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1.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 180: 113112, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706158

RESUMEN

Infectious diseases caused by viruses can elevate up to undesired pandemic conditions affecting the global population and normal life function. These in turn impact the established world economy, create jobless situations, physical, mental, emotional stress, and challenge the human survival. Therefore, timely detection, treatment, isolation and prevention of spreading the pandemic infectious diseases not beyond the originated town is critical to avoid global impairment of life (e.g., Corona virus disease - 2019, COVID-19). The objective of this review article is to emphasize the recent advancements in the electrochemical diagnostics of twelve life-threatening viruses namely - COVID-19, Middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS), Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Influenza, Hepatitis, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Human papilloma virus (HPV), Zika virus, Herpes simplex virus, Chikungunya, Dengue, and Rotavirus. This review describes the design, principle, underlying rationale, receptor, and mechanistic aspects of sensor systems reported for such viruses. Electrochemical sensor systems which comprised either antibody or aptamers or direct/mediated electron transfer in the recognition matrix were explicitly segregated into separate sub-sections for critical comparison. This review emphasizes the current challenges involved in translating laboratory research to real-world device applications, future prospects and commercialization aspects of electrochemical diagnostic devices for virus detection. The background and overall progress provided in this review are expected to be insightful to the researchers in sensor field and facilitate the design and fabrication of electrochemical sensors for life-threatening viruses with broader applicability to any desired pathogens.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles/métodos , Técnicas Electroquímicas/métodos , Virosis/diagnóstico , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Humanos , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Técnica SELEX de Producción de Aptámeros
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1724, 2021 03 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741972

RESUMEN

T-cell immunity is important for recovery from COVID-19 and provides heightened immunity for re-infection. However, little is known about the SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell immunity in virus-exposed individuals. Here we report virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell memory in recovered COVID-19 patients and close contacts. We also demonstrate the size and quality of the memory T-cell pool of COVID-19 patients are larger and better than those of close contacts. However, the proliferation capacity, size and quality of T-cell responses in close contacts are readily distinguishable from healthy donors, suggesting close contacts are able to gain T-cell immunity against SARS-CoV-2 despite lacking a detectable infection. Additionally, asymptomatic and symptomatic COVID-19 patients contain similar levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell memory. Overall, this study demonstrates the versatility and potential of memory T cells from COVID-19 patients and close contacts, which may be important for host protection.


Asunto(s)
Linfocitos T CD4-Positivos/inmunología , Linfocitos T CD8-positivos/inmunología , Memoria Inmunológica/inmunología , Virosis/diagnóstico , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Infecciones Asintomáticas , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Humanos , Interferón gamma/biosíntesis , Interferón gamma/inmunología
4.
Bioanalysis ; 13(5): 387-394, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661025

RESUMEN

Aim: For oncolytic virus trials, regulatory agencies often require pharmaceutical industry to evaluate risks of released viruses from patients to environment. This study was to establish a real-time PCR method to assess viral shedding and viral stability in human urine. Results/methodology: Herein, we describe an incubation of viral drug product in human urine and use of real-time PCR as a simple, efficient and high throughput assay to assess the level and stability of a nonenveloped and single stranded RNA virus. The viral stability issue is critical to the collection, transport, storage and testing of clinical samples. Discussion/conclusion: In summary, this simple method provides useful viral stability information at various temperatures and detergents. A similar approach may apply to other RNA viruses (including SARS-CoV-2).


Asunto(s)
ARN Viral/metabolismo , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Virosis/diagnóstico , /diagnóstico , Detergentes/química , Humanos , Estabilidad del ARN , ARN Viral/sangre , ARN Viral/orina , /aislamiento & purificación , Temperatura , Virosis/virología
5.
Bioessays ; 43(4): e2000315, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569817

RESUMEN

The versatile clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas system has emerged as a promising technology for therapy and molecular diagnosis. It is especially suited for overcoming viral infections outbreaks, since their effective control relies on an efficient treatment, but also on a fast diagnosis to prevent disease dissemination. The CRISPR toolbox offers DNA- and RNA-targeting nucleases that constitute dual weapons against viruses. They allow both the manipulation of viral and host genomes for therapeutic purposes and the detection of viral nucleic acids in "Point of Care" sensor devices. Here, we thoroughly review recent advances in the use of the CRISPR/Cas system for the treatment and diagnosis of viral deleterious infections such as HIV or SARS-CoV-2, examining their strengths and limitations. We describe the main points to consider when designing CRISPR antiviral strategies and the scientific efforts to develop more sensitive CRISPR-based viral detectors. Finally, we discuss future prospects to improve both applications. Also see the video abstract here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C0z1dLpJWl4.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles/métodos , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Virosis/diagnóstico , Virosis/terapia , Virus/genética , /diagnóstico , /terapia , Técnicas de Sustitución del Gen , Genoma Viral , Humanos , ARN Guia/genética
7.
Eye (Lond) ; 35(4): 1117-1139, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514902

RESUMEN

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are an increasing threat to public health on a global scale. In recent times, the most prominent outbreaks have constituted RNA viruses, spreading via droplets (COVID-19 and Influenza A H1N1), directly between humans (Ebola and Marburg), via arthropod vectors (Dengue, Zika, West Nile, Chikungunya, Crimean Congo) and zoonotically (Lassa fever, Nipah, Rift Valley fever, Hantaviruses). However, specific approved antiviral therapies and vaccine availability are scarce, and public health measures remain critical. Patients can present with a spectrum of ocular manifestations. Emerging infectious diseases should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of ocular inflammatory conditions in patients inhabiting or returning from endemic territories, and more general vigilance is advisable in the context of a global pandemic. Eye specialists are in a position to facilitate swift diagnosis, improve clinical outcomes, and contribute to wider public health efforts during outbreaks. This article reviews those emerging viral diseases associated with reports of ocular manifestations and summarizes details pertinent to practicing eye specialists.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/diagnóstico , Infecciones Virales del Ojo/diagnóstico , Virosis/diagnóstico , Animales , Vectores Artrópodos , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Infecciones Virales del Ojo/epidemiología , Humanos , Virus ARN/patogenicidad , Virosis/epidemiología
8.
Rev Mal Respir ; 38(1): 58-73, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461842

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The etiological diagnosis of bronchopulmonary infections cannot be assessed with clinical, radiological and epidemiological data alone. Viruses have been demonstrated to cause a large proportion of these infections, both in children and adults. BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of viral bronchopulmonary infections is based on the analysis of secretions, collected from the lower respiratory tract when possible, by techniques that detect either influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses, or a large panel of viruses that can be responsible for respiratory disease. The latter, called multiplex PCR assays, allow a syndromic approach to respiratory infection. Their high cost for the laboratory raises the question of their place in the management of patients in terms of antibiotic economy and isolation. In the absence of clear recommendations, the strategy and equipment are very unevenly distributed in France. OUTLOOK: Medico-economic analyses need to be performed in France to evaluate the place of these tests in the management of patients. The evaluation of the role of the different viruses often detected in co-infection, especially in children, also deserves the attention of virologists and clinicians. CONCLUSIONS: The availability of new diagnostic technologies, the recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2, together with the availability of new antiviral drugs are likely to impact future recommendations for the management of viral bronchopulmonary infections.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Virosis/diagnóstico , Antígenos Virales/análisis , Líquido del Lavado Bronquioalveolar/virología , Coinfección/diagnóstico , Técnica del Anticuerpo Fluorescente , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Nasofaringe/virología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Vigilancia de la Población , Manejo de Especímenes
12.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(5): 644-650, 2020 Oct 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210494

RESUMEN

A large number of viruses have been found to be associated with ocular diseases, including human adenovirus, human herpesvirus (HHV), human T lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1), and newly emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This group of diseases is prone to be misdiagnosed or missed diagnosis, resulting in serious tissue and visual damage. Etiological diagnosis is a powerful auxiliary mean to diagnose the ocular diseases associated with human adenovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 and varicella-zoster virus, and it provides the leading diagnosis evidence of infections with herpes simplex virus 2, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, HHV-6/7, HHV-8, HTLV-1 and SARS-CoV-2. Virus isolation, immunoassay and genetic diagnosis are usually used for etiologic diagnosis. For genetic diagnosis, the PCR technique is the most important approach because of its advantages of rapid detection, convenient operation, high sensitivity and high specificity.


Asunto(s)
Oftalmopatías , Investigación , Virosis , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , ADN Viral/genética , Oftalmopatías/diagnóstico , Oftalmopatías/virología , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/virología , Investigación/tendencias , Virosis/diagnóstico , Virosis/virología
13.
J Proteome Res ; 19(11): 4380-4388, 2020 11 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090795

RESUMEN

One of the most widely used methods to detect an acute viral infection in clinical specimens is diagnostic real-time polymerase chain reaction. However, because of the COVID-19 pandemic, mass-spectrometry-based proteomics is currently being discussed as a potential diagnostic method for viral infections. Because proteomics is not yet applied in routine virus diagnostics, here we discuss its potential to detect viral infections. Apart from theoretical considerations, the current status and technical limitations are considered. Finally, the challenges that have to be overcome to establish proteomics in routine virus diagnostics are highlighted.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Proteómica/métodos , Virología/métodos , Betacoronavirus/química , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/virología , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Virosis/diagnóstico , Virosis/virología
14.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 169: 112604, 2020 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980805

RESUMEN

Virus severely endangers human life and health, and the detection of viruses is essential for the prevention and treatment of associated diseases. Metal-organic framework (MOF), a novel hybrid porous material which is bridged by the metal clusters and organic linkers, has become a promising biosensor platform for virus detection due to its outstanding properties including high surface area, adjustable pore size, easy modification, etc. However, the MOF-based sensing platforms for virus detection are rarely summarized. This review systematically divided the detection platforms into nucleic acid and immunological (antigen and antibody) detection, and the underlying sensing mechanisms were interpreted. The nucleic acid sensing was discussed based on the properties of MOF (such as metal ion, functional group, geometry structure, size, porosity, stability, etc.), revealing the relationship between the sensing performance and properties of MOF. Moreover, antibodies sensing based on the fluorescence detection and antigens sensing based on molecular imprinting or electrochemical immunoassay were highlighted. Furthermore, the remaining challenges and future development of MOF for virus detection were further discussed and proposed. This review will provide valuable references for the construction of sophisticated sensing platform for the detection of viruses, especially the 2019 coronavirus.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles/métodos , Estructuras Metalorgánicas/química , Virosis/virología , Virus/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales/análisis , Antígenos Virales/análisis , Técnicas Biosensibles/instrumentación , Técnicas Electroquímicas/instrumentación , Técnicas Electroquímicas/métodos , Humanos , Inmunoensayo/instrumentación , Inmunoensayo/métodos , Modelos Moleculares , Impresión Molecular/instrumentación , Impresión Molecular/métodos , Ácidos Nucleicos/análisis , Espectrometría de Fluorescencia/instrumentación , Espectrometría de Fluorescencia/métodos , Virosis/diagnóstico
15.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 08 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872469

RESUMEN

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic emphasizes the need to actively study the virome of unexplained respiratory diseases. We performed viral metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) analysis of 91 nasal-throat swabs from individuals working with animals and with acute respiratory diseases. Fifteen virus RT-PCR-positive samples were included as controls, while the other 76 samples were RT-PCR negative for a wide panel of respiratory pathogens. Eukaryotic viruses detected by mNGS were then screened by PCR (using primers based on mNGS-derived contigs) in all samples to compare viral detection by mNGS versus PCR and assess the utility of mNGS in routine diagnostics. mNGS identified expected human rhinoviruses, enteroviruses, influenza A virus, coronavirus OC43, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A in 13 of 15 (86.7%) positive control samples. Additionally, rotavirus, torque teno virus, human papillomavirus, human betaherpesvirus 7, cyclovirus, vientovirus, gemycircularvirus, and statovirus were identified through mNGS. Notably, complete genomes of novel cyclovirus, gemycircularvirus, and statovirus were genetically characterized. Using PCR screening, the novel cyclovirus was additionally detected in 5 and the novel gemycircularvirus in 12 of the remaining samples included for mNGS analysis. Our studies therefore provide pioneering data of the virome of acute-respiratory diseases from individuals at risk of zoonotic infections. The mNGS protocol/pipeline applied here is sensitive for the detection of a variety of viruses, including novel ones. More frequent detections of the novel viruses by PCR than by mNGS on the same samples suggests that PCR remains the most sensitive diagnostic test for viruses whose genomes are known. The detection of novel viruses expands our understanding of the respiratory virome of animal-exposed humans and warrant further studies.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Virosis/virología , Zoonosis/virología , Animales , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento/métodos , Humanos , Metagenoma , Metagenómica/métodos , Pandemias , Filogenia , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/virología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Virosis/diagnóstico , Zoonosis/diagnóstico
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008381, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804954

RESUMEN

The world's most consequential pathogens occur in regions with the fewest diagnostic resources, leaving the true burden of these diseases largely under-represented. During a prospective observational study of sepsis in Takeo Province Cambodia, we enrolled 200 patients over an 18-month period. By coupling traditional diagnostic methods such as culture, serology, and PCR to Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and advanced statistical analyses, we successfully identified a pathogenic cause in 46.5% of our cohort. In all, we detected 25 infectious agents in 93 patients, including severe threat pathogens such as Burkholderia pseudomallei and viral pathogens such as Dengue virus. Approximately half of our cohort remained undiagnosed; however, an independent panel of clinical adjudicators determined that 81% of those patients had infectious causes of their hospitalization, further underscoring the difficulty of diagnosing severe infections in resource-limited settings. We garnered greater insight as to the clinical features of severe infection in Cambodia through analysis of a robust set of clinical data.


Asunto(s)
Sepsis/epidemiología , Sepsis/etiología , Sepsis/microbiología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Bacterias/clasificación , Infecciones Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Bacterianas/epidemiología , Cambodia/epidemiología , Femenino , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Estudios Prospectivos , Sepsis/virología , Análisis de Secuencia de ARN , Pruebas Serológicas , Virosis/diagnóstico , Virosis/epidemiología , Virus/clasificación
17.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(4): 503-512, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687007

RESUMEN

In view of the intensive development of the swine industry, monitoring and surveillance of infectious diseases require low-cost, effective, and representative population sampling methods. We present herein the state of knowledge, to date, in the use of alternative strategies in the monitoring of swine health. Blood sampling, the most commonly used method in veterinary medicine to obtain samples for monitoring swine health, is labor-intensive and expensive, which has resulted in a search for alternative sampling strategies. Oral fluid (OF) is a good alternative to serum for pooled sample analysis, especially for low-prevalence pathogens. Detection of viral nucleic acids or antiviral antibodies in OF is used to detect numerous viruses in the swine population. Meat juice is used as an alternative to serum in serologic testing. Processing fluid obtained during processing of piglets (castration and tail-docking) may also be used to detect viruses. These matrices are simple, safe, cost-effective, and allow testing of many individuals at the same time. The latest methods, such as snout swabs and udder skin wipes, are also promising. These alternative samples are easy to acquire, and do not affect animal welfare negatively.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas y Procedimientos Diagnósticos/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico , Virosis/veterinaria , Animales , Técnicas y Procedimientos Diagnósticos/instrumentación , Sus scrofa , Porcinos , Virosis/diagnóstico
18.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(8): 2150-2155, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492284

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Children who require chronic positive pressure ventilation (CPPV) are frequently hospitalized with acute respiratory infections. Although respiratory viral testing is often performed, it is unclear how positive results impact antibiotic use. We sought to assess the impact of respiratory viral testing on antibiotic use in hospitalized children on CPPV. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included hospitalized children on CPPV who had respiratory viral polymerase chain reaction (RVP) testing on admission. Primary exposure was a positive RVP result; primary outcome was antibiotic de-escalation, defined as discontinuation of antibiotics or narrowing of antimicrobial spectra. To determine the independent association of positive RVP and antibiotic de-escalation, a generalized linear mixed effect model was used to account for within patient clustering and confounders defined a priori (blood and respiratory cultures, leukocytosis, bandemia, chest radiograph findings, aspiration risk, and recent admission). RESULTS: A total of 200 admissions representing 118 patients were included. A viral pathogen was identified in 46.5% (93/200) of admissions; rhinovirus was most frequently identified (61.5% of positive RVPs). Antibiotic de-escalation occurred in 33% of admissions (35.5% of RVP-positive admissions vs 30.8% of RVP-negative admissions; P = .49). In adjusted analysis, there was no association between positive RVP and antibiotics de-escalation (adjusted OR: 0.86; 95% confidence interval: 0.32-2.26). CONCLUSION: This single center cohort study suggests that respiratory viral testing may not impact antibiotic prescribing for hospitalized children on CPPV. There is need for improved stewardship of both diagnostic testing and antimicrobial use in this population.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Respiración con Presión Positiva , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Virosis/diagnóstico , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Masculino , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/terapia , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Virosis/terapia , Virosis/virología , Virus/genética
19.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 16(3): 457-462, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578131

RESUMEN

Death due to respiratory infection is commonly encountered at autopsy. With only one opportunity to obtain samples for identification of a causative agent, it is important to ensure that sampling regimes are optimized to provide the greatest detection, without the expense and redundancy that can arise from over-sampling. This study was performed retrospectively using data from Coronial autopsies over the period 2012-2019 from which swabs from the nasopharyngeal region, trachea and lung parenchyma, in addition to samples of lung tissue, had been submitted for multiplex PCR detection of respiratory pathogens. From 97 cases with all four samples, there were 24 with at least one positive result for viral infection. Some cases had multiple positive results and a total of 27 respiratory tract viruses were identified, of which rhinovirus, influenza A virus and respiratory syncytial virus were the most common. Seventeen of the 27 viral infections (63%) were identified in all four samples. However, in nearly all cases (96%) the nasopharyngeal swab detected the infective agent when the multiplex PCR panel had detected infection in any of the four sample types. A nasopharyngeal swab is considered to be an optimal sample for detection of respiratory tract viral infection. As the samples analyzed were acquired before the appearance of the COVID-19 virus, the applicability of this finding for COVID-19 screening is not established.


Asunto(s)
ADN Viral/aislamiento & purificación , Pulmón/virología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa Multiplex , Nasofaringe/virología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Manejo de Especímenes , Virología , Virosis/diagnóstico , Virus/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Autopsia , Causas de Muerte , ADN Viral/clasificación , ADN Viral/genética , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Virosis/virología , Virus/clasificación , Virus/genética
20.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(7): e007103, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586108

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Polymerase chain reaction analyses of cardiac tissues have detected viral sequences in up to 67% of cases of myocarditis. However, viruses have not been implicated in giant cell myocarditis (GCM). Furthermore, efforts to detect viruses implicated in myocarditis have been unsuccessful in more accessible samples such as peripheral blood. METHODS: We used Virome Capture Sequencing for Vertbrate Viruses (VirCapSeq-VERT), a method that simultaneously screens for all known vertebrate viruses, to investigate viruses in 33 patients with myocarditis. We investigated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (n=24), plasma (n=27), endomyocardial biopsies (n=2), and cardiac tissue samples from explanted hearts (n=13). RESULTS: Nine patients (27%) had GCM and 4 patients (13%) had fulminant myocarditis. We found the following viruses in the blood of patients with myocarditis: Epstein Barr virus (n=11, 41%), human pegivirus (n=1, 4%), human endogenous retrovirus K (n=27, 100%), and anellovirus (n=15, 56%). All tissue samples from fulminant myocarditis (n=2) and GCM (n=13) contained human endogenous retrovirus K. CONCLUSIONS: No nucleic acids from viruses previously implicated in myocarditis or other human illnesses were detected in relevant amounts in cardiac tissue samples from GCM or in blood samples from other types of myocarditis. These findings do not exclude a role for viral infection in GCM but do suggest that if viruses are implicated, the mechanism is likely to be indirect rather than due to cytotoxic infection of myocardium.


Asunto(s)
Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento/métodos , Miocarditis/virología , Virosis/virología , Virus/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Biopsia , ADN Viral/genética , ADN Viral/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Miocarditis/patología , ARN Viral/genética , ARN Viral/aislamiento & purificación , Virosis/diagnóstico , Virosis/genética , Virus/genética
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