED visits (n = 884 vs 1038, P < .001). Median rates during the same period were significantly higher in 2020 compared with 2019 for all outcomes except IPV. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that ED care seeking shifts during a pandemic, underscoring the need to integrate mental health, substance use, and violence screening and prevention services into response activities during public health crises.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Sobredosis de Droga , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Trastornos Mentales , Intento de Suicidio , Violencia , Adulto , Sobredosis de Droga/epidemiología , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/tendencias , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud/tendencias , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Intento de Suicidio/psicología , Intento de Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Violencia/psicología , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25322, 2021 02 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587044

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To provide participants with a more real and immersive intervening experience, virtual reality (VR) and/or augmented reality (AR) technologies have been integrated into some bystander intervention training programs and studies measuring bystander behaviors. OBJECTIVE: We focused on whether VR or AR can be used as a tool to enhance training bystanders. We reviewed the evidence from empirical studies that used VR and/or AR as a tool for examining bystander behaviors in the domain of interpersonal violence research. METHODS: Two librarians searched for articles in databases, including APA PsycInfo (Ovid), Criminal Justice Abstracts (EBSCO), Medline (Ovid), Applied Social Sciences Index & Abstracts (ProQuest), Sociological Abstracts (ProQuest), and Scopus till April 15, 2020. Studies focusing on bystander behaviors in conflict situations were included. All study types (except reviews) written in English in any discipline were included. RESULTS: The search resulted in 12,972 articles from six databases, and the articles were imported into Covidence. Eleven studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All 11 articles examined the use of VR as a tool for studying bystander behaviors. Most of the studies were conducted in US young adults. The types of interpersonal violence were school bullying, dating violence, sexual violence/assault, and soccer-associated violence. VR technology was used as an observational measure and bystander intervention program. We evaluated the different uses of VR for bystander behaviors and noted a lack of empirical evidence for AR as a tool. We also discuss the empirical evidence regarding the design, effectiveness, and limitations of implementing VR as a tool in the reviewed studies. CONCLUSIONS: The reviewed results have implications and recommendations for future research in designing and implementing VR/AR technology in the area of interpersonal violence. Future studies in this area may further contribute to the use of VR as an observational measure and explore the potential use of AR to study bystander behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Realidad Aumentada , Efecto Espectador/fisiología , Psicoterapia Interpersonal/métodos , Violencia/psicología , Realidad Virtual , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2033484, 2021 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394004

RESUMEN

Importance: Violence is a significant public health problem that has become entwined with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Objective: To describe individuals' concerns regarding violence in the context of the pandemic, experiences of pandemic-related unfair treatment, prevalence of and reasons for firearm acquisition, and changes in firearm storage practices due to the pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study used data from the 2020 California Safety and Well-being Survey, a probability-based internet survey of California adults conducted from July 14 to 27, 2020. Respondents came from the Ipsos KnowledgePanel, an online research panel with members selected using address-based sampling methods. Responses were weighted to be representative of the adult population of California. Main Outcomes and Measures: Topics included worry about violence for oneself before and during the pandemic; concern about violence for someone else due to a pandemic-related loss; experiences of unfair treatment attributed to the pandemic; firearm and ammunition acquisition due to the pandemic; and changes in firearm storage practices due to the pandemic. Results: Of 5018 invited panel members, 2870 completed the survey (completion rate, 57%). Among respondents (52.3% [95% CI, 49.5%-55.0%] women; mean [SD] age, 47.9 [16.9] years; 41.9% [95% CI, 39.3%-44.6%] White individuals), self-reported worry about violence for oneself was significantly higher during the pandemic for all violence types except mass shootings, ranging from a 2.8 percentage point increase for robbery (from 65.5% [95% CI, 62.8%-68.0%] to 68.2% [95% CI, 65.6%-70.7%]; P = .008) to a 5.6 percentage point increase for stray bullet shootings (from 44.5% [95% CI, 41.7%-47.3%] to 50.0% [47.3%-52.8%]; P < .001). The percentage of respondents concerned that someone they know might intentionally harm themselves was 13.1% (95% CI, 11.5%-15.3%). Of those, 7.5% (95% CI, 4.5%-12.2%) said it was because the other person had experienced a pandemic-related loss. An estimated 110 000 individuals (2.4% [95% CI, 1.1%-5.0%] of firearm owners in the state) acquired a firearm due to the pandemic, including 47 000 new owners (43.0% [95% CI, 14.8%-76.6%] of those who had acquired a firearm). Of owners who stored at least 1 firearm in the least secure way, 6.7% (95% CI, 2.7%-15.6%) said they had adopted this unsecure storage practice in response to the pandemic. Conclusions and Relevance: In this analysis of findings from the 2020 California Safety and Well-being Survey, the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with increases in self-reported worry about violence for oneself and others, increased firearm acquisition, and changes in firearm storage practices. Given the impulsive nature of many types of violence, short-term crisis interventions may be critical for reducing violence-related harm.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Discriminación Social/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia/psicología , Adulto , Afroamericanos , Ansiedad/psicología , Americanos Asiáticos , California/epidemiología , Comercio , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Miedo/psicología , Femenino , Armas de Fuego/estadística & datos numéricos , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Propiedad , Policia , Seguridad , Discriminación Social/etnología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(1): 17-23, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434093

RESUMEN

Research is divided on the effects of violent video games (VVGs). Some scholars claimed that VVG promotes aggression, reduces empathy, increases self-injury, and externalization, whereas others claim that a minimal or, in some cases, no traits as reported by the former is associated with playing VVGs. This study provides evidence to support claims that VVG is associated with aggressive behavior among young adults. However, the study focused more importantly on the moderating effects of adverse environmental factors on this relationship from a cross-cultural perspective. A total of 3,219 young adults between 18 and 35 years sampled from colleges and game centers in Ghana and China provided support for this study. We adopted a parallel moderated-mediation regression analysis and found that increased exposure to VVG is associated with reduced empathy concerns, aggression-related thoughts, and increased aggressive behavior. Although controlling for gender, setting, and location, the results pointed to the magnifying effects of the adverse environments in explaining the association between VVG and aggressive behavior. This study thus provides strong support for the frequently debated adverse effects of playing VVG among young adults with a particular reference to environmental factors and will hence aid in communicating a more representative viewpoint on the effects of VVG.


Asunto(s)
Agresión/psicología , Empatía , Ambiente , Juegos de Video/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Comparación Transcultural , Femenino , Ghana , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis de Regresión , Violencia/etnología , Adulto Joven
10.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(1): 48-55, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434094

RESUMEN

It has been proposed that exposure to violent video games (VVGs) resulted in alterations of social behaviors such as increased aggression. The most damaging reported effect of playing VVGs is neural desensitization to violent stimuli and this is a major concern given the reported number of players and time spent playing major video game titles. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of neural desensitization that was reported at the P300 component of event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to violent stimuli. Eighty-seven participants were recruited and placed into one of two conditions based on their video gaming behavior (violent games players and nonplayers). ERPs were recorded from participants who passively viewed violent and neutral images selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). The participants then played a VVG, postplaying ERPs were recorded while viewing the neutral and violent IAPS images. The mean amplitudes of the P300 were analyzed with respect to condition, time, and content. There was a significant effect of image but not of VVG player and nonplayer. The results were interpreted as evidence against the neural desensitization hypothesis. The findings of this study are consistent with imaging research and the implications for the reported negative effects of playing VVGs are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Agresión/psicología , Desensibilización Psicológica , Potenciales Relacionados con Evento P300/fisiología , Juegos de Video/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulación Luminosa , Conducta Social , Adulto Joven
11.
Am J Psychiatry ; 178(3): 266-274, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472389

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Treatment of violence in schizophrenia remains a challenging problem, especially in patients with conduct disorder. Previous clinical studies did not select patients on the basis of violence and did not focus on conduct disorder. This study is a head-to-head comparison of clozapine, olanzapine, and haloperidol in the treatment of violent schizophrenia patients with and without conduct disorder. METHODS: Physically assaultive schizophrenia patients (N=99) were randomly assigned to receive clozapine, olanzapine, or haloperidol in a 12-week double-blind trial. They were characterized on the basis of the presence or absence of conduct disorder before age 15. Assaults were recorded; their frequency and severity were scored on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated through the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. RESULTS: Patients with a history of conduct disorder had more frequent and severe assaults than those without conduct disorder during the 12-week trial. Clozapine was superior to haloperidol and olanzapine in reducing assaults; olanzapine was superior to haloperidol. Clozapine's greater antiaggressive efficacy over haloperidol was substantially more pronounced in patients with conduct disorder than in patients without conduct disorder. In patients with conduct disorder, clozapine was four times more likely than haloperidol to result in lower violence; in patients without conduct disorder, it was three times more likely to do so. Olanzapine's superiority over haloperidol was also more pronounced in patients with conduct disorder. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to examine the effect of clozapine in violent schizophrenia patients with conduct disorder. When conduct disorder is present, clozapine is the optimal treatment.


Asunto(s)
Antipsicóticos/uso terapéutico , Clozapina/uso terapéutico , Trastorno de la Conducta/tratamiento farmacológico , Haloperidol/uso terapéutico , Olanzapina/uso terapéutico , Esquizofrenia/tratamiento farmacológico , Violencia/prevención & control , Adulto , Trastorno de la Conducta/complicaciones , Trastorno de la Conducta/psicología , Método Doble Ciego , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Esquizofrenia/complicaciones , Violencia/psicología
12.
Psicol. educ. (Madr.) ; 27(1): 1-11, ene. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-199704

RESUMEN

This study examines how teacher perceptions of student misbehaviour correlate with their perceptions of school climate and student self-reports, using multi-informant two-level multilevel modelling. School climate questionnaires completed by 4,055 teachers and 16,017 students (1rd to 4th year of compulsory secondary education from 187 schools) showed that teachers' characteristics are marginally related to perceived disruption. Fair rules and support of students' families acted as protective factors, while a lack of educational leadership was a risk factor. Furthermore, the student variable of pro-violence messages from parents acted as a moderator for leadership and rules, while perceived coercive treatment from teachers acted as a moderator for family support of teachers


Esta investigación examina en qué medida la percepción del profesorado sobre el comportamiento disruptivo correlaciona con la percepción del clima escolar y los autoinformes del alumnado, mediante una modelización multi-informante y multinivel. Los cuestionarios sobre el clima escolar, cumplimentados por 4,055 profesores y 16,017 estudiantes (de 1º a 4º curso de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria pertenecientes a 187 centros educativos), muestran que las características de los profesores se relacionan solo marginalmente con la disrupción percibida. La existencia de unas reglas justas y el apoyo de las familias de los estudiantes se mostraron como factores de protección, mientras que la ausencia de un adecuado liderazgo en el equipo directivo aparecía como factor de riesgo. Además, los mensajes que los alumnos reciben de sus padres a favor de la violencia actuaron como moderadores del liderazgo y las reglas, mientras que el trato coercitivo de los profesores que percibían los estudiantes actuó de moderador del apoyo de la familia hacia el profesorado


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudiantes/psicología , Problema de Conducta/psicología , Instituciones Académicas , Medio Social , Maestros/psicología , Análisis Multinivel , Relaciones Familiares/psicología , Distribución por Edad , Factores de Edad , Percepción , Autoinforme , Liderazgo , Violencia/psicología
13.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(1): 41-47, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325791

RESUMEN

Effects of violent video games on aggression remain contentious despite decades of empirical investigations. Using eight-wave panel data collected from 662 South Korean adolescents (grades 4, 7, and 10) for a 4-year period (number of observations = 5,296), the current research critically tested competing hypotheses concerning the relations between violent video games and aggression. In so doing, we directly compared the results from dynamic fixed-effects (FE) regression with those from conventional contemporaneous FE regression to observe if different statistical models yield different outcomes. Consistent with the catharsis hypothesis, the dynamic FE model showed that violent (vs. nonviolent) game playing significantly lowered both verbal and physical aggression among heavy players, with no corresponding effect of the game type for light players. By contrast, results from the contemporaneous FE model lent support to the stimulation hypothesis, with violent game playing leading to increased physical aggression as well as verbal aggression among heavy players. Violent game playing did not significantly affect anger and hostility, but overall game time did, although in opposite directions depending on the statistical model. Specifically, the dynamic FE model indicated a significant reduction of the negative emotions as a result of increased game playing, whereas the contemporaneous FE model showed a significant increase in both emotions. Methodological implications and directions for future research are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Agresión/psicología , Catarsis , Modelos Psicológicos , Juegos de Video/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Adolescente , Niño , Emociones , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Análisis de Regresión , República de Corea
14.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(1): 11-16, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337262

RESUMEN

A host of studies have examined the impact of playing violent video games on aggressive behavior. However, longitudinal research is rare, and existing studies have allowed little room for individual variability in the trajectories of violent video game play. The current study used a person-centered approach to examine trajectories, predictors, and outcomes of violent video game play over a 10-year period. Three groups of individuals emerged: high initial violence (4 percent), moderate (23 percent), and low increasers (73 percent). High initial violence and moderate groups showed a curvilinear pattern of violent video game play across time, whereas low increasers group increased slightly in violent video game play across time. The high initial violence and moderate groups were more likely to be male, and those in the high initial violence group were more likely to be depressed at the initial wave. There was no difference in prosocial behavior at the final time point across all the three groups, but individuals in the moderate group displayed the highest levels of aggressive behavior at the final wave. Implications of the results are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Agresión/psicología , Robo/psicología , Juegos de Video/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Adolescente , Altruismo , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Factores de Tiempo
15.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(1): 5-10, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370158

RESUMEN

In this study, we examined how playing a violent video game affected aggressive cognition and aggressive behavior. A total of 300 children (Mage = 6.38, SD = 0.25) were randomly recruited to play a violent or a nonviolent video game. Results revealed that briefly exposing children to a violent video game increased aggressive cognition and aggressive behavior. In addition, a significant game × sex interaction showed that this effect was larger for boys than for girls. Mediational pathways were found such that aggressive cognition mediated the relationship between violent video games and aggressive behavior, especially for boys. Findings were interpreted within and supported the framework of the general aggression model. Violent video game effects remain a societal concern, and boys should be regarded as a special group for aggression intervention.


Asunto(s)
Agresión/psicología , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Cognición , Juegos de Video/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Factores Sexuales
16.
J Pers Assess ; 103(1): 10-18, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208938

RESUMEN

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) has demonstrated utility in suicide risk assessment. Limited research with the MMPI-2-RF in higher acuity populations exists, particularly regarding the impact of possible underreporting on prediction of suicide risk. The current study serves to extend previous findings of the utility of clinically indicated MMPI-2-RF scales and proxy indices in 293 veterans (83.62% White, 85.32% male, and 74.40% with past-week suicide ideation) enrolled in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center partial psychiatric hospitalization program. Differences in self-report indicators and MMPI-2-RF scales and proxy indices relevant in assessing suicide ideation between veterans indicated as possibly underreporting and those who were not and the ability of the scales and proxy indices to predict current suicide ideation were examined. These indicators, scales, and proxy indices, with the exception of SUI, were significantly impacted by underreporting, and none of the examined scales or proxy indices (or their interaction) were consistently associated with self-reported suicide ideation after accounting for SUI. However, SUI was consistently associated with suicide ideation and was less influenced by under-reporting. In acutely ill psychiatric patients, SUI may be the most robust indicator of current suicide ideation.


Asunto(s)
MMPI/normas , Ideación Suicida , Veteranos/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Medición de Riesgo , Autoinforme , Violencia/psicología
17.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 61-68, jul.-dic. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-190650

RESUMEN

School coexistence/violence is often the subject of social alarm. There is no consensus on the prevalence of violent behavior in the classroom, but there does seem to be about its differences according to sex, socioeconomic level, or the importance of preventive interventions for its reduction. Models consider attitudes towards violence as an indicator of risk for its expression. The objectives of this study are to explore the psychometric properties of the revised version of Cuestionario de Actitudes Hacia la Violencia [Attitudes towards Violence Questionnaire] (CAHV-25) in primary and secondary education students, proposing a version of four scales and a total of 28 items, along with the exploration of their significance as a function of sex and academic cycle. A qualitative review of CAHV-25 and a psychometric study of the revised version in each of its original dimensions was carried out, obtaining the fit indicators of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, the scale was studied as a function of sex and educational stage se in school children (N = 600) of the Region of Murcia (Spain). The four dimensions show better psychometric properties in their revised version. Attitudes towards violence are more present in males and in secondary school. As conclusions, the proposed version optimizes the detection of attitudes towards violence in schoolchildren and suggests more specific school violence prevention programs


La convivencia/violencia escolar, a menudo, es objeto de alarma social. No parece existir consenso en la prevalencia de conductas violentas en las aulas, pero sí en sus diferencias según sexo, nivel socioeconómico o la importancia de las intervenciones preventivas para su disminución. Los modelos sitúan a las actitudes hacia la violencia como un indicador de riesgo para la manifestación de dichas conductas. Los objetivos del presente estudio son explorar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión ampliada del Cuestionario de Actitudes Hacia la Violencia (CAHV-25) en alumnos de Educación Primaria y Secundaria, proponiendo una versión dividida en cuatro escalas y 28 ítems en total, junto a la exploración de la significación según sexo y etapa académica. Se ha llevado a cabo una revisión cualitativa del cuestionario CAHV-25 y se realizó un estudio psicométrico de la misma para cada una de sus dimensiones originales obteniendo los indicadores de ajuste de Análisis Factorial Exploratorio y Confirmatorio en menores de Educación Primaria y Secundaria (N = 600) de la Región de Murcia (España). Los resultados indican que las cuatro dimensiones tienen mejores propiedades psicométricas en su versión revisada. Las actitudes hacia la violencia son mayores en varones y en Secundaria. Se concluye que la versión propuesta permite maximizar la detección de actitudes hacia la violencia en menores escolarizados, sirviendo de base para el planteamiento de posibles programas de prevención de violencia escolar más específicos


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estudiantes/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Actitud , Análisis Factorial , Conducta del Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Prevalencia , Psicometría
18.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239897, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045018

RESUMEN

Violence-free family ties, non-violent peers or attachment to society have been pointed out as protective factors against different types of extremism and violent radicalization by international literature. However, more detail needs to be provided about which specific aspects within these realms (friendship/family/community) are effective in challenging violence and how they operate in practice. Recent research conducted under the framework of the PROTON project (Horizon 2020) has analyzed the social and ethical impacts of counter-terrorism and organized crime policies in six European countries. In this article we discuss some identified common features among practices that, developed by organized actors operating at the local level (e.g.: grassroots-based associations, educational institutions, other type of organized networks for prevention, NGOs), are contributing to preventing youth violent radicalization, a phenomenon of growing concern in Europe and beyond. Standing on a solid rejection to violence, these shared features are the following: a bottom-up approach in setting allies with key stakeholders from the community or/and family members to intervene; the promotion of trustworthy and healthy friendship relationships; debunking the lure surrounding violent subjects ("false heroes") and violence in the different contexts, especially in the socioeducational one.


Asunto(s)
Controles Informales de la Sociedad/métodos , Medio Social , Participación de los Interesados , Violencia/prevención & control , Adolescente , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Violencia/psicología , Adulto Joven
19.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 360-363, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030453

RESUMEN

The establishment of the United Nations after World War II raised hopes of a new era of peace. This was over-optimistic. Between 1945 and 1992, there were 149 major wars, killing more than 23 million people. Recent developments in warfare have significantly heightened the dangers for children. During the last decade child war victims have included: 2 million killed; 4-5 million disabled; 12 million left homeless; more than 1 million orphaned or separated from their parents; some 10 million psychologically traumatized. Researches indicate that children do develop PTSD after experiencing very stressful, life-threatening events such as happen in war. Wars of 21st century are often guerrilla-type civil wars in which women and children are not only the main victims, but are deliberately targeted. Thousands are displaced both internally and across borders. Wars at the end of nineties of 20th century in the region of ex Yugoslavian countries brought all the cruelty of war vivid again on European ground. Population were exposed to death, threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. During the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992-1995 there were about 100 000 people killed (20% woman and 3.5% children) and about 18 000 children were orphaned because of war. Children are not capable to regulate their emotions and hyper-arousal on their own. It depends of the way how their parents (caretaker) regulate her/his own emotions. During the war weak child's ego is paralyzed with intensive stimuli and floating anxiety, it does not manage to make constructive solution for traumatic experiences in such a short time. Mothers with small children are especially vulnerable group during the war time: they are supposed to take care about children and feel happiness, what is almost impossible Severe war experiences could cause depressive symptoms in mothers, what reduce their emotional disposability and could lead in different form of the child's neglecting. PTSD symptoms were lasting longer in children if their mothers have had functioning problems. Traumatization of mothers is connected with different behavior problems in their children. Wars are continuing all over the world and there is a continuity of researches about their consequences on children. Any programs that intend to mitigate the psychological effects of such trauma need to adopt a public health approach aimed at reaching many thousands.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Guerra/psicología , Guerra/estadística & datos numéricos , Bosnia y Herzegovina/epidemiología , Niño , Humanos , Madres/psicología , Problema de Conducta , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Heridas Relacionadas con la Guerra/epidemiología , Heridas Relacionadas con la Guerra/psicología
20.
AMA J Ethics ; 22(10): E898-903, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103654

RESUMEN

The disproportionate negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Native communities is a result of transgenerational traumas-mental and physical-which have been ongoing and developing for centuries. This article considers 19th-century American visual and narrative representations of Native experiences of and responses to transgenerational trauma. This article also suggests ethical implications for Native American health of interpreting those representations and suggests an obligation to look on 19th-century White American artists' romanticizations of Native experiences with humility.


Asunto(s)
Arte , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Trauma Histórico/complicaciones , Historiografía , Indios Norteamericanos/psicología , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Salud Poblacional , Violencia , Arte/historia , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Composición Familiar , Trauma Histórico/etnología , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Narración , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Estados Unidos , Violencia/ética , Violencia/historia , Violencia/psicología
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